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  7. <title type="text">Rad Geek People&#039;s Daily</title>
  8. <subtitle type="text">official state media for a secessionist republic of one</subtitle>
  10. <updated>2019-07-22T14:44:37Z</updated>
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  16. <generator uri="" version="4.9.8">WordPress</generator>
  17. <link rel="license" type="text/html" href="" /> <entry>
  18. <author>
  19. <name>Rad Geek</name>
  20. <uri></uri>
  21. </author>
  22. <title type="html"><![CDATA[The Color of American Citizenship and What Our Founders Had In Mind]]></title>
  23. <link rel="alternate" type="text/html" href="" />
  24. <id></id>
  25. <updated>2019-07-22T14:44:37Z</updated>
  26. <published>2019-07-16T22:00:58Z</published>
  27. <category scheme="" term="Misc" label="Misc"/>
  28. <summary type="html"><![CDATA[Nancy Pelosi hit the news last week when she criticized Donald Trump&#8217;s now-abandoned proposal for a Census citizenship question, and when she described it as motivated by racial resentment: Pelosi Says Trump Seeks to Make America White Again in Census By Steven T. Dennis July 8, 2019, 2:15 PM CDT Updated on July 8, 2019, [&#8230;]]]></summary>
  29. <content type="html" xml:base=""><![CDATA[<p class="first">Nancy Pelosi hit the news last week when she <a href="">criticized Donald Trump&#8217;s now-abandoned proposal for a Census citizenship question</a>, and when she described it as motivated by racial resentment:</p>
  31. <blockquote>
  32.  <h3>Pelosi Says Trump Seeks to <q>Make America White Again</q> in Census</h3>
  34.  <p>By Steven T. Dennis<br />
  35.  July 8, 2019, 2:15 PM CDT Updated on July 8, 2019, 4:42 PM CDT</p>
  37.  <p>House Speaker Nancy Pelosi accused President Donald Trump’s administration Monday of wanting to <q>make America white again</q> with its plan to add a citizenship question to the 2020 census.</p>
  39.  <p><q>You know his hat? <strong><q>Make America white again.</q> They want to make sure that people, certain people, are counted,</strong></q> Pelosi said at a press conference on election security. <strong><q>It’s really disgraceful and it’s not what our founders had in mind.</q></strong></p>
  41.  <p>&#8211;Steven T. Dennis, <a href=""><cite class="article">Pelosi Says Trump Seeks to <q>Make America White Again</q> in Census</cite></a><br><cite class="journal">Bloomberg</cite>, 8 Quintilis 2019.</p>
  42. </blockquote>
  44. <p>It&#8217;s not unusual for me to disagree with Nancy Pelosi about politically salient topics. But let me mention a few things that I certainly agree with her about:</p>
  46. <ol>
  47. <li><p>A lot of Trump&#8217;s political proposals coming are, obviously, fundamentally antagonistic to free immigration, hostile to immigrants as people, and harmful to immigrants and their families.</p></li>
  48. <li><p>This proposal for a citizenship question is pretty surely an example of that.<sup>[<a href="#the-color-of-american-citizenship-and-what-our-founders-had-in-mind-n-1" class="footnoted" id="to-the-color-of-american-citizenship-and-what-our-founders-had-in-mind-n-1">1</a>]</sup> </p></li>
  49. <li><p>A lot of Trump&#8217;s anti-immigrant politics are driven by &#8212; or sold on the basis of &#8212; white racial resentment, and by more or less explicit anxiety about non-white immigrants and large-scale trends in race and demographics. The citizenship question is probably an example of that, too.</p></li>
  50. <li><p>That (#1, #2, and #3) really is disgraceful.</p></li>
  51. </ol>
  53. <p>What I have to disagree with, here, is that bit at the end. The bit about <q>what our founders had in mind.</q> It&#8217;s really not that different from what they had in mind at all. It would have been nice, and it would have been better for America and the entire world if the Founders had something very different in mind from immigration policies crafted to <q>Make America White.</q> It would have been nice, but it isn&#8217;t so, and <a href="">Patriotically Correct aspirational history</a> can&#8217;t make it so.</p>
  55. <p>Here&#8217;s what the Founders had in mind: in 1790, when Congress passed the first Naturalization Act for the newly-constituted United States, the language of that act directly stated that immigrants had to be white to become part of the citizenry of America: <a href=""><q>being a free white person</q></a> was an <em>explicit</em> prerequisite for naturalization. Here&#8217;s where the Founders wrote down what they had, explicitly, in mind:</p>
  57. <blockquote>
  58.  <p>Section 1. Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That any alien, <strong>being a free white person,</strong> who shall have resided within the limits and under the jurisdiction of the United States for the term of two years, may be admitted to become a citizen thereof, on application to any common law court of record, in any one of the states wherein he shall have resided for the term of one year at least, and making proof to the satisfaction of such court, that he is a person of good character, and taking the oath or affirmation prescribed by law, to support the constitution of the United States, which oath or affirmation such court shall administer; <ins class="ellipsis editorial" title="[Elision by the editor.]">.&#160;.&#160;.</ins></p>
  60.  <p class="attribution">&#8212;&#8201;<a href=";fileName=001/llsl001.db&#038;recNum=226"><cite class="article">An Act to establish an uniform Rule of Naturalization</cite></a> (March 26, 1790)<br><cite>United States Statutes at Large</cite>, First Congress, Second Session, 103ff. (Source: <a href="">Legally White: Naturalization Act of 1790</a>)</p>
  61. </blockquote>
  63. <p>Every amendment to the Naturalization Act passed from 1790 up until <em>1952</em> repeated the <q>free white person</q> prerequisite formula, or a close variation on it.<sup>[<a href="#the-color-of-american-citizenship-and-what-our-founders-had-in-mind-n-2" class="footnoted" id="to-the-color-of-american-citizenship-and-what-our-founders-had-in-mind-n-2">2</a>]</sup> </p>
  65. <p>The Founders&#8217; generation wrote the prerequisite of being <q>white,</q> quote unquote, over and over again, into constitutions and laws specifying the rights and obligations of citizenship more broadly, at the federal level and at the state level. Skin color prerequisites, nearly identical to the federal prerequisite, were written even more pervasively into the state constitutions and legal codes of antebellum Southern states. For example, in Alabama, the same formulas made white skin color an explicit prerequisite for <a href="">the franchise</a> and for <a href="">political office</a>. At the federal level, to take another example, <a href="">in 1792 Congress said that the color of your skin (as well as your gender and citizenship) mattered to your eligibility, and obligation, to serve in the militia</a>:</p>
  67. <blockquote>
  68.  <p>Section 1. Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That <strong>each and every free able-bodied white male citizen</strong> of the respective states, resident therein, who is or shall be of the age of eighteen years, and under the age of forty-five years (except as is herein after excepted) shall severally and respectively be enrolled in the militia by the captain or commanding officer of the company, within whose bounds such citizen shall reside, and that within twelve months after the passing of this act. </p>
  70.  <p class="attribution">&#8212;&#8201;<a href=""><cite class="article">An Act more effectually to provide for the National Defence by establishing an Uniform Militia throughout the United States</cite></a> (May 8, 1792)<br><cite>United States Statutes at Large</cite>, First Congress, Second Session, 271-274. (Source: <a href="">Legally White: Uniform Militia Act of 1792</a>). </p>
  71. </blockquote>
  73. <p>There is no question that the Founders conceived of the United States government, and framed it explicitly, as a <em>racial state</em>, and that whiteness was an explicit condition on citizenship and political participation. I don&#8217;t mean that a tacit desire to <q>Make America White</q> shows up if you read between the lines of political rhetoric in a slaveholding Republic; I mean that they <em>wrote down the words <q>white person</q></em> in laws as a prerequisite. It directly shaped their conception of citizenship; it was explicitly part of their immigration and naturalization policy. If you weren&#8217;t a <q>white person,</q> you couldn&#8217;t become an American citizen.<sup>[<a href="#the-color-of-american-citizenship-and-what-our-founders-had-in-mind-n-3" class="footnoted" id="to-the-color-of-american-citizenship-and-what-our-founders-had-in-mind-n-3">3</a>]</sup> That shouldn&#8217;t be very surprising: <q>our Founders</q> founded the United States as a slaveholding nation. Of course what they had in mind closely linked whiteness with immigration and citizenship. What else would you think they <q>had in mind?</q></p>
  75. <p>I hope it should go without saying that this is not any kind of argument <em>in favor of</em> racially discriminatory immigration politics, or whites-only naturalization laws, or the desire to whiten or re-whiten the American citizenry. The fact that the United States has a long tradition &#8212; going back to the Founders themselves &#8212; of racially discriminatory immigration and citizenship laws isn&#8217;t any reason to think kindly of the traditional, white supremacist approach. It&#8217;s a reason to think worse of the United States government, to be much more skeptical of traditional American patriotism and veneration or invocation of <q>our Founders</q>, and to put a lot less political weight on <q>what our founders had in mind.</q> Those fellows had some good ideas. They also had some really awful ideas. When it comes to questions of race, or to questions about whiteness and immigration specifically, the bad ideas were pretty prominent. Whatever deeper values Nancy Pelosi might find implicit in the best versions of the Founders&#8217; very best intentions &#8212; and however much she might think or hope that the old racial prerequisite law was an aberration or an inconsistency &#8212; there is just no way that you can reasonably pretend that <q>Make America White Again</q> is something different from what they <q>had in mind</q> when they came together in Congress assembled and wrote laws like the Naturalization Act of 1790. Trump&#8217;s race-baiting immigration politics are certainly <em>disgraceful.</em> But then, so were theirs. You shouldn&#8217;t try to make your political points against the one with this kind of whitewashing of the other, or by substituting this sort of aspirational liberal self-identity in place of the much messier historical fact.</p>
  77. <h3>See also.</h3>
  79. <ul>
  80. <li><a href="">GT 2017-09-22: Aspirational history and the Color of American Citizenship</a></li>
  81. <li>Ian F. Haney-Lopez, <a href=""><cite>White By Law: The Legal Construction of Race</cite></a></li>
  82. </ul>
  84. <ol class="footnotes">
  85. <li class="footnote" id="the-color-of-american-citizenship-and-what-our-founders-had-in-mind-n-1"><strong><sup>[1]</sup></strong>In that it seems to be mostly motivated by a political agenda to gather information that would be useful for anti-immigrant politics and for concrete policies to politically disadvantage communities with large immigrant populations (for example, by encouraging Republican-dominated state governments to use the information for apportionment and redistricting of legislative seats). In the current political climate, the question would be intimidating or actually dangerous to immigrants who are asked to fill out Census forms &#8212; and especially to undocumented immigrants. The possibility of real danger is an outside chance, but not a wild speculation. It&#8217;s not necessarily a very auspicious sign when the United States government becomes really interested in finding and counting politically controversial populations. And that information <em>was</em> turned over, at least once in American history, <a href=";sc=I100322">to other branches of the government, who used it to find targeted people and imprison them</a>. The Census Bureau says that there are legal protections in place that prevent them from turning over the information to other branches of the government. But there were supposed to be legal protections in place in 1940, too. The legal protections were repealed in the midst of the war crisis. Maybe the government won&#8217;t ever do it again. But there is not much reason to be very certain about that.<a class="note-return" href="#to-the-color-of-american-citizenship-and-what-our-founders-had-in-mind-n-1">&#x21A9;</a></li>
  86. <li class="footnote" id="the-color-of-american-citizenship-and-what-our-founders-had-in-mind-n-2"><strong><sup>[2]</sup></strong>In 1870, in the wake of the Civil War and Emancipation, Congress began to add <em>other</em> categories of race, color and nationality to make other, non-white groups eligible for naturalization, beginning with <a href=""><q>aliens of African nativity and &#8230; persons of African descent</q></a> in 1870. But for the next 80 years they continued to use the racial prerequisite as a means to exclude any non-white immigrants who didn&#8217;t fall into one of the favored groups. From 1870 to 1924, they allowed them to immigrate but excluded them from citizenship; after 1924, they excluded them from immigrating at all, as aliens <q>ineligible to citizenship.</q> Throughout those eight decades, a series of <q>prerequisite cases</q> in the federal courts &#8212; beginning with <a href=""><cite>In Re Ah Yup</cite></a> &#8212; repeatedly affirmed that being white or non-white absolutely did matter to a person&#8217;s eligibility for American citizenship. The difficult issue that they litigated over and over again was the uncertain or porous legal and social boundaries of who <em>counted</em> as <q>white</q>, or at least as white enough for government work. For example, Chinese and Japanese immigrants did not; <a href="">Mexican immigrants did</a>. For many immigrant groups, including Arabs and South Asians, different courts made numerous, sometimes inconsistent rulings. A good, standard reference on this series of cases is Ian F. Haney-Lopez&#8217;s <cite><a href="">White By Law: The Legal Construction of Race</a></cite>.<a class="note-return" href="#to-the-color-of-american-citizenship-and-what-our-founders-had-in-mind-n-2">&#x21A9;</a></li>
  87. <li class="footnote" id="the-color-of-american-citizenship-and-what-our-founders-had-in-mind-n-3"><strong><sup>[3]</sup></strong>A standard historical <q>shit&#8217;s complicated</q> caveat: the Naturalization Act of 1790, and all the later amended acts that kept the <q>free white person</q> formula intact, were laws that governed <em>naturalization</em>, that is, citizenship; they were <em>not</em> &#8212; at the time &#8212; laws that restricted <em>immigration</em>. Until <a href="">1875</a>, the U.S. had no federal laws that restricted free immigration to the United States or prevented aliens from residing in the country. Until <a href="">1924</a>, the U.S. had no laws preventing <q>aliens ineligible to citizenship</q> from immigrating to or living in the country. So in the Founders&#8217; day, there were plenty of non-white immigrants who could legally <em>move to</em> and <em>live in</em> the U.S., but who could never become U.S. citizens. That said, there&#8217;s percious little evidence that any of the Founders thought it was particularly <em>desirable</em> for lots of free but non-white immigrants to come to the U.S. It&#8217;s just that the use of large-scale, systematic immigration controls as a means of <em>excluding</em> supposedly undesirable immigrants are really the product of much later generations, and of a much more expansive and centralized national government.<a class="note-return" href="#to-the-color-of-american-citizenship-and-what-our-founders-had-in-mind-n-3">&#x21A9;</a></li></ol>
  88. ]]></content>
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  92. </entry>
  93. <entry>
  94. <author>
  95. <name>Rad Geek</name>
  96. <uri></uri>
  97. </author>
  98. <title type="html"><![CDATA[No Decency]]></title>
  99. <link rel="alternate" type="text/html" href="" />
  100. <id></id>
  101. <updated>2019-06-28T16:39:33Z</updated>
  102. <published>2019-06-28T16:24:43Z</published>
  103. <category scheme="" term="Immigration" label="Immigration"/>
  104. <category scheme="" term="Misc" label="Misc"/>
  105. <category scheme="" term="Politics" label="Politics"/>
  106. <category scheme="" term="Smash the State" label="Smash the State"/>
  107. <category scheme="" term="Contra sequitur" label="Contra sequitur"/>
  108. <summary type="html"><![CDATA[Donald John Trump, 45th and current president of the United States of America, Wednesday, June 26, 2019, speaking to the press: Q. Does the photo of the drowned immigrants cause you to rethink any of your policies? [Donald John Trump]: Well, that’s like I’ve been saying. If they fixed the laws, you wouldn’t have that. [&#8230;]]]></summary>
  109. <content type="html" xml:base=""><![CDATA[<p><a href="">Donald John Trump, 45th and current president of the United States of America, Wednesday, June 26, 2019, speaking to the press</a>:</p>
  111. <blockquote>
  112.  <p><em><strong>Q.</strong> Does <a href="">the photo of the drowned immigrants</a><sup>[<a href="#no-decency-n-1" class="footnoted" id="to-no-decency-n-1">1</a>]</sup> cause you to rethink any of your policies?</em></p>
  114.  <p>[Donald John Trump]:  Well, that’s like I’ve been saying.  If they fixed the laws, you wouldn’t have that.  People are coming up; they’re running through the Rio Grande.  It’s a rough — it can be a very rough river of sorts.  I mean, there are times when going across the Rio Grande is very, very dangerous, depending on the time of year and the conditions and the rapidity of the water.  And we know that.</p>
  116.  <p>And we have many, many guards there, but people go through the guards.  If we had the right laws that the Democrats are not letting us have, those people, they wouldn’t be coming up.  They wouldn’t be trying.</p>
  118.  <p>We’re building the wall.  It’s under construction.  It’s — a lot of it is under construction.  We’ll have over 400 miles next year, by the end of the year.</p>
  120.  <p>But it’s very important.  They can change it very easily so people don’t come up.  And people won’t get killed.  Women are being raped on the journey up.  You have these caravans.  Women are being raped.  And one of the terrible things: Children are actually being brought into slavedom [<em>sic</em>].  If you look at what’s happening — the cartels and the coyotes, they’re getting rich because the Democrats refuse to change the loopholes.  They refuse to change the asylum.  In one hour, we could have it done.</p>
  122.  <p>They want to have open borders, and open borders mean crime.  And open borders mean people drowning in the rivers.  And it’s a very dangerous thing.</p>
  124.  <p class="attribution">&#8212;&#8201;<a href="">Remarks by President Trump Before Marine One Departure (2019/06/26, 1:30 PM)</a></p>
  125. </blockquote>
  127. <p>On the face of it, this is one of the most lunatic statements, one of the most wildly inhuman political responses, and one the most obscene instances of <a href="">talking with a corpse in your mouth</a> that I have seen to date from a man and a governmental administration that have spent their time in the White House doing little other than cranking a built-to-purpose outrageous political palaver garbage machine generator.</p>
  129. <p>Perhaps it does not need saying that open borders mean precisely that no little girl ever dies drowning in a river again. Because open borders mean that people could and <em>obviously would</em> cross over rivers openly, on bridges or ferries, in cars or boats or machines flying safely through the air. Open borders means <a href="">breezing past long-abandoned checkpoints</a> without fear of criminalization, arrest, internment or deportation. Blaming the deaths of Óscar Alberto Martínez Ramírez, and his daughter Valeria, on <q>open borders</q> is like blaming the Tiananmen Square Massacre on <q>freedom of assembly</q> &#8212; it is insane, because if you had the latter there wouldn&#8217;t be any particular reason for the former; and it is obscene, because it is blaming the victim for a situation that is <em>entirely and only created</em> by Power&#8217;s choice to keep on relentlessly pursuing repressive force. Open borders mean safe and open crossings; they don&#8217;t mean drowning, any more than an open swimming pool does.</p>
  131. <p>Perhaps it does not need saying that it is precisely the relentless, maniacal insistence on walling off frontiers and choking off border-crossing that sends families out into the most dangerous, most inaccessible places in order to try with cartels, coyotes, smugglers and the roughest passages that remain. The great crime and the great shame of the Democratic Party is that they have never once called for open borders, and when in control of the presidency they have &#8212; over and over again &#8212; <a href="">played the leading role in building up the machinery of overregulated immigration, paramilitary border policing, closed crossings and mass deportation</a> that we unhappily live with &#8212; or die at the hands of &#8212; today. Democrats don&#8217;t want to have open borders. I desperately wish they did. I desperately wish they ever had done even one little thing to move in that direction. But they haven&#8217;t, and they don&#8217;t, and they probably never will. So much the shame of Democrats. </p>
  133. <p>Bordercrats know this, of course &#8212; they know that <em>if</em> borders actually were open, then people would cross safely, openly and frequently. They know that if borders actually were open, Óscar Alberto Martínez Ramírez, Tania Vanessa Ávalos, and their daughter Valeria would be safe in Texas today, starting out in a new town and looking for work. It is precisely for that reason that they <em>politically oppose</em> open borders &#8212; because they don&#8217;t want that many people crossing the border, or they don&#8217;t want those specific people crossing the border, or they don&#8217;t want some of the people who would cross the border, if the Ramirezes could cross the border, to cross it. That&#8217;s precisely what it means to close or control the border; there is no third alternative. You might openly embrace the misery, suffering and death that results. Or you might <em>acknowledge</em> it, regretfully, as the necessary human cost of your political policy, and of its rigorous enforcement. Perhaps there is a sense in which the desire to <em>shift</em> the blame instead of doing either represents a certain sort of vestigial, suffering sense of decency that even Mr. Trump, at long last, still has left. Perhaps there is a sense. But if so, it doesn&#8217;t matter very much.</p>
  135. <h3>See also.</h3>
  137. <ul>
  138. <li><a href="">GT 2008-11-18: Contrarium sequitur</a></li>
  139. <li><a href="">GT 2015-04-03: Who Cares?</a></li>
  140. </ul>
  142. <ol class="footnotes">
  143. <li class="footnote" id="no-decency-n-1"><strong><sup>[1]</sup></strong>Their names were <a href="">Óscar Alberto Martínez Ramírez, and his daughter Valeria</a>. They came from El Salvador. He was 25. She was a little girl, only 1 year, 11 months old. She died trying to reach her father again. He died trying to save his daughter&#8217;s life. They are survived by Tania Vanessa Ávalos, Óscar&#8217;s wife and the little girl&#8217;s mother.<a class="note-return" href="#to-no-decency-n-1">&#x21A9;</a></li></ol>
  144. ]]></content>
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  148. </entry>
  149. <entry>
  150. <author>
  151. <name>Rad Geek</name>
  152. <uri></uri>
  153. </author>
  154. <title type="html"><![CDATA[Spaghetti Westerosi]]></title>
  155. <link rel="alternate" type="text/html" href="" />
  156. <id></id>
  157. <updated>2019-06-07T17:37:09Z</updated>
  158. <published>2019-06-07T17:37:09Z</published>
  159. <category scheme="" term="Misc" label="Misc"/>
  160. <summary type="html"><![CDATA[(via Roderick Long [2019/05/16])]]></summary>
  161. <content type="html" xml:base=""><![CDATA[<div class="figure">
  162. <iframe width="500" height="281" src="" frameborder="0" allow="accelerometer; autoplay; encrypted-media; gyroscope; picture-in-picture" allowfullscreen></iframe>
  163. <p class="linkroll">(via <a rel="via" href="">Roderick Long<span class="for-context"> [2019/05/16]</span></a>)</p>
  164. </div>
  166. ]]></content>
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  170. </entry>
  171. <entry>
  172. <author>
  173. <name>Rad Geek</name>
  174. <uri></uri>
  175. </author>
  176. <title type="html"><![CDATA[Market-Women and the Revolutionary Market-Place (Gold Coast/Ghana, 1947-1948)]]></title>
  177. <link rel="alternate" type="text/html" href="" />
  178. <id></id>
  179. <updated>2019-04-14T00:23:53Z</updated>
  180. <published>2019-04-14T00:23:53Z</published>
  181. <category scheme="" term="Fellow Workers" label="Fellow Workers"/>
  182. <category scheme="" term="Misc" label="Misc"/>
  183. <category scheme="" term="Politics" label="Politics"/>
  184. <category scheme="" term="Power to the People" label="Power to the People"/>
  185. <category scheme="" term="Smash the State" label="Smash the State"/>
  186. <category scheme="" term="Africa" label="Africa"/>
  187. <category scheme="" term="Agora" label="Agora"/>
  188. <category scheme="" term="C.L.R. James" label="C.L.R. James"/>
  189. <category scheme="" term="Ghana" label="Ghana"/>
  190. <category scheme="" term="Gold Coast" label="Gold Coast"/>
  191. <category scheme="" term="Kwame Nkrumah" label="Kwame Nkrumah"/>
  192. <category scheme="" term="markets" label="markets"/>
  193. <category scheme="" term="Revolution" label="Revolution"/>
  194. <category scheme="" term="What I&#039;m Reading" label="What I&#039;m Reading"/>
  195. <summary type="html"><![CDATA[From C.L.R. James, Nkrumah and the Ghana Revolution (1977/1982): Chapter 3. The People in 1947. .&#160;.&#160;. There was yet another social feature of Gold Coast life, which was specifically African and was to prove of enormous importance to the revolution. For the great mass of the common people the centre of African life has always [&#8230;]]]></summary>
  196. <content type="html" xml:base=""><![CDATA[<p>From C.L.R. James, <a href=""><cite>Nkrumah and the Ghana Revolution</cite></a> (1977/1982):</p>
  198. <blockquote>
  199.  <h3>Chapter 3. The People in 1947.</h3>
  201.  <p><ins class="ellipsis editorial" title="[Elision by the editor.]">.&#160;.&#160;.</ins> There was yet another social feature of Gold Coast life, which was specifically African and was to prove of enormous importance to the revolution. For the great mass of the common people the centre of African life has always been the market. The Ewe week consisted of four days, the day before market day, market day, the day after market day, and stay at home day. The traders for generations have been the women (<a href="">Nkrumah&#8217;s</a> mother was a petty trader), and this function has been maintained and developed until today a large proportion of the retail distribution of goods, and the main channel through which the distribution of commodities flows from the big wholesale importers to the private home is the market, in small villages as well as in the big towns such as Accra and Kumasi. Thus in Accra there are thousands of women in action in the market, meeting tens of thousands of their fellow citizens every day. European visitors and officials up to 1947 saw in these markets a primitive and quaint survival in the modern towns. In reality here was, ready formed, a social organisation of immense power, radiating from the centre into every corner and room of the town. [p. 56] Instead of being confined to cooking and washing for their husbands, the market-women met every day, dealing with the European and Syrian traders on the one hand and their masses of fellow citizens on the other. The market was a great centre of gossip, of news and of discussion. Where in many undeveloped communities the women are a drag upon their men-folk, these women, although to a large extent illiterate, were a dynamic element in the population, active, well-informed, acute, and always at the very centre of events.</p>
  203.  <h3>Chapter 7. Positive Action.</h3>
  205.  <p><ins class="ellipsis editorial" title="[Elision by the editor.]">.&#160;.&#160;.</ins> [p. 130] In cold blood, writing from documents and information, I find it hard to believe that <a href="">Nkrumah</a> expected the government to capitulate before the general strike. At best it could be the beginning of a new series of negotiations. At worst, the people might, without or with provocation, lose their control. There would be a horrible massacre. There was another by no means remote possibility. The people might, by the usual combination of force and persuasion, win over the local government forces and repossess themselves of their country and of themselves by force. They were perfectly able to do it.</p>
  207.  <p>There were other possibilities. There is no need to go into them. It is enough to understand that we are here in the presence of imponderables. With this objective before them and the people behind them, these young men, now at the climax of a long preparation, did not flinch. They threw down the challenge.</p>
  209.  <p>The party had taken no chances. The people were well prepared and knew what they were doing. During December they had been warned, sometimes from the public platform by Nkrumah himself, that they were to save their money and not spend it in Christmas festivities so as to be ready to endure the privations of the coming strike. The cooks of the Europeans found it difficult to buy food in the markets because the market-women were reserving the food [p. 131] for the strike days.</p>
  211.  <p>It may seem strange to the Western reader that the party seemed to be able to call a monster meeting at such short notice. The party propaganda vans would tour the city calling the people to the Arena. The market-women could get out thousands of people at the shortest possible notice, and Nkrumah&#8217;s often-repeated statement, <q>the market-women made the party</q>, conveys one of the great truths of the revolution. Here (and in many other places), we get curious reminders and indications of politics in that most political of social formations, the Greek city-state. In his <a href="">speech on the crown</a>, Demosthenes in <a href=";highlight=marketplace">an enigmatic passage</a> describes how, at the news that Elatea had been taken, the high officials of the assembly went into the market, drove out the people and set fire to the wicker stalls while trumpeters summoned the population to the assembly. This was done from above and it was the last days of the democracy. The market-women in the first days of Gold Coast democracy did it from below.</p>
  213.  <p class="attribution">&#8212;&#8201;<a href=""><cite>Nkrumah and the Ghana Revolution</cite></a>, 55-56; 130-131.<br>C.L.R. James, 1977.</p>
  214. </blockquote>
  216. <h3>See also.</h3>
  218. <ul>
  219. <li><a href="">GT 2013-08-20: We know other marketplaces.</a></li>
  220. </ul>
  222. ]]></content>
  223. <link rel="replies" type="text/html" href="" thr:count="0"/>
  224. <link rel="replies" type="application/atom+xml" href="" thr:count="0"/>
  225. <thr:total>0</thr:total>
  226. </entry>
  227. <entry>
  228. <author>
  229. <name>Rad Geek</name>
  230. <uri></uri>
  231. </author>
  232. <title type="html"><![CDATA[Bolivarian Process, cont&#8217;d: 900]]></title>
  233. <link rel="alternate" type="text/html" href="" />
  234. <id></id>
  235. <updated>2019-03-07T22:23:02Z</updated>
  236. <published>2019-03-07T22:23:02Z</published>
  237. <category scheme="" term="Misc" label="Misc"/>
  238. <category scheme="" term="Bolivarian Process" label="Bolivarian Process"/>
  239. <category scheme="" term="Hugo Chavez" label="Hugo Chavez"/>
  240. <category scheme="" term="Nicolas Maduro" label="Nicolas Maduro"/>
  241. <category scheme="" term="Venezuela" label="Venezuela"/>
  242. <summary type="html"><![CDATA[]]></summary>
  243. <content type="html" xml:base=""><![CDATA[<div style="background-color: #ddd; border-radius: 5px; padding: 0.5em 1.0em; margin: 1.0em 3.0em;">
  244. <h3 style="font-size: 90%; text-transform: uppercase; margin: 0em; padding-bottom: 0.5em; text-align: center;">Shared Article  from</h3>
  245. <div style="float: left; margin-right: 10px; min-height: 156px;"><a href=""><img src="" style="max-width: 200px; height: auto;" /></a></div>
  246. <p style="margin: 0em; font-size: 1.1em;"><strong><a href="">The Measure Of A Tragedy</a></strong></p>
  247. <p style="margin: 0em;">Venezuela's economy has collapsed, and the normal economic indicators have gotten so bad they're almost unfathomable. So one economist created an indi…</p>
  248. <p style="margin: 0em; "><span style="color: #666; font-size: 90%; text-transform: uppercase;">
  249.      Cardiff Garcia
  250.     @</span></p>
  251. <br style="clear: both" />
  252. </div>
  256. ]]></content>
  257. <link rel="replies" type="text/html" href="" thr:count="0"/>
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  259. <thr:total>0</thr:total>
  260. </entry>
  261. <entry>
  262. <author>
  263. <name>Rad Geek</name>
  264. <uri></uri>
  265. </author>
  266. <title type="html"><![CDATA[What I&#8217;m Reading: Meghan McCarron, &#8220;The Myth of Authenticity is Killing Tex-Mex&#8221;]]></title>
  267. <link rel="alternate" type="text/html" href="" />
  268. <id></id>
  269. <updated>2018-11-21T15:52:17Z</updated>
  270. <published>2018-11-21T15:48:44Z</published>
  271. <category scheme="" term="Misc" label="Misc"/>
  272. <summary type="html"><![CDATA[O.K., well, no it&#8217;s not, really. Tex-Mex is doing just fine, whether as a culinary scene, a commercial proposition, or a completely ubiquitous cultural contribution. But even if the myth isn&#8217;t killing nada, it&#8217;s still a dumb myth, and it is a reason why a lot of really good Mexican food (and really Mexican Mexican [&#8230;]]]></summary>
  273. <content type="html" xml:base=""><![CDATA[<div style="background-color: #ddd; border-radius: 5px; padding: 0.5em 1.0em; margin: 1.0em 3.0em;">
  274. <h3 style="font-size: 90%; text-transform: uppercase; margin: 0em; padding-bottom: 0.5em; text-align: center;">Shared Article  from Eater</h3>
  275. <div style="float: left; margin-right: 10px; min-height: 156px;"><a href=""><img src="" style="max-width: 200px; height: auto;" /></a></div>
  276. <p style="margin: 0em; font-size: 1.1em;"><strong><a href="">The Myth of Authenticity Is Killing Tex-Mex</a></strong></p>
  277. <p style="margin: 0em;">EVERYTHING YOU KNOW ABOUT TEX-MEX IS WRONG: Texans will spend hours on a weekend lining up for barbecue, but Tex-Mex is what they’re eating for brea…</p>
  278. <p style="margin: 0em; "><span style="color: #666; font-size: 90%; text-transform: uppercase;">Meghan McCarron @</span></p>
  279. <br style="clear: both" />
  280. </div>
  284. <p>O.K., well, no it&#8217;s not, really. Tex-Mex is doing just fine, whether as a culinary scene, a commercial proposition, or a completely ubiquitous cultural contribution.<sup>[<a href="#what-im-reading-meghan-mccarron-the-myth-of-authenticity-is-killing-tex-mex-n-1" class="footnoted" id="to-what-im-reading-meghan-mccarron-the-myth-of-authenticity-is-killing-tex-mex-n-1">1</a>]</sup> But even if the myth isn&#8217;t killing nada, it&#8217;s still a dumb myth, and it is a reason why a lot of really good Mexican food (and <a href="">really Mexican Mexican food, for whatever that matters</a>) still sometimes gets undeservedly put down in the weird by-ways of covertly snobby food writing and everyday food talk. I do think that, despite the weird by-ways, on the whole, the understanding of Mexican food, <q>Tex-Mex</q> etc. outside of Texas has gotten noticeably better in the last few years.<sup>[<a href="#what-im-reading-meghan-mccarron-the-myth-of-authenticity-is-killing-tex-mex-n-2" class="footnoted" id="to-what-im-reading-meghan-mccarron-the-myth-of-authenticity-is-killing-tex-mex-n-2">2</a>]</sup> Maybe someday soon this kind of article won&#8217;t be necessary. But it&#8217;ll still be pretty funny:</p>
  286. <blockquote>
  287.  <p>The future of Tex-Mex is, in many ways, as regional as the cuisine has always been, with approaches and ingredients and ideas traveling all over the state. All of it, however, is cradled in a tortilla. In 2017, Rayo pushed for another replacement for chili as Texas’s state food: <a href="">the taco</a>. The proposal made its way to state representative Gina Hinojosa, who <a href="">authored a resolution</a> celebrating the diversity of taco styles and fillings, the state’s love of both corn and flour tortillas, as well as the robust war over who invented the breakfast taco, as evidence the taco united all good things in Texas — even brisket.</p>
  289.  <p>Just as the chili resolution defined the Texas bowl of red as definitive, the taco resolution employs the requisite Texan swagger so rarely applied to the state’s infinite variety of Mexican food, stating: <strong>“One thing Texans can agree on is that, despite the availability of tacos in the other 49 states, the tastiest tacos can be found in the great State of Texas.”</strong> A state legislature <a href=";xs=1&amp;">dominated by a Republican party at war with itself</a>, fixated on barring trans people from using public bathrooms and cracking down on cities seeking to protect immigrants, is not likely to enshrine the taco as the state’s official food. But doing so would both capture the 21st century zeitgest of the state, <em>and</em> fulfill one of Texas’s most cherished obsessions: pissing off California.</p>
  291.  <p>&#8211;Meghan McCarron, <a href=""><cite class="article">The Myth of Authenticity Is Killing Tex-Mex</cite></a><br><cite>Eater</cite>, 7 March 2018</p>
  292. </blockquote>
  294. <p>It&#8217;s a noble goal.</p>
  296. <p class="linkroll">(Hat tip <a rel="via" href="">Roderick Long</a>.) </p>
  298. <h3>See also.</h3>
  300. <ul>
  301. <li><a href="//">GT 2013-07-20: Authentic Mexican cuisine</a></li>
  302. <li><a href="//">GT 2013-07-19: Food Beyond Borders</a></li>
  303. <li><a href="//">GT 2008-07-05: Whiteness studies 103: Ethnic food and authenticity</a></li>
  304. <li><a href="//">GT 2008-10-10: Whiteness studies 104: Class, cuisine, and authenticity</a></li>
  305. <li><a href="">GT 2014-04-16: Devour Borders</a></li>
  306. <li><a href="">GT 2016-09-05: On. Every. Corner.</a></li>
  307. <li><a href="//">GT 2011-05-09: The only other known phenomenon of similar density is Four Dollar 40 Night at Babs’ in Ann Arbor, Michigan.</a></li>
  308. </ul>
  310. <ol class="footnotes">
  311. <li class="footnote" id="what-im-reading-meghan-mccarron-the-myth-of-authenticity-is-killing-tex-mex-n-1"><strong><sup>[1]</sup></strong>I&#8217;m not sure why it&#8217;s so hard to write an article to the effect that something just isn&#8217;t getting its due, but really, it is valuable and quite important, without then tacking on a bunch of weird additional claims about Crisis and Decline that aren&#8217;t obviously true.<a class="note-return" href="#to-what-im-reading-meghan-mccarron-the-myth-of-authenticity-is-killing-tex-mex-n-1">&#x21A9;</a></li>
  312. <li class="footnote" id="what-im-reading-meghan-mccarron-the-myth-of-authenticity-is-killing-tex-mex-n-2"><strong><sup>[2]</sup></strong>Partly this is the result of a lot of cultural trends that unsurprisingly accompany the demographic fact of increasingly ubiquitous Mexican-American populations spreading throughout the U.S. The strong trend of the last decade toward hipster spins on regional comfort foods has also helped, and so has the ever-surging stream of young urban professionals flowing through austin and its environs. Plus, you know, tacos, enchiladas, burritos, salsa, etc. are <em>obviously fucken delicious</em>.<a class="note-return" href="#to-what-im-reading-meghan-mccarron-the-myth-of-authenticity-is-killing-tex-mex-n-2">&#x21A9;</a></li></ol>
  313. ]]></content>
  314. <link rel="replies" type="text/html" href="" thr:count="0"/>
  315. <link rel="replies" type="application/atom+xml" href="" thr:count="0"/>
  316. <thr:total>0</thr:total>
  317. </entry>
  318. <entry>
  319. <author>
  320. <name>Rad Geek</name>
  321. <uri></uri>
  322. </author>
  323. <title type="html"><![CDATA[Chinga la Migra en Tennessee]]></title>
  324. <link rel="alternate" type="text/html" href="" />
  325. <id></id>
  326. <updated>2018-09-12T15:54:48Z</updated>
  327. <published>2018-09-12T15:54:48Z</published>
  328. <category scheme="" term="Misc" label="Misc"/>
  329. <summary type="html"><![CDATA[]]></summary>
  330. <content type="html" xml:base=""><![CDATA[<div style="background-color: #ddd; border-radius: 5px; padding: 0.5em 1.0em; margin: 1.0em 3.0em;">
  331. <h3 style="font-size: 90%; text-transform: uppercase; margin: 0em; padding-bottom: 0.5em; text-align: center;">Shared Article  from</h3>
  332. <div style="float: left; margin-right: 10px; min-height: 156px;"><a href=";theater"><img src="" style="max-width: 200px; height: auto;" /></a></div>
  333. <p style="margin: 0em; font-size: 1.1em;"><strong><a href=";theater">Mijente</a></strong></p>
  334. <p style="margin: 0em;">What happens to a small community when over 100 migrant workers are rounded up by ICE in a massive workplace raid?
  336. We go to Morrisstown, Tennessee to…</p>
  337. <p style="margin: 0em; "><span style="color: #666; font-size: 90%; text-transform: uppercase;"></span></p>
  338. <br style="clear: both" />
  339. </div>
  343. ]]></content>
  344. <link rel="replies" type="text/html" href="" thr:count="0"/>
  345. <link rel="replies" type="application/atom+xml" href="" thr:count="0"/>
  346. <thr:total>0</thr:total>
  347. </entry>
  348. <entry>
  349. <author>
  350. <name>Rad Geek</name>
  351. <uri></uri>
  352. </author>
  353. <title type="html"><![CDATA[Extremist Speech Laws]]></title>
  354. <link rel="alternate" type="text/html" href="" />
  355. <id></id>
  356. <updated>2018-08-28T18:08:10Z</updated>
  357. <published>2018-08-28T18:06:10Z</published>
  358. <category scheme="" term="Misc" label="Misc"/>
  359. <summary type="html"><![CDATA[(The standard objections apply, of course, to the use of meme to mean jokey image-text macro, etc. etc.)]]></summary>
  360. <content type="html" xml:base=""><![CDATA[<div style="background-color: #ddd; border-radius: 5px; padding: 0.5em 1.0em; margin: 1.0em 3.0em;">
  361. <h3 style="font-size: 90%; text-transform: uppercase; margin: 0em; padding-bottom: 0.5em; text-align: center;">Shared Article  from</h3>
  362. <div style="float: left; margin-right: 10px; min-height: 156px;"><a href=""><img src="" style="max-width: 200px; height: auto;" /></a></div>
  363. <p style="margin: 0em; font-size: 1.1em;"><strong><a href="">The memes that might get you jailed in Russia</a></strong></p>
  364. <p style="margin: 0em;">Why sharing a meme could get you put in prison for six years in Russia.</p>
  365. <p style="margin: 0em; "><span style="color: #666; font-size: 90%; text-transform: uppercase;">Olga Robinson @</span></p>
  366. <br style="clear: both" />
  367. </div>
  371. <p>(The <a href="/gt/2005/01/21/friday_antimeme/">standard objections apply</a>, of course, to the use of <a href="/gt/2005/01/21/friday_antimeme/"><q>meme</q></a> to mean <q>jokey image-text macro,</q> etc. etc.)</p>
  373. ]]></content>
  374. <link rel="replies" type="text/html" href="" thr:count="1"/>
  375. <link rel="replies" type="application/atom+xml" href="" thr:count="1"/>
  376. <thr:total>1</thr:total>
  377. </entry>
  378. <entry>
  379. <author>
  380. <name>Rad Geek</name>
  381. <uri></uri>
  382. </author>
  383. <title type="html"><![CDATA[The &#8220;Would Have Banned&#8221; Label]]></title>
  384. <link rel="alternate" type="text/html" href="" />
  385. <id></id>
  386. <updated>2018-08-12T13:30:28Z</updated>
  387. <published>2018-08-12T13:26:20Z</published>
  388. <category scheme="" term="Misc" label="Misc"/>
  389. <summary type="html"><![CDATA[So imagine a broad new law, perhaps a constitutional amendment, which prohibits regulators from banning any product without substantial use externalities. Instead, imagine a single standard icon, perhaps a skull and crossbones, a dead cat, or a big BAD, which says We regulators would have banned this product, except that&#8217;s not constitutional now. Don&#8217;t buy [&#8230;]]]></summary>
  390. <content type="html" xml:base=""><![CDATA[<div style="background-color: #ddd; border-radius: 5px; padding: 0.5em 1.0em; margin: 1.0em 3.0em;">
  391. <h3 style="font-size: 90%; text-transform: uppercase; margin: 0em; padding-bottom: 0.5em; text-align: center;">Shared Article  from</h3>
  392. <p style="margin: 0em; font-size: 1.1em;"><strong><a href="">The "Would Have Banned" Label</a></strong></p>
  393. <p style="margin: 0em;">Government regulators often ban products they claim to be of especially low quality....</p>
  394. <p style="margin: 0em; "><span style="color: #666; font-size: 90%; text-transform: uppercase;">Robin Hanson @</span></p>
  395. <br style="clear: both" />
  396. </div>
  400. <blockquote>
  401.  <p>So imagine a broad new law, perhaps a constitutional amendment, which prohibits regulators from banning any product without substantial use externalities. Instead, imagine a single standard icon, perhaps a skull and crossbones, a dead cat, or a big <q>BAD</q>, which says <q>We regulators would have banned this product, except that&#8217;s not constitutional now. Don&#8217;t buy it.</q> (Further imagine a small educational campaign to ensure that everyone understands this icon.)</p>
  403.  <p>With ideal regulators, this new label should convey as much information as banning would have, and so roughly rational consumers should be no worse off. If regulators are far from ideal, the worst that regulators can do is just waste their funding (since consumers can always ignore them). And in either case, consumer liberty would be expanded.</p>
  405.  <p><ins class="ellipsis editorial" title="[Elision by the editor.]">.&#160;.&#160;.</ins> If consumer irrationality is the real issue here, then I sure wish ban advocates would describe their theory of consumer mistakes in more detail, so we could do some experiments to test those theories. It is also not clear why regulators should be more rational, or that irrational voters would support bans by regulators whose labels they wouldn&#8217;t believe.</p>
  407.  <p>&#8211;Robin Hanson, <a href=""><cite class="article">The <q>Would Have Banned</q> Label</cite></a> <br>June 19, 1996.</p>
  408. </blockquote>
  410. <p>Of course, really laws are the wrong way to go about just about anything, and there&#8217;s no good reason why it should be any business of the law to make producers print <q>Banned In The Beltway</q> tags on their products, at least not any more reason than they should be forced to print any other palooka&#8217;s opinions about their products. But, is there any solid, non-control-freak argument for thinking that this solution has any defects that would make it less desirable than the current prohibitionist approach to regulating low-quality products? If so, what&#8217;s the argument?</p>
  412. ]]></content>
  413. <link rel="replies" type="text/html" href="" thr:count="4"/>
  414. <link rel="replies" type="application/atom+xml" href="" thr:count="4"/>
  415. <thr:total>4</thr:total>
  416. </entry>
  417. <entry>
  418. <author>
  419. <name>Rad Geek</name>
  420. <uri></uri>
  421. </author>
  422. <title type="html"><![CDATA[11:02AM, August 9, 1945, Nagasaki Japan]]></title>
  423. <link rel="alternate" type="text/html" href="" />
  424. <id></id>
  425. <updated>2018-08-09T12:41:59Z</updated>
  426. <published>2018-08-09T16:02:24Z</published>
  427. <category scheme="" term="Misc" label="Misc"/>
  428. <summary type="html"><![CDATA[Found in a house near Sanno Shinto Shrine in Sakamoto-machi, about one kilometer from the hypocenter. The clock was shattered by the blast, and its hands stopped at 11:02-the moment of the explosion. The Nagasaki Atomic Bomb Museum Seventy-three years ago today, at 11:02 in the morning, without warning, Major Charles Sweeney flew a U.S. [&#8230;]]]></summary>
  429. <content type="html" xml:base=""><![CDATA[<p><figure>
  430. <img src="" alt="Here is a shattered wall clock, with the hands stopped at 11:02 A.M." />
  431. </figure></p>
  433. <blockquote>
  434.  <p>Found in a house near Sanno Shinto Shrine in Sakamoto-machi, about one kilometer from the hypocenter. The clock was shattered by the blast, and its hands stopped at 11:02-the moment of the explosion.</p>
  436.  <p class="signature"><a href="">The Nagasaki Atomic Bomb Museum</a></p>
  437. </blockquote>
  439. <p class="first">Seventy-three years ago today, at 11:02 in the morning, without warning, <a href="">Major Charles Sweeney</a> flew a U.S. B-29 bomber over the city of <a href="">Nagasaki</a> and dropped an atomic bomb.  Sweeney was acting on orders from <a href="">General Curtis LeMay</a>, the head of the XXI Bomber Command, and at the command of <a href="">Secretary of War Henry L. Stimson</a>, and <a href="">President Harry S. Truman</a>. A U.S. bomber had already <a href="">dropped a uranium bomb on Hiroshima</a> only three days before; the atomic fires annihilated 90% of the city and devoured 140,000 lives. On August 9, while the Japanese government was still gathering information about what had happened at Hiroshima, while the Imperial council was still in session and still debating the question of surrender, before any decision was announced, the U.S. Army flew out a second bomber mission, to incinerate a second city.</p>
  441. <p>The thing about Nagasaki is that it wasn&#8217;t even supposed to be bombed that day. The intended target on the morning of August 9 was <a href="">Kokura</a>, but when Sweeney reached Kokura at 9:44am, he couldn&#8217;t see his target. He couldn&#8217;t see it because the U.S. had firebombed another nearby city, <a href="">Yawata</a>, the day before: the city was burning, and the smoke hid Kokura from Sweeney&#8217;s sight. So he flew on to his secondary target &#8212; to Nagasaki. Clouds also hid the target in Nagasaki, but the plane was low on fuel and could not fly on to any other targets. So, at 11:02 in the morning, the plane&#8217;s bombadier, Captain Kermit Beahan, dropped a 10,200 pound plutonium bomb (nicknamed <q>Fat Man</q>) over this tourist destination, industrial center and sea-port in southwestern Japan with a population of about 230,000.</p>
  443. <p>The bomb exploded about 500 yards above Nagasaki.</p>
  445. <p><figure>
  446. <div><img src="" alt="Here is a mushroom cloud, seen from the ground, towering into the sky over a bridge in Nagasaki." /></div>
  447. <div><img alt="Here is a city street completely reduced to rubble, with fires smoldering in the background and smoke hanging in the air. A single Shinto gateway remains standing over the rubble." src="" /></div>
  448. <p class="signature"><a href="">Photo by Yosuke Yamahata</a></p>
  449. </figure></p>
  451. <blockquote>
  452.  <p>Known as Urakami, the district around the hypocenter (ground zero) area had been populated for centuries by Japanese people of the Roman Catholic faith. At the time of the bombing, between 15,000 and 16,000 Catholics &#8211; the majority of the approximately 20,000 people of that faith in Nagasaki and about half of the local population &#8211; lived in the Urakami district. It is said that about 10,000 Catholics were killed by the atomic bomb. Although traditionally a rustic isolated suburb, the Urakami district was chosen as the site for munitions factories in the 1920s, after which time the population soared and an industrial zone quickly took shape. The district was also home to the Nagasaki Medical College and a large number of other schools and public buildings. The industrial and school zones of the Urakami district lay to the east of the Urakami River, while the congested residential district of Shiroyama stretched to the hillsides on the west side of the river.</p>
  454.  <p><img class="illustration" src="" alt="" /> It was over this section of Nagasaki that the second atomic bomb exploded at 11:02 a.m., August 9, 1945. The damages inflicted on Nagasaki by the atomic bombing defy description. The 20 machi or neighborhoods within a one kilometer radius of the atomic bombing were completely destroyed by the heat flash and blast wind generated by the explosion and then reduced to ashes by the subsequent fires. About 80% of houses in the more than 20 neighborhoods between one and two kilometers from the hypocenter collapsed and burned, and when the smoke cleared the entire area was strewn with corpses. This area within two kilometers of the hypocenter is referred to as the <q>hypocenter zone.</q></p>
  456.  <p>The destruction caused by the atomic bomb is analyzed as follows in Nagasaki Shisei Rokujugonenshi Kohen [History of Nagasaki City on the 65th Anniversary of Municipal Incorporation, Volume 2] published in 1959. The area within one kilometer of the hypocenter: Almost all humans and animals died instantly as a result of the explosive force and heat generated by the explosion. Wooden structures, houses and other buildings were pulverized. In the hypocenter area the debris was immediately reduced to ashes, while in other areas raging fires broke out almost simultaneously. Gravestones toppled and broke. Plants and trees of all sizes were snapped off at the stems and left to burn facing away from the hypocenter.</p>
  458.  <p>The area within two kilometers: Some humans and animals died instantly and a majority suffered injuries of varying severity as a result of the explosive force and heat generated by the explosion. About 80% of wooden structures, houses and other buildings were destroyed, and the fires spreading from other areas burned most of the debris. Concrete and iron poles remained intact. Plants were partially burned and killed.</p>
  460.  <p>The area between three and four kilometers: Some humans and animals suffered injuries of varying severity as a result of debris scattered by the blast, and others suffered burns as a result of radiant heat. Things black in color tended to catch fire. Most houses and other buildings were partially destroyed, and some buildings and wooden poles burned. The remaining wooden telephone poles were scorched on the side facing the hypocenter.</p>
  462.  <p>The area between four and eight kilometers: Some humans and animals suffered injuries of varying severity as a result of debris scattered by the blast, and houses were partially destroyed or damaged. The area within 15 kilometers: The impact of the blast was felt clearly, and windows, doors and paper screens were broken. Wall clock found in Sakamoto-machi about 1 km from the hypocenter. The hands stopped at the moment of the explosion: 11:02 a.m.</p>
  464.  <p>The injuries inflicted by the atomic bomb resulted from the combined effect of blast wind, heat rays (radiant heat) and radiation and surfaced in an extremely complex pattern of symptoms. The death toll within a distance of one kilometer from the hypocenter was 96.7% among people who suffered burns, 96.9% among people who suffered other external injuries, and 94.1% among people who suffered no apparent injuries. These data show that the deaths occurring immediately after the atomic bombing were due not only to burns and external injuries but also to severe radiation-induced injuries. The late medical effects of atomic bomb exposure include <q>keloid</q> scars, atomic bomb cataracts, leukemia and other cancers and microcephaly (small head syndrome) due to intrauterine exposure. Although aware that the atomic bomb had the power to instantly kill or injure all people within a radius of four kilometers, the authorities were unable to determine the death toll and number of injuries in Nagasaki. Still today there is no accurate data on the number of people who died. A variety of factors contributed to this lack of information, such as the paralysis of administrative functions in the aftermath of the bombing and the inability of the postwar government to initiate a proper investigation. Another obstacle was the enduring nature of disorders related to atomic bomb exposure. A progressive increase can be expected, therefore, at whatever point in time calculations are made. There are countless cases of people who suffered injuries on August 9 and died after fleeing to areas outside Nagasaki city and prefecture, only to be registered as dying of causes other than the atomic bombing. Because of the lack of knowledge about radioactive contamination, meanwhile, many radiation deaths were attributed to diseases. The Nagasaki municipal government officially adopted the figure of <q>more than 70,000</q> deaths on the basis of information from population surveys and the estimate made by the Nagasaki City Atomic Bomb Records Preservation Committee in July 1950. Said the committee in its report: <q>73,884 people were killed and 74,909 injured, and 17,358 of the deaths were confirmed by post-mortem examination soon after the atomic bombing.</q></p>
  466.  <p class="signature"><a href="">The Nagasaki Atomic Bomb Museum</a></p>
  467. </blockquote>
  469. <p>About 24 hours before the incineration of Nagasaki, U.S. planes had begun dropping leaflets all over Japan, threatening more destruction like the <a href="">massacre of Hiroshima</a> two days before. But they named no targets that might be evacuated. Shortly before these leaflets were dropped, Harry Truman also publicly declared his aims: <q>It was to spare the Japanese people from utter destruction that the ultimatum of July 26 was issued at Potsdam. Their leaders promptly rejected that ultimatum. If they do not now accept our terms, they may expect a rain of ruin from the air the likes of which has never been seen on this earth.</q> The leaflets themselves read:</p>
  471. <blockquote>
  472.  <p><strong>TO THE JAPANESE PEOPLE:</strong></p>
  474.  <p>America asks that you take immediate heed of what we say on this leaflet.</p>
  476.  <p>We are in possession of the most destructive explosive ever devised by man. A single one of our newly developed atomic bombs is actually the equivalent in explosive power to what 2000 of our giant B-29s can carry on a single mission. This awful fact is one for you to ponder and we solemnly assure you it is grimly accurate.</p>
  478.  <p>We have just begun to use this weapon against your homeland. If you still have any doubt, make inquiry as to what happened to Hiroshima when just one atomic bomb fell on that city.</p>
  480.  <p>Before using this bomb to destroy every resource of the military by which they are prolonging this useless war, we ask that you now petition the Emperor to end the war. Our president has outlined for you the thirteen consequences of an honorable surrender. We urge that you accept these consequences and begin the work of building a new, better and peace-loving Japan.</p>
  482.  <p>You should take steps now to cease military resistance. Otherwise, we shall resolutely employ this bomb and all our other superior weapons to promptly and forcefully end the war. </p>
  483. </blockquote>
  485. <p>These leaflets did not reach Nagasaki at all until August 10, the day <em>after</em> it was destroyed.</p>
  487. <p>The purpose of this massacre was to achieve victory through catastrophic bloodshed and terror. LeMay, when asked about his bombing campaigns, stated <q>There are no innocent civilians, so it doesn&#8217;t bother me so much to be killing innocent bystanders.</q> (He also mused, later, <q>I suppose if I had lost the war, I would have been tried as a war criminal.</q>) The interim committee deciding to drop the bomb stated, on May 31, 1945, <q>that we could not give the Japanese any warning</q> before the atomic bombing of Hiroshima. Of course, no specific warning was given to the civilians of Nagasaki, either, at any point. The point of the bombing was to kill as many people as possible while wiping two cities off of the face of the earth.</p>
  489. <p>These colossal massacres were only the terrible climax of a half-year long terror-bombing campaign. The final phase of the war began with the <a href=""><q>Operation Meetinghouse</q> firebombing of Tokyo</a> on the night of March 9-10, 1945, which killed 100,000 civilians over a single night. Then the U.S. government sent its Bomber Command to other cities. U.S. bombers dropped firebombs on Nagoya on March 11, and they attacked Osaka on the night of March 13-14. On the night of March 16-17, they brought about a firestorm that destroyed half of Kobe, and they attacked Nagoya again on the night of March 18-19. In all U.S. bombers destroyed over 60 Japanese cities, and they took the lives of some 800,000-1,000,000 Japanese people, in the course of 6 months of firebombing, of <q>conventional</q> high explosives, and, finally, the two atomic bombs.</p>
  491. <p>Seventy-three years ago today also, in a <a href="">radio address, President Harry S. Truman</a> said: <q>Having found the bomb, we have used it. . . We wished in this first attack to avoid, insofar as possible, the killing of civilians. . . . We have used it in order to shorten the agony of war.</q> </p>
  493. <p>After the war, Truman defended his decision to annihilate two industrial metropolises with atomic weapons, and to kill a quarter of a million civilians within 72 hours, by claiming that it was the only way to coerce the political goal of an unconditional surrender from the Japanese government, and to reduce the number of U.S. soldiers who might be killed in combat.</p>
  495. <h3>Also.</h3>
  497. <ul>
  498. <li><a href="">GT 2018-08-06: 8:15am. 73 years. 140,000 souls.</a></li>
  499. <li><a href="">GT 2005-08-09: A day that will live in infamy</a></li>
  500. <li><a href="">Anthony Gregory, <cite class="article">Hiroshima, Nagasaki, and the U.S. Terror State,</cite></a> <cite>The Libertarian Standard</cite> (August 6, 2013)</li>
  501. <li><a href="">Ralph Raico, <cite class="article">Hiroshima and Nagasaki</cite></a>, <cite></cite> (August 5, 2009).</li>
  502. <li><a href="">Artefacts tagged <q>Nagasaki</q> at <cite>Dulce Et Decorum Est</cite></a></li>
  503. <li><a href="">Nagasaki Atomic Bomb Museum</a>, city of Nagasaki, Japan</li>
  504. </ul>
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