Congratulations!

[Valid RSS] This is a valid RSS feed.

Recommendations

This feed is valid, but interoperability with the widest range of feed readers could be improved by implementing the following recommendations.

Source: https://itsfoss.com/feed/

  1. <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?><rss xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:content="http://purl.org/rss/1.0/modules/content/" xmlns:atom="http://www.w3.org/2005/Atom" version="2.0" xmlns:media="http://search.yahoo.com/mrss/"><channel><title><![CDATA[It's FOSS]]></title><description><![CDATA[Making You a Better Linux User]]></description><link>https://itsfoss.com/</link><image><url>https://itsfoss.com/favicon.png</url><title>It&apos;s FOSS</title><link>https://itsfoss.com/</link></image><generator>Ghost 5.79</generator><lastBuildDate>Fri, 01 Mar 2024 06:49:30 GMT</lastBuildDate><atom:link href="https://itsfoss.com/rss/" rel="self" type="application/rss+xml"/><ttl>60</ttl><item><title><![CDATA[FOSS Weekly #24.09: GNOME 46 & KDE 6 Features, PipeWire, Obsidian Tips and More]]></title><description><![CDATA[New desktop environment versions and their features are at the core of this FOSS Weekly edition.]]></description><link>https://itsfoss.com/newsletter/foss-weekly-24-09/</link><guid isPermaLink="false">65dd6c67d494f009758461a1</guid><category><![CDATA[Newsletter ✉️]]></category><dc:creator><![CDATA[Abhishek Prakash]]></dc:creator><pubDate>Thu, 29 Feb 2024 04:29:32 GMT</pubDate><media:content url="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/02/foss-weekly-24-09.png" medium="image"/><content:encoded><![CDATA[<img src="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/02/foss-weekly-24-09.png" alt="FOSS Weekly #24.09: GNOME 46 &amp; KDE 6 Features, PipeWire, Obsidian Tips and More"><p><a href="https://news.itsfoss.com/kde-plasma-6/?ref=itsfoss.com">KDE Plasma 6</a> is released. Upcoming distributions Fedora 40 should provide it. <a href="https://news.itsfoss.com/gnome-46/?ref=itsfoss.com">GNOME 46</a> will be releasing in the coming weeks too. April onwards, you&apos;ll see newer versions being released for Ubuntu and most major Linux distributions. Exciting times ahead!</p><p><strong>&#x1F4AC; Let&apos;s see what else you get in this edition of FOSS Weekly:</strong></p><ul><li>System monitoring tools in the command line</li><li>Some neat features you can expect from the GNOME 46 release</li><li>Warp terminal first impression</li><li>And other Linux news, videos and, of course, memes!</li><li><strong>This edition of FOSS Weekly has been supported by Netdata.</strong></li></ul><h2 id="netdata-the-open-source-observability-platform">Netdata: the open-source observability platform</h2><p>Tired of setting up and maintaining Prometheus &amp; Grafana? </p><p>Try Netdata: The only real-time, open-source observability platform that gets your monitoring set up in seconds. It&apos;s like it&apos;s monitoring on autopilot.&#xA0;<a href="https://github.com/netdata/netdata?ref=itsfoss.com" rel="noreferrer nofollow noopener">Check it out</a>!</p><figure class="kg-card kg-bookmark-card"><a class="kg-bookmark-container" href="https://github.com/netdata/netdata?ref=itsfoss.com"><div class="kg-bookmark-content"><div class="kg-bookmark-title">GitHub - netdata/netdata: The open-source observability platform everyone needs!</div><div class="kg-bookmark-description">The open-source observability platform everyone needs! - netdata/netdata</div><div class="kg-bookmark-metadata"><img class="kg-bookmark-icon" src="https://github.githubassets.com/assets/pinned-octocat-093da3e6fa40.svg" alt="FOSS Weekly #24.09: GNOME 46 &amp; KDE 6 Features, PipeWire, Obsidian Tips and More"><span class="kg-bookmark-author">GitHub</span><span class="kg-bookmark-publisher">netdata</span></div></div><div class="kg-bookmark-thumbnail"><img src="https://repository-images.githubusercontent.com/10744183/8d08ea53-6359-45fe-bc4d-067cfe1673a1" alt="FOSS Weekly #24.09: GNOME 46 &amp; KDE 6 Features, PipeWire, Obsidian Tips and More"></div></a></figure><hr><h2 id="%F0%9F%93%B0-linux-news">&#x1F4F0; Linux news</h2><ul><li>CrossOver 24 release <a href="https://news.itsfoss.com/crossover-24/?ref=itsfoss.com" rel="noreferrer">is here</a> equipped with Wine 9.</li><li>Google <a href="https://news.itsfoss.com/google-gemma/?ref=itsfoss.com" rel="noreferrer">has introduced</a> a new open-source AI model called Gemma.</li><li>Reddit has been <a href="https://news.itsfoss.com/reddit-selling-user-content/?ref=itsfoss.com" rel="noreferrer">spotted selling</a> user content to an AI company for a hefty sum.</li><li><a href="https://news.itsfoss.com/tails-6-0-release/?ref=itsfoss.com">Tails 6.0 released</a>.</li><li><a href="https://news.itsfoss.com/kde-plasma-6/?ref=itsfoss.com">KDE Plasma 6</a> is released.</li></ul><p>Here are some <a href="https://news.itsfoss.com/gnome-46/?ref=itsfoss.com" rel="noreferrer">cool features</a> that are set to arrive with GNOME 46:</p><figure class="kg-card kg-bookmark-card"><a class="kg-bookmark-container" href="https://news.itsfoss.com/gnome-46/?ref=itsfoss.com"><div class="kg-bookmark-content"><div class="kg-bookmark-title">GNOME 46 is Coming in Hot With These 6 Features</div><div class="kg-bookmark-description">Can&#x2019;t wait for GNOME 46? Here&#x2019;s a sneak peek into the features you get with the upgrade.</div><div class="kg-bookmark-metadata"><img class="kg-bookmark-icon" src="https://news.itsfoss.com/content/images/size/w256h256/2022/08/android-chrome-192x192.png" alt="FOSS Weekly #24.09: GNOME 46 &amp; KDE 6 Features, PipeWire, Obsidian Tips and More"><span class="kg-bookmark-author">It&apos;s FOSS News</span><span class="kg-bookmark-publisher">Ankush Das</span></div></div><div class="kg-bookmark-thumbnail"><img src="https://news.itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/02/gnome-46-features.png" alt="FOSS Weekly #24.09: GNOME 46 &amp; KDE 6 Features, PipeWire, Obsidian Tips and More"></div></a></figure><hr><h2 id="%F0%9F%8C%90-follow-us-on-google-news">&#x1F310; Follow us on Google News</h2><p>By the way, if you use Google,&#xA0;<a href="https://news.google.com/publications/CAAiENHoh-T8yP9Q8Qywor2dwGkqFAgKIhDR6Ifk_Mj_UPEMsKK9ncBp?ref=itsfoss.com">follow It&apos;s FOSS on Google News</a>&#xA0;to get trusted It&apos;s FOSS content before other websites in Google search.</p><figure class="kg-card kg-bookmark-card"><a class="kg-bookmark-container" href="https://news.google.com/publications/CAAiENHoh-T8yP9Q8Qywor2dwGkqFAgKIhDR6Ifk_Mj_UPEMsKK9ncBp?ref=itsfoss.com"><div class="kg-bookmark-content"><div class="kg-bookmark-title">It&#x2019;s FOSS - Google News</div><div class="kg-bookmark-description">Read full articles from It&#x2019;s FOSS and explore endless topics, magazines and more on your phone or tablet with Google News.</div><div class="kg-bookmark-metadata"><img class="kg-bookmark-icon" src="https://ssl.gstatic.com/gnews/logo/google_news_192.png" alt="FOSS Weekly #24.09: GNOME 46 &amp; KDE 6 Features, PipeWire, Obsidian Tips and More"><span class="kg-bookmark-author">Google News</span></div></div><div class="kg-bookmark-thumbnail"><img src="https://lh3.googleusercontent.com/8BtTTnoAEYry0KuwC0nPq5U_GERPzo_DTNxmR3FEzmJQxtUaUndM6ydGtZSnIorEoCSILMmf9g=rj-c-w300-h300-l95-c0xffffff" alt="FOSS Weekly #24.09: GNOME 46 &amp; KDE 6 Features, PipeWire, Obsidian Tips and More"></div></a></figure><hr><h2 id="%F0%9F%A7%A0-what-we%E2%80%99re-thinking-about">&#x1F9E0; What we&#x2019;re thinking about</h2><p>Another major country is pushing for RISC-V, and I can&apos;t wait to see how it pans out.</p><figure class="kg-card kg-bookmark-card"><a class="kg-bookmark-container" href="https://www.tomshardware.com/pc-components/cpus/india-continues-to-innovate-homegrown-risc-v-launches-aries-30-board-with-an-onboard-vega-et1031-cpu?ref=itsfoss.com"><div class="kg-bookmark-content"><div class="kg-bookmark-title">India continues to innovate homegrown RISC-V, launches Aries 3.0 board with an onboard Vega ET1031 CPU</div><div class="kg-bookmark-description">RISC-V, as an open platform, gives countries like India a chance to break into semiconductors.</div><div class="kg-bookmark-metadata"><img class="kg-bookmark-icon" src="https://vanilla.futurecdn.net/tomshardware/897316/apple-touch-icon.png" alt="FOSS Weekly #24.09: GNOME 46 &amp; KDE 6 Features, PipeWire, Obsidian Tips and More"><span class="kg-bookmark-author">Tom&apos;s Hardware</span><span class="kg-bookmark-publisher">Christopher Harper</span></div></div><div class="kg-bookmark-thumbnail"><img src="https://cdn.mos.cms.futurecdn.net/4jimyAG7JA8PBfdb4S55C6-1200-80.png" alt="FOSS Weekly #24.09: GNOME 46 &amp; KDE 6 Features, PipeWire, Obsidian Tips and More"></div></a></figure><hr><h2 id="%F0%9F%A7%AE-linux-tips-tutorials-and-more">&#x1F9EE; Linux Tips, Tutorials and More</h2><p>PipeWire vs. PulseAudio: Which one is your pick?</p><figure class="kg-card kg-bookmark-card"><a class="kg-bookmark-container" href="https://itsfoss.com/pipewire-vs-pulseaudio/"><div class="kg-bookmark-content"><div class="kg-bookmark-title">PipeWire vs PulseAudio: What&#x2019;s the Difference?</div><div class="kg-bookmark-description">Classic PulseAudio or the new PipeWire? What&#x2019;s the difference? What&#x2019;s the buzz about Pipewire? Learn in this explainer.</div><div class="kg-bookmark-metadata"><img class="kg-bookmark-icon" src="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/size/w256h256/2022/12/android-chrome-192x192.png" alt="FOSS Weekly #24.09: GNOME 46 &amp; KDE 6 Features, PipeWire, Obsidian Tips and More"><span class="kg-bookmark-author">It&apos;s FOSS</span><span class="kg-bookmark-publisher">Sagar Sharma</span></div></div><div class="kg-bookmark-thumbnail"><img src="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/01/pipewire-vs-pulseaudio.png" alt="FOSS Weekly #24.09: GNOME 46 &amp; KDE 6 Features, PipeWire, Obsidian Tips and More"></div></a></figure><p>CLI tools for system resource monitoring.</p><figure class="kg-card kg-bookmark-card"><a class="kg-bookmark-container" href="https://itsfoss.com/linux-system-monitoring-tools/"><div class="kg-bookmark-content"><div class="kg-bookmark-title">7 System Monitoring Tools for Linux That are Better Than Top</div><div class="kg-bookmark-description">Top command is good but there are better alternatives. Take a look at these system monitoring tools that are similar to top, but better than it.</div><div class="kg-bookmark-metadata"><img class="kg-bookmark-icon" src="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/size/w256h256/2022/12/android-chrome-192x192.png" alt="FOSS Weekly #24.09: GNOME 46 &amp; KDE 6 Features, PipeWire, Obsidian Tips and More"><span class="kg-bookmark-author">It&apos;s FOSS</span><span class="kg-bookmark-publisher">Ankush Das</span></div></div><div class="kg-bookmark-thumbnail"><img src="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/wordpress/2020/08/system-monitoring-tools-linux.jpg" alt="FOSS Weekly #24.09: GNOME 46 &amp; KDE 6 Features, PipeWire, Obsidian Tips and More"></div></a></figure><p>Struggling to keep your Obsidian notes in order? Dive into these practical tips to organize your notes better:</p><figure class="kg-card kg-bookmark-card"><a class="kg-bookmark-container" href="https://itsfoss.com/obsidian-tips/"><div class="kg-bookmark-content"><div class="kg-bookmark-title">13 Useful Tips on Organizing Notes Better With Obsidian</div><div class="kg-bookmark-description">Utilize Obsidian knowledge tool more effectively with these helpful tips and tweaks.</div><div class="kg-bookmark-metadata"><img class="kg-bookmark-icon" src="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/size/w256h256/2022/12/android-chrome-192x192.png" alt="FOSS Weekly #24.09: GNOME 46 &amp; KDE 6 Features, PipeWire, Obsidian Tips and More"><span class="kg-bookmark-author">It&apos;s FOSS</span><span class="kg-bookmark-publisher">Sreenath</span></div></div><div class="kg-bookmark-thumbnail"><img src="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/02/tips-organizing-notes-obsidian.png" alt="FOSS Weekly #24.09: GNOME 46 &amp; KDE 6 Features, PipeWire, Obsidian Tips and More"></div></a></figure><hr><h2 id="%F0%9F%93%B9-what-we-are-watching">&#x1F4F9; What we are watching</h2><p>Torvalds accepts it is heard to find Linux kernel maintainers</p><figure class="kg-card kg-embed-card"><iframe width="200" height="113" src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/eWfUaFNSPhM?feature=oembed" frameborder="0" allow="accelerometer; autoplay; clipboard-write; encrypted-media; gyroscope; picture-in-picture; web-share" allowfullscreen title="Linus Torvalds addressing maintainer fatigue"></iframe></figure><hr><h2 id="%E2%9C%A8-project-highlights">&#x2728; Project highlights</h2><p>Warp is finally available for Linux, learn what it does right and what it can do better:</p><figure class="kg-card kg-bookmark-card"><a class="kg-bookmark-container" href="https://news.itsfoss.com/warp/?ref=itsfoss.com"><div class="kg-bookmark-content"><div class="kg-bookmark-title">Warp: Rust-based Terminal With Built-in AI is Now Available for Linux Also!</div><div class="kg-bookmark-description">A terminal emulator with built-in AI, futuristic.</div><div class="kg-bookmark-metadata"><img class="kg-bookmark-icon" src="https://news.itsfoss.com/content/images/size/w256h256/2022/08/android-chrome-192x192.png" alt="FOSS Weekly #24.09: GNOME 46 &amp; KDE 6 Features, PipeWire, Obsidian Tips and More"><span class="kg-bookmark-author">It&apos;s FOSS News</span><span class="kg-bookmark-publisher">Sourav Rudra</span></div></div><div class="kg-bookmark-thumbnail"><img src="https://news.itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/02/warp-for-linux.png" alt="FOSS Weekly #24.09: GNOME 46 &amp; KDE 6 Features, PipeWire, Obsidian Tips and More"></div></a></figure><hr><h2 id="%F0%9F%A7%A9-new-quiz-unit">&#x1F9E9; New quiz unit</h2><p>Drag and drop, match and pop!</p><figure class="kg-card kg-bookmark-card"><a class="kg-bookmark-container" href="https://itsfoss.com/quiz/match-apps/"><div class="kg-bookmark-content"><div class="kg-bookmark-title">Match the Apps</div><div class="kg-bookmark-description">A fun, drag and drop quiz to identify the popular applications.</div><div class="kg-bookmark-metadata"><img class="kg-bookmark-icon" src="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/size/w256h256/2022/12/android-chrome-192x192.png" alt="FOSS Weekly #24.09: GNOME 46 &amp; KDE 6 Features, PipeWire, Obsidian Tips and More"><span class="kg-bookmark-author">It&apos;s FOSS</span><span class="kg-bookmark-publisher">Abhishek Prakash</span></div></div><div class="kg-bookmark-thumbnail"><img src="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/02/Match-App-Thumbnail.png" alt="FOSS Weekly #24.09: GNOME 46 &amp; KDE 6 Features, PipeWire, Obsidian Tips and More"></div></a></figure><h2 id="%F0%9F%92%A1-quick-handy-tip">&#x1F4A1; Quick handy tip</h2><p>Locate the mouse pointer in Ubuntu by following this:</p><ul><li>Go to Settings &#x279D; Accessibility &#x279D; Pointing and Clicking</li><li>Now, toggle the Locate Pointer button.</li></ul><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card"><img src="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/02/locate-pointer-in-ubuntu.png" class="kg-image" alt="FOSS Weekly #24.09: GNOME 46 &amp; KDE 6 Features, PipeWire, Obsidian Tips and More" loading="lazy" width="1350" height="624" srcset="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/size/w600/2024/02/locate-pointer-in-ubuntu.png 600w, https://itsfoss.com/content/images/size/w1000/2024/02/locate-pointer-in-ubuntu.png 1000w, https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/02/locate-pointer-in-ubuntu.png 1350w" sizes="(min-width: 720px) 720px"></figure><p>When you press the <em>Left Control</em> key, the mouse pointer will show an animation letting you know where it is located.</p><hr><h2 id="%F0%9F%A4%A3-meme-of-the-week">&#x1F923; Meme of the week</h2><p>Windows who? &#x1F606;</p><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card"><img src="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/02/meme11.png" class="kg-image" alt="FOSS Weekly #24.09: GNOME 46 &amp; KDE 6 Features, PipeWire, Obsidian Tips and More" loading="lazy" width="1080" height="1080" srcset="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/size/w600/2024/02/meme11.png 600w, https://itsfoss.com/content/images/size/w1000/2024/02/meme11.png 1000w, https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/02/meme11.png 1080w" sizes="(min-width: 720px) 720px"></figure><hr><h2 id="%F0%9F%97%93%EF%B8%8F-tech-trivia">&#x1F5D3;&#xFE0F; Tech Trivia</h2><p>On February 26, 1991, the Creator of World Wide Web, Tim Berners-Lee, introduced the first-ever web browser. Initially called WorldWideWeb, it was later renamed Nexus to avoid confusion from World Wide Web itself.</p><hr><h2 id="%F0%9F%A7%91%E2%80%8D%F0%9F%A4%9D%E2%80%8D%F0%9F%A7%91-fossverse-corner">&#x1F9D1;&#x200D;&#x1F91D;&#x200D;&#x1F9D1; FOSSverse corner</h2><p>A FOSSer is reconsidering how <a href="https://itsfoss.community/t/a-different-password-approach/11721?ref=itsfoss.com" rel="noreferrer">they handle</a> their passwords. Join in if you have any helpful suggestions!</p><figure class="kg-card kg-bookmark-card"><a class="kg-bookmark-container" href="https://itsfoss.community/t/a-different-password-approach/11721?ref=itsfoss.com"><div class="kg-bookmark-content"><div class="kg-bookmark-title">A different password approach</div><div class="kg-bookmark-description">Seeing some recent discussion of password security prompted me to review my password situation. I am going to adopt a new approach. Each password will consist of 2 parts a variable part which is stored ( it does not matter where), and a fixed part which is carried in my head When entering a password, I look up the variable part, combine it with the fixed part in my head and enter the combined result. That means I can write the variable part on paper&#x2026; and it is secure. How I do the&#x2026;</div><div class="kg-bookmark-metadata"><img class="kg-bookmark-icon" src="https://itsfoss.community/uploads/default/optimized/1X/f274f9749e3fd8b4d6fbae1cf90c5c186d2f699c_2_180x180.png" alt="FOSS Weekly #24.09: GNOME 46 &amp; KDE 6 Features, PipeWire, Obsidian Tips and More"><span class="kg-bookmark-author">It&apos;s FOSS Community</span><span class="kg-bookmark-publisher">nevj</span></div></div><div class="kg-bookmark-thumbnail"><img src="https://itsfoss.community/uploads/default/original/1X/f274f9749e3fd8b4d6fbae1cf90c5c186d2f699c.png" alt="FOSS Weekly #24.09: GNOME 46 &amp; KDE 6 Features, PipeWire, Obsidian Tips and More"></div></a></figure><hr><h2 id="%E2%9D%A4%EF%B8%8F-with-love">&#x2764;&#xFE0F; With love</h2><p><strong>Share it with your Linux-using friends</strong>&#xA0;and encourage them to subscribe (hint:&#xA0;<a href="https://itsfoss.com/newsletter/">it&apos;s here</a>).</p><p>Share the articles in Linux Subreddits and community forums.</p><p>Opt for&#xA0;<a href="https://itsfoss.com/membership">It&apos;s FOSS Plus membership</a>&#xA0;and support us &#x1F64F;</p><p>Enjoy using Linux &#x1F604;</p>]]></content:encoded></item><item><title><![CDATA[Kill Command Examples]]></title><description><![CDATA[You're going to find it, and kill it, thanks to the kill command on Linux.]]></description><link>https://itsfoss.com/kill-command/</link><guid isPermaLink="false">65dd707ed494f009758461af</guid><category><![CDATA[Linux Commands]]></category><dc:creator><![CDATA[Sagar Sharma]]></dc:creator><pubDate>Tue, 27 Feb 2024 15:51:11 GMT</pubDate><media:content url="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/02/kill-command-in-linux.png" medium="image"/><content:encoded><![CDATA[<img src="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/02/kill-command-in-linux.png" alt="Kill Command Examples"><p>Found a stubborn background process eating up system resources? </p><p>You can kill it using the <strong>kill command </strong>&#x1F609;</p><p>But how do you use the kill command? Well, in this tutorial, I will walk you through the essentials needed to learn how to use the kill command:</p><ul><li><strong>The basic syntax and popular flags of the kill command </strong></li><li><strong>Practical examples of the kill command </strong></li><li><strong>Practice questions to get better at using the kill command </strong></li></ul><h2 id="heres-how-to-use-the-kill-command">Here&apos;s How to use the Kill command </h2><p>To use the kill command to its full potential, it is important to know its syntax, so here&apos;s a basic syntax of the kill command:</p><pre><code>kill [options] &lt;PID&gt;</code></pre><p>Here,</p><ul><li><code>[options]</code>: it is used to fine-tune the behavior of the command as per your needs, such as you can use the <code>-s</code> option to specify a kill signal.</li><li><code>&lt;PID&gt;</code>: here&apos;s where you specify the process ID of a target process to kill.</li></ul><p>Now, let&apos;s take a look at the list of the options available to you:</p>
  2. <!--kg-card-begin: html-->
  3. <table>
  4. <thead>
  5. <tr>
  6. <th>Option</th>
  7. <th>Description</th>
  8. </tr>
  9. </thead>
  10. <tbody>
  11. <tr>
  12. <td><code>-s <signal></signal></code></td>
  13. <td>Specify what kill signal to send.</td>
  14. </tr>
  15. <tr>
  16. <td><code>-l <signal_no></signal_no></code></td>
  17. <td>Shows the name of the signal through the signal number.</td>
  18. </tr>
  19. <tr>
  20. <td><code>-L</code></td>
  21. <td>List all the available signals.</td>
  22. </tr>
  23. <tr>
  24. <td><code>q <value></value></code></td>
  25. <td>Sends the signal using sigqueue(3) instead of kill(2), allowing an additional integer value to be sent along with the signal.</td>
  26. </tr>
  27. </tbody>
  28. </table>
  29. <!--kg-card-end: html-->
  30. <p>The key option here is the <code>-s</code> flag, as you will mostly be using the kill command with specific kill signals in mind.</p><p>So here&apos;s a list of common signals used with the kill command:</p>
  31. <!--kg-card-begin: html-->
  32. <table>
  33. <thead>
  34. <tr>
  35. <th><strong>Signal Number</strong></th>
  36. <th><strong>Signal Name</strong></th>
  37. <th><strong>Description</strong></th>
  38. </tr>
  39. </thead>
  40. <tbody>
  41. <tr>
  42. <td><code>1</code></td>
  43. <td>SIGHUP</td>
  44. <td>Re-read configuration (like reloading web server settings).</td>
  45. </tr>
  46. <tr>
  47. <td><code>2</code></td>
  48. <td>SIGINT</td>
  49. <td>Interrupt the process, similar to pressing <code>Ctrl+C</code>.</td>
  50. </tr>
  51. <tr>
  52. <td><code>3</code></td>
  53. <td>SIGQUIT</td>
  54. <td>Quit and create a core dump (for debugging crashes).</td>
  55. </tr>
  56. <tr>
  57. <td><code>9</code></td>
  58. <td>SIGKILL</td>
  59. <td>Forcefully terminate immediately (use with caution!).</td>
  60. </tr>
  61. <tr>
  62. <td><code>15</code></td>
  63. <td>SIGTERM</td>
  64. <td>Politely request termination, allowing for cleanup (default).</td>
  65. </tr>
  66. </tbody>
  67. </table>
  68. <!--kg-card-end: html-->
  69. <p><strong>If you don&apos;t specify any signal number, it will use <code>SIGTERM</code> by default. </strong></p><p>Now, let&apos;s take a look at some practical examples of the kill command.</p><h2 id="practical-examples-of-the-kill-command">Practical examples of the kill command </h2><p>In this section, I walk you through practical examples of the command, so you can have a better idea of how to use the kill command on Linux:</p><h3 id="1-list-available-signals">1. List available signals </h3><p>To list available signals, all you have to do is use the <code>-L</code> flag with the kill command, as shown here:</p><pre><code>kill -L</code></pre><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card"><img src="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/02/List-available-options-with-the-kill-command-1.png" class="kg-image" alt="Kill Command Examples" loading="lazy" width="836" height="359" srcset="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/size/w600/2024/02/List-available-options-with-the-kill-command-1.png 600w, https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/02/List-available-options-with-the-kill-command-1.png 836w" sizes="(min-width: 720px) 720px"></figure><p>As you can see, the above response repeats the termination signals. So how do you get the list of every signal available without repetition? </p><p>Easy, you can use the standalone version of the kill command by executing in the following manner:</p><pre><code>/usr/bin/kill -L</code></pre><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card"><img src="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/02/List-available-kill-signals.png" class="kg-image" alt="Kill Command Examples" loading="lazy" width="836" height="220" srcset="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/size/w600/2024/02/List-available-kill-signals.png 600w, https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/02/List-available-kill-signals.png 836w" sizes="(min-width: 720px) 720px"></figure><h3 id="2-kill-a-process-using-the-kill-command">2. Kill a process using the kill command </h3><p>To kill a process, you require a PID (Process ID) to specify the target process. To <a href="https://linuxhandbook.com/find-process-id/?ref=itsfoss.com" rel="noreferrer">find the PID of a process,</a> you can use the pidof command as shown here:</p><pre><code>pidof &lt;process_name&gt;</code></pre><p>For example, if I want to find the PID of the Firefox browser, then I use the following:</p><pre><code>pidof firefox-bin</code></pre><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card"><img src="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/02/Find-the-PID-of-a-process.png" class="kg-image" alt="Kill Command Examples" loading="lazy" width="836" height="134" srcset="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/size/w600/2024/02/Find-the-PID-of-a-process.png 600w, https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/02/Find-the-PID-of-a-process.png 836w" sizes="(min-width: 720px) 720px"></figure><p>Once you have a PID, you can use the following command:</p><pre><code>kill &lt;PID&gt;</code></pre><p>As I mentioned earlier, if you don&apos;t pass any termination signal, it will use <code>SIGTERM</code>, enough to kill most processes.</p><p>If the process is super stubborn (and has numerous child processes associated with it) and does not go away by the default signal, then you can use the <code>SIGKILL</code>.</p><div class="kg-card kg-callout-card kg-callout-card-red"><div class="kg-callout-emoji">&#x1F6A7;</div><div class="kg-callout-text">The <code spellcheck="false" style="white-space: pre-wrap;">SIGKILL</code> signal kills the child processes as well so use it with caution &#x26A0;&#xFE0F;.</div></div><p>Here&apos;s how you can use <code>SIGKILL</code> to kill a stubborn process:</p><pre><code>kill -9 &lt;PID&gt;</code></pre><p>For example, the Spotify client was unresponsive and wasn&apos;t working as expected, so here&apos;s how I used SIGKILL to kill Spotify:</p><pre><code>kill -9 13234</code></pre><p>Here, the <code>13234</code> is the PID of the Spotify desktop.</p><p>If you&apos;re curious to learn the <a href="https://linuxhandbook.com/sigterm-vs-sigkill/?ref=itsfoss.com" rel="noreferrer">difference between SIGTERM (default) and SIGKILL</a> then you can refer to our detailed guide on that matter:</p><figure class="kg-card kg-bookmark-card"><a class="kg-bookmark-container" href="https://linuxhandbook.com/sigterm-vs-sigkill/?ref=itsfoss.com"><div class="kg-bookmark-content"><div class="kg-bookmark-title">What is SIGTERM? What&#x2019;s the difference between SIGKILL &amp; SIGTERM?</div><div class="kg-bookmark-description">Both SIGTERM and SIGKILL are used for killing a process in Linux. But you should prefer using SIGTERM. Here&#x2019;s why!</div><div class="kg-bookmark-metadata"><img class="kg-bookmark-icon" src="https://linuxhandbook.com/content/images/size/w256h256/2021/08/Linux-Handbook-New-Logo.png" alt="Kill Command Examples"><span class="kg-bookmark-author">Linux Handbook</span><span class="kg-bookmark-publisher">Abhishek Prakash</span></div></div><div class="kg-bookmark-thumbnail"><img src="https://linuxhandbook.com/content/images/2020/06/dont_sigkill_use_sigterm.jpg" alt="Kill Command Examples"></div></a></figure><h3 id="3-kill-multiple-processes-at-once">3. Kill multiple processes at once </h3><p>To kill multiple processes, all you have to do is append multiple PIDs to the kill command separated by spaces:</p><pre><code>kill [options] PID1 PID2 PID3 PIDN</code></pre><p>For example, here, I used the PID of Firefox and Spotify to kill both of them at once:</p><pre><code>kill 10793 9758</code></pre><h3 id="4-find-the-name-of-the-signal-through-the-number">4. Find the name of the signal through the number </h3><p>Typically, you will stumble upon a number instead of the name of the kill signal, and you might want to know what signal was used there.</p><p>For that purpose, you can use the <code>-l</code> flag appending the number of the signal as shown here:</p><pre><code>kill -l &lt;Signal_number&gt;</code></pre><p>For example, if I want to know what is the name of the termination signal 9, then I will use the following:</p><pre><code>kill -l 9</code></pre><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card"><img src="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/02/Find-the-name-of-the-termination-signal-with-the-kill-command.png" class="kg-image" alt="Kill Command Examples" loading="lazy" width="836" height="135" srcset="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/size/w600/2024/02/Find-the-name-of-the-termination-signal-with-the-kill-command.png 600w, https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/02/Find-the-name-of-the-termination-signal-with-the-kill-command.png 836w" sizes="(min-width: 720px) 720px"></figure><p>If you notice the above output, then you realize that it only printed the <code>KILL</code> instead of <code>SIGKILL</code>. </p><p>Why do you ask? Well, it won&apos;t add <code>SIG</code> before the name of any termination signal.</p><p><strong>Suggested Read &#x1F4D6;</strong></p><figure class="kg-card kg-bookmark-card"><a class="kg-bookmark-container" href="https://itsfoss.com/linux-system-monitoring-tools/"><div class="kg-bookmark-content"><div class="kg-bookmark-title">7 System Monitoring Tools for Linux That are Better Than Top</div><div class="kg-bookmark-description">Top command is good but there are better alternatives. Take a look at these system monitoring tools that are similar to top, but better than it.</div><div class="kg-bookmark-metadata"><img class="kg-bookmark-icon" src="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/size/w256h256/2022/12/android-chrome-192x192.png" alt="Kill Command Examples"><span class="kg-bookmark-author">It&apos;s FOSS</span><span class="kg-bookmark-publisher">Ankush Das</span></div></div><div class="kg-bookmark-thumbnail"><img src="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/wordpress/2020/08/system-monitoring-tools-linux.jpg" alt="Kill Command Examples"></div></a></figure><h2 id="practice-questions-%F0%9F%97%92%EF%B8%8F">Practice questions &#x1F5D2;&#xFE0F;</h2><p>You must practice the commands to get better at them, and quickly use them when needed in day to day life.</p><p>So here I&apos;ll be sharing some practice questions for the kill command:</p><ol><li>Find the PID of your default browser and then kill it using the SIGKILL.</li><li>How can you hold the process instead of killing it? </li><li>What is an interactive way of sending kill signals (Hint: you can <a href="https://itsfoss.com/use-htop/" rel="noreferrer">use htop</a>)</li><li>What is a zombie process and how to kill it? (Hint: <a href="https://itsfoss.com/kill-zombie-process-linux/" rel="noreferrer">guide to zombie process</a>)</li></ol><p>If you discover any difficulties solving the above problems, reach out to us through the comments or post your query in&#xA0;<a href="https://itsfoss.community/?ref=itsfoss.com" rel="noreferrer">our community forum.</a></p><h2 id="explore-how-you-can-use-different-kill-signals">Explore How You Can Use Different Kill Signals </h2><p>If you are curious to learn the meaning of different kill signals, refer to our detailed guide on <a href="https://linuxhandbook.com/termination-signals/?ref=itsfoss.com" rel="noreferrer">using different termination signals on Linux</a>:</p><figure class="kg-card kg-bookmark-card"><a class="kg-bookmark-container" href="https://linuxhandbook.com/termination-signals/?ref=itsfoss.com"><div class="kg-bookmark-content"><div class="kg-bookmark-title">How to use SIGINT and other Termination Signals in Linux</div><div class="kg-bookmark-description">Terminating executing process is more than just kill -9. Here are some of the prominent termination signals and their usage.</div><div class="kg-bookmark-metadata"><img class="kg-bookmark-icon" src="https://linuxhandbook.com/content/images/size/w256h256/2021/08/Linux-Handbook-New-Logo.png" alt="Kill Command Examples"><span class="kg-bookmark-author">Linux Handbook</span><span class="kg-bookmark-publisher">Sagar Sharma</span></div></div><div class="kg-bookmark-thumbnail"><img src="https://linuxhandbook.com/content/images/2022/10/termination-signals-linux.png" alt="Kill Command Examples"></div></a></figure><p>Moreover, if you are new to Linux, I suggest you to also go through our&#xA0;<a href="https://itsfoss.com/tag/terminal-basics/" rel="noreferrer">command tutorial for beginners</a>.</p><figure class="kg-card kg-bookmark-card"><a class="kg-bookmark-container" href="https://itsfoss.com/tag/terminal-basics/"><div class="kg-bookmark-content"><div class="kg-bookmark-title">Linux Command Tutorials for Absolute Beginners</div><div class="kg-bookmark-description">Never used Linux commands before? No worries. This tutorial series is for absolute beginners to the Linux terminal.</div><div class="kg-bookmark-metadata"><img class="kg-bookmark-icon" src="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/size/w256h256/2022/12/android-chrome-192x192.png" alt="Kill Command Examples"><span class="kg-bookmark-author">It&apos;s FOSS</span></div></div><div class="kg-bookmark-thumbnail"><img src="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2023/03/terminal-basics-series-tag.png" alt="Kill Command Examples"></div></a></figure><p><em>&#x1F4AC; How often do you find yourself using the kill command? Or do you prefer the GUI?</em></p>]]></content:encoded></item><item><title><![CDATA[13 Super Useful Tips on Organizing Notes Better With Obsidian]]></title><description><![CDATA[Utilize Obsidian knowledge tool more effectively with these helpful tips and tweaks.]]></description><link>https://itsfoss.com/obsidian-tips/</link><guid isPermaLink="false">65bb2e78f30830050bcaa1ab</guid><category><![CDATA[Tips 💡]]></category><dc:creator><![CDATA[Sreenath]]></dc:creator><pubDate>Mon, 26 Feb 2024 12:04:25 GMT</pubDate><media:content url="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/02/tips-organizing-notes-obsidian.png" medium="image"/><content:encoded><![CDATA[<img src="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/02/tips-organizing-notes-obsidian.png" alt="13 Super Useful Tips on Organizing Notes Better With Obsidian"><p>The huge amount of data and knowledge spread across the internet makes managing important data a cumbersome task these days. Finding the correct information in the massive pool of data needs careful organizational skills.</p><p>That&#x2019;s where the Knowledge management tools like <a href="https://obsidian.md/?ref=itsfoss.com">Obsidian</a>, <a href="https://logseq.com/?ref=itsfoss.com">Logseq</a> and <a href="https://notion.grsm.io/itsfoss?ref=itsfoss.com">Notion</a> comes in. Compared to Notion, Obsidian has several advantages, especially in the Linux environment because it has a native app. Moreover, it relies on Markdown as a base for note management.</p><p>I am not going to discuss if you should use <a href="https://itsfoss.com/obsidian-markdown-editor/">Obsidian</a>. That&apos;s not the intent of this article.</p><p><strong><em>As an ardent Obsidian user, let me use my experience to share some tips to boost your data storage and make the retrieval more efficient if you are already using Obsidian.</em></strong></p><div class="kg-card kg-callout-card kg-callout-card-yellow"><div class="kg-callout-emoji">&#x270B;</div><div class="kg-callout-text"><b><strong style="white-space: pre-wrap;">Non-FOSS Warning!</strong></b> Obsidian is not an open source software. We cover it here because of its popularity among Linux users and open source developers.</div></div><h2 id="1-make-use-of-in-built-table-of-contents">1. Make use of in-built table of contents</h2><p>Obsidian has an in-built interactive table of contents, that aligns with the level of heading on the document. So, if you have a properly created headings and subheadings, then this ToC is very effective.</p><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card kg-card-hascaption"><img src="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/02/table-of-contents-1.png" class="kg-image" alt="13 Super Useful Tips on Organizing Notes Better With Obsidian" loading="lazy" width="1235" height="484" srcset="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/size/w600/2024/02/table-of-contents-1.png 600w, https://itsfoss.com/content/images/size/w1000/2024/02/table-of-contents-1.png 1000w, https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/02/table-of-contents-1.png 1235w" sizes="(min-width: 720px) 720px"><figcaption><span style="white-space: pre-wrap;">Built-in Table of Contents</span></figcaption></figure><p>Click on the top right panel button. Now, you can click on the outline button to get the current document outline. If you want to hide this view, simply click on the panel button again, on the top-right.</p><h2 id="2-tweak-the-link-system">2. Tweak the link system</h2><p>Obsidian&#x2019;s main selling point is its interlinking of documents and knowledge graphs. A casual note-taking user will get confused here. </p><p>Furthermore, some default settings on Obsidian will make it hard for migrating to another app later. </p><p>The tweaks mentioned below can be found in <strong>Settings Gear &#x2192; File and Links</strong>.</p><h3 id="modify-link-automatically-upon-file-rename">Modify link automatically upon file rename</h3><p>What it does is, whenever you rename a file inside your note vault, any link to that file is automatically updated. Else, you will get a prompt each time, which is easy to miss sometime.</p><p>Enable the &#x201C;Automatically Update Internal Links&#x201D; button.</p><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card kg-card-hascaption"><img src="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/02/update-file-link-automatically.png" class="kg-image" alt="13 Super Useful Tips on Organizing Notes Better With Obsidian" loading="lazy" width="1154" height="399" srcset="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/size/w600/2024/02/update-file-link-automatically.png 600w, https://itsfoss.com/content/images/size/w1000/2024/02/update-file-link-automatically.png 1000w, https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/02/update-file-link-automatically.png 1154w" sizes="(min-width: 720px) 720px"><figcaption><span style="white-space: pre-wrap;">Update File Links Automatically</span></figcaption></figure><h3 id="new-link-format">New link format </h3><p>Setting the New Link format to &#x201C;Relative path to the file&#x201D; and turning off Wikilinks will be good if you expect your notes to work well with other Markdown editors.</p><div class="kg-card kg-callout-card kg-callout-card-red"><div class="kg-callout-emoji">&#x1F6A7;</div><div class="kg-callout-text">When you make these two changes, it will be a bit going backwards because Wikilinks is one of the nice features of Obsidian. Only disable it if you are not sure about sticking with Obsidian in the future.</div></div><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card kg-card-hascaption"><img src="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/02/link-format-and-wikilink.png" class="kg-image" alt="13 Super Useful Tips on Organizing Notes Better With Obsidian" loading="lazy" width="1154" height="432" srcset="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/size/w600/2024/02/link-format-and-wikilink.png 600w, https://itsfoss.com/content/images/size/w1000/2024/02/link-format-and-wikilink.png 1000w, https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/02/link-format-and-wikilink.png 1154w" sizes="(min-width: 720px) 720px"><figcaption><span style="white-space: pre-wrap;">Link Format and Wikilink</span></figcaption></figure><p><strong>Suggested Read &#x1F4D6;</strong></p><figure class="kg-card kg-bookmark-card"><a class="kg-bookmark-container" href="https://itsfoss.com/obsidian-create-links/"><div class="kg-bookmark-content"><div class="kg-bookmark-title">Creating and Working with Links in Obsidian</div><div class="kg-bookmark-description">The true power of the Obsidian knowledge base tool lies in the links. Learn to use it.</div><div class="kg-bookmark-metadata"><img class="kg-bookmark-icon" src="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/size/w256h256/2022/12/android-chrome-192x192.png" alt="13 Super Useful Tips on Organizing Notes Better With Obsidian"><span class="kg-bookmark-author">It&apos;s FOSS</span><span class="kg-bookmark-publisher">Sreenath</span></div></div><div class="kg-bookmark-thumbnail"><img src="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2023/12/link-obsidian-notes.png" alt="13 Super Useful Tips on Organizing Notes Better With Obsidian"></div></a></figure><h2 id="3-get-familiar-with-the-hotkeys">3. Get familiar with the hotkeys</h2><p>Obsidian has some pre-set hotkeys for some actions. It will be pretty handy, memorizing some important ones.</p><table>
  70. <thead>
  71. <tr>
  72. <th>Function</th>
  73. <th>Hotkey</th>
  74. </tr>
  75. </thead>
  76. <tbody>
  77. <tr>
  78. <td>Open Command Palette</td>
  79. <td>CTRL + P</td>
  80. </tr>
  81. <tr>
  82. <td>Create a New Note</td>
  83. <td>CTRL + N</td>
  84. </tr>
  85. <tr>
  86. <td>Delete a Paragraph</td>
  87. <td>CTRL + D</td>
  88. </tr>
  89. <tr>
  90. <td>Open Graph View</td>
  91. <td>CTRL + G</td>
  92. </tr>
  93. <tr>
  94. <td>Insert Markdown Link</td>
  95. <td>CTRL + K</td>
  96. </tr>
  97. </tbody>
  98. </table>
  99. <p>Similarly, it&#x2019;s better to set some accessible hotkeys as per your preference for the following items:</p><ul><li>Adding tags</li><li>Exporting to PDF</li><li>Inserting attachments and callouts</li><li>Inserting tables</li><li>Toggling highlight</li><li>Zooming in and zooming out</li></ul><p>To add a hotkey, you can just press the &#x201C;Plus&#x201D; button adjacent to an entry and press the key combination that you want to set to that action.</p><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card kg-card-hascaption"><img src="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/02/add-a-hotkey.png" class="kg-image" alt="13 Super Useful Tips on Organizing Notes Better With Obsidian" loading="lazy" width="1154" height="415" srcset="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/size/w600/2024/02/add-a-hotkey.png 600w, https://itsfoss.com/content/images/size/w1000/2024/02/add-a-hotkey.png 1000w, https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/02/add-a-hotkey.png 1154w" sizes="(min-width: 720px) 720px"><figcaption><span style="white-space: pre-wrap;">Add a Hotkey</span></figcaption></figure><h2 id="4-use-slash-key-to-get-in-line-commands">4. Use slash key to get in-line commands</h2><p>Like Notion and other popular editors, you can make Obsidian show the available commands by pressing the forward slash key.</p><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card kg-card-hascaption"><img src="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/02/slash-to-get-in-line-commands.gif" class="kg-image" alt="13 Super Useful Tips on Organizing Notes Better With Obsidian" loading="lazy" width="1151" height="480" srcset="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/size/w600/2024/02/slash-to-get-in-line-commands.gif 600w, https://itsfoss.com/content/images/size/w1000/2024/02/slash-to-get-in-line-commands.gif 1000w, https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/02/slash-to-get-in-line-commands.gif 1151w" sizes="(min-width: 720px) 720px"><figcaption><span style="white-space: pre-wrap;">Slash to Get In-line Commands</span></figcaption></figure><p>To enable this, go to <strong>Settings &#x2192; Core Plugins</strong> and there, enable the Slash Commands option.</p><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card kg-card-hascaption"><img src="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/02/enable-slash-commands.png" class="kg-image" alt="13 Super Useful Tips on Organizing Notes Better With Obsidian" loading="lazy" width="1143" height="468" srcset="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/size/w600/2024/02/enable-slash-commands.png 600w, https://itsfoss.com/content/images/size/w1000/2024/02/enable-slash-commands.png 1000w, https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/02/enable-slash-commands.png 1143w" sizes="(min-width: 720px) 720px"><figcaption><span style="white-space: pre-wrap;">Enable Slash Commands</span></figcaption></figure><h2 id="5-use-obsidian-canvas-for-brainstorming">5. Use Obsidian Canvas for brainstorming</h2><p>If you want a brainstorming session, you can make use of the Obsidian canvas. Here blocks, images, existing notes, link preview, etc. can be shown. Furthermore, it is possible to connect the blocks and group them as needed.</p><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card kg-card-hascaption"><img src="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/02/use-canvas-for-brainstorming.png" class="kg-image" alt="13 Super Useful Tips on Organizing Notes Better With Obsidian" loading="lazy" width="1655" height="814" srcset="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/size/w600/2024/02/use-canvas-for-brainstorming.png 600w, https://itsfoss.com/content/images/size/w1000/2024/02/use-canvas-for-brainstorming.png 1000w, https://itsfoss.com/content/images/size/w1600/2024/02/use-canvas-for-brainstorming.png 1600w, https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/02/use-canvas-for-brainstorming.png 1655w" sizes="(min-width: 720px) 720px"><figcaption><span style="white-space: pre-wrap;">Use Obsidian Canvas</span></figcaption></figure><p>Use CTRL+scroll to zoom in and zoom out of the view. For moving around the area, press the <em>Space</em> key and then left click and drag.</p><h2 id="6-add-properties-to-documents">6. Add properties to documents</h2><p>Inside the documents in your vault, you can add file properties like Date, tags, etc. Properties appearing at the beginning of a document makes management easier.</p><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card kg-card-hascaption"><img src="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/02/properties-added.png" class="kg-image" alt="13 Super Useful Tips on Organizing Notes Better With Obsidian" loading="lazy" width="1270" height="458" srcset="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/size/w600/2024/02/properties-added.png 600w, https://itsfoss.com/content/images/size/w1000/2024/02/properties-added.png 1000w, https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/02/properties-added.png 1270w" sizes="(min-width: 720px) 720px"><figcaption><span style="white-space: pre-wrap;">File Properties are added</span></figcaption></figure><p>To add properties, press <em>CTRL+P</em> on the document to open the command panel. There, search for &#x201C;Add File Property&#x201D;.</p><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card kg-card-hascaption"><img src="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/02/select-add-file-property.png" class="kg-image" alt="13 Super Useful Tips on Organizing Notes Better With Obsidian" loading="lazy" width="1270" height="458" srcset="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/size/w600/2024/02/select-add-file-property.png 600w, https://itsfoss.com/content/images/size/w1000/2024/02/select-add-file-property.png 1000w, https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/02/select-add-file-property.png 1270w" sizes="(min-width: 720px) 720px"><figcaption><span style="white-space: pre-wrap;">Select Add File Property</span></figcaption></figure><p>You can add more than one property to a block by using the <em>Add Property</em> button. Once you have added several properties, whenever you add a property to another document, you will get the fields you already created.</p><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card kg-card-hascaption"><img src="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/02/file-property-fields-are-accessible.png" class="kg-image" alt="13 Super Useful Tips on Organizing Notes Better With Obsidian" loading="lazy" width="1270" height="458" srcset="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/size/w600/2024/02/file-property-fields-are-accessible.png 600w, https://itsfoss.com/content/images/size/w1000/2024/02/file-property-fields-are-accessible.png 1000w, https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/02/file-property-fields-are-accessible.png 1270w" sizes="(min-width: 720px) 720px"><figcaption><span style="white-space: pre-wrap;">File Properties Field are Accessible</span></figcaption></figure><p>You can right-click on the icon of a property and change its type to an available type.</p><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card kg-card-hascaption"><img src="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/02/select-properties-from-available-list.png" class="kg-image" alt="13 Super Useful Tips on Organizing Notes Better With Obsidian" loading="lazy" width="1270" height="458" srcset="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/size/w600/2024/02/select-properties-from-available-list.png 600w, https://itsfoss.com/content/images/size/w1000/2024/02/select-properties-from-available-list.png 1000w, https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/02/select-properties-from-available-list.png 1270w" sizes="(min-width: 720px) 720px"><figcaption><span style="white-space: pre-wrap;">Set the Type of Property</span></figcaption></figure><div class="kg-card kg-callout-card kg-callout-card-yellow"><div class="kg-callout-emoji">&#x270B;</div><div class="kg-callout-text">This property fields are for Obsidian only. If you try to open the markdown file you created with these property blocks in some other editors, it may give unexpected results.</div></div><h2 id="7-access-the-tag-information-from-the-panel-menu">7. Access the tag information from the panel menu</h2><p>You can add several tags to your notes and those tags can be used to retrieve data later. Click on the top-right panel button and then select the tags button. It will display all the tags and the number of notes on each tag.</p><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card kg-card-hascaption"><img src="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/02/search-with-tags.png" class="kg-image" alt="13 Super Useful Tips on Organizing Notes Better With Obsidian" loading="lazy" width="1149" height="481" srcset="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/size/w600/2024/02/search-with-tags.png 600w, https://itsfoss.com/content/images/size/w1000/2024/02/search-with-tags.png 1000w, https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/02/search-with-tags.png 1149w" sizes="(min-width: 720px) 720px"><figcaption><span style="white-space: pre-wrap;">Search with Tags</span></figcaption></figure><p>Clicking on these tag on the right side panel will list all the notes in that tag on the left search panel.</p><h2 id="8-use-callouts-to-write-better-documents">8. Use Callouts to write better documents</h2><p>Obsidian has a callout feature, that allows you to mark points that need special attention. See the screenshot below.</p><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card kg-card-hascaption"><img src="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/02/callouts-displayed.png" class="kg-image" alt="13 Super Useful Tips on Organizing Notes Better With Obsidian" loading="lazy" width="1270" height="554" srcset="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/size/w600/2024/02/callouts-displayed.png 600w, https://itsfoss.com/content/images/size/w1000/2024/02/callouts-displayed.png 1000w, https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/02/callouts-displayed.png 1270w" sizes="(min-width: 720px) 720px"><figcaption><span style="white-space: pre-wrap;">Callouts in Obsidian</span></figcaption></figure><p>Here, I have added callouts like Tip, Warning, Note etc. To make this appear inside the document, use the format below:</p><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card kg-card-hascaption"><img src="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/02/creating-callouts.gif" class="kg-image" alt="13 Super Useful Tips on Organizing Notes Better With Obsidian" loading="lazy" width="1151" height="480" srcset="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/size/w600/2024/02/creating-callouts.gif 600w, https://itsfoss.com/content/images/size/w1000/2024/02/creating-callouts.gif 1000w, https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/02/creating-callouts.gif 1151w" sizes="(min-width: 720px) 720px"><figcaption><span style="white-space: pre-wrap;">Creating Callouts</span></figcaption></figure><h2 id="9-keep-attachments-neatly">9. Keep attachments neatly</h2><p>In a markdown-based app like obsidian, it is easy to get confused about the location of an added attachment.</p><p>First, go to <strong>Settings &#x2192; Files and Links.</strong> Here, scroll down a bit to get to the <em>Default Location for New Attachments.</em> Set it to &#x201C;In subfolder under current folder&#x201D;. On the <em>Subfolder Name</em> option, type a name for the attachments folder. That&#x2019;s it!</p><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card kg-card-hascaption"><img src="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/02/save-attachments-to-subfolder.png" class="kg-image" alt="13 Super Useful Tips on Organizing Notes Better With Obsidian" loading="lazy" width="1270" height="458" srcset="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/size/w600/2024/02/save-attachments-to-subfolder.png 600w, https://itsfoss.com/content/images/size/w1000/2024/02/save-attachments-to-subfolder.png 1000w, https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/02/save-attachments-to-subfolder.png 1270w" sizes="(min-width: 720px) 720px"><figcaption><span style="white-space: pre-wrap;">Attachment Location</span></figcaption></figure><p>Now, whenever you copy and paste a file to a note, that attachment file will be saved to the attachments folder per directory.</p><div class="kg-card kg-callout-card kg-callout-card-green"><div class="kg-callout-emoji">&#x1F4A1;</div><div class="kg-callout-text">Whatever file you are adding to a note, try to give a better and unique name for easy retrieval in a later stage.</div></div><h2 id="10-work-with-interlinking-and-graph-view">10. Work with interlinking and graph View</h2><p>The knowledge graph is one of the main focuses of Obsidian. These are visual representation of the links of an article. The feature is particularly helpful, if you are using interconnected notes and need to know to which notes a particular note is connected to.</p><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card kg-card-hascaption"><img src="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/02/graph-view.png" class="kg-image" alt="13 Super Useful Tips on Organizing Notes Better With Obsidian" loading="lazy" width="1342" height="631" srcset="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/size/w600/2024/02/graph-view.png 600w, https://itsfoss.com/content/images/size/w1000/2024/02/graph-view.png 1000w, https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/02/graph-view.png 1342w" sizes="(min-width: 720px) 720px"><figcaption><span style="white-space: pre-wrap;">Graph View in Obsidian</span></figcaption></figure><p>You can either click on the Graph view button on the left panel, or use the shortcut CTRL + G. In order to link an article to another, make use of the quick links creation. Just type <code>[[</code> and then search for the note in the appearing box.</p><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card kg-card-hascaption"><img src="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/02/internal-link-to-note.gif" class="kg-image" alt="13 Super Useful Tips on Organizing Notes Better With Obsidian" loading="lazy" width="1128" height="470" srcset="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/size/w600/2024/02/internal-link-to-note.gif 600w, https://itsfoss.com/content/images/size/w1000/2024/02/internal-link-to-note.gif 1000w, https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/02/internal-link-to-note.gif 1128w" sizes="(min-width: 720px) 720px"><figcaption><span style="white-space: pre-wrap;">Adding Internal Link to Notes</span></figcaption></figure><h2 id="11-install-plugins">11. Install plugins</h2><p>Plugins make Obsidian ever more powerful. So, you should use them frequently. First, click on the settings button.</p><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card kg-card-hascaption"><img src="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/02/click-on-the-settings-button.png" class="kg-image" alt="13 Super Useful Tips on Organizing Notes Better With Obsidian" loading="lazy" width="1138" height="446" srcset="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/size/w600/2024/02/click-on-the-settings-button.png 600w, https://itsfoss.com/content/images/size/w1000/2024/02/click-on-the-settings-button.png 1000w, https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/02/click-on-the-settings-button.png 1138w" sizes="(min-width: 720px) 720px"><figcaption><span style="white-space: pre-wrap;">Click on the Settings Button</span></figcaption></figure><p>This will open the preferences window. Go to the Community Plugins tab and then click on the Turn on Community Plugins button.</p><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card kg-card-hascaption"><img src="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/02/install-community-plugins-in-obsidian.png" class="kg-image" alt="13 Super Useful Tips on Organizing Notes Better With Obsidian" loading="lazy" width="1304" height="753" srcset="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/size/w600/2024/02/install-community-plugins-in-obsidian.png 600w, https://itsfoss.com/content/images/size/w1000/2024/02/install-community-plugins-in-obsidian.png 1000w, https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/02/install-community-plugins-in-obsidian.png 1304w" sizes="(min-width: 720px) 720px"><figcaption><span style="white-space: pre-wrap;">Turn on Community Plugins</span></figcaption></figure><p>In the next window, click on the browse button to browse various community plugins.</p><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card kg-card-hascaption"><img src="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/02/click-on-browse-community-plugin.png" class="kg-image" alt="13 Super Useful Tips on Organizing Notes Better With Obsidian" loading="lazy" width="1167" height="545" srcset="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/size/w600/2024/02/click-on-browse-community-plugin.png 600w, https://itsfoss.com/content/images/size/w1000/2024/02/click-on-browse-community-plugin.png 1000w, https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/02/click-on-browse-community-plugin.png 1167w" sizes="(min-width: 720px) 720px"><figcaption><span style="white-space: pre-wrap;">Click the Browse button</span></figcaption></figure><p>You can click on any item to go to its installation page.</p><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card kg-card-hascaption"><img src="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/02/obsdiian-community-extensions-page.png" class="kg-image" alt="13 Super Useful Tips on Organizing Notes Better With Obsidian" loading="lazy" width="1268" height="663" srcset="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/size/w600/2024/02/obsdiian-community-extensions-page.png 600w, https://itsfoss.com/content/images/size/w1000/2024/02/obsdiian-community-extensions-page.png 1000w, https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/02/obsdiian-community-extensions-page.png 1268w" sizes="(min-width: 720px) 720px"><figcaption><span style="white-space: pre-wrap;">Community Plugins Page</span></figcaption></figure><p>Press the installation button there to install that plugin to your Obsidian version.</p><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card kg-card-hascaption"><img src="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/02/install-community-plugin-in-obsidian-using-install-button-1.png" class="kg-image" alt="13 Super Useful Tips on Organizing Notes Better With Obsidian" loading="lazy" width="1243" height="638" srcset="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/size/w600/2024/02/install-community-plugin-in-obsidian-using-install-button-1.png 600w, https://itsfoss.com/content/images/size/w1000/2024/02/install-community-plugin-in-obsidian-using-install-button-1.png 1000w, https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/02/install-community-plugin-in-obsidian-using-install-button-1.png 1243w" sizes="(min-width: 720px) 720px"><figcaption><span style="white-space: pre-wrap;">Install a Community Plugin</span></figcaption></figure><div class="kg-card kg-callout-card kg-callout-card-blue"><div class="kg-callout-emoji">&#x1F4CB;</div><div class="kg-callout-text">The extensions that are installed by you will be saved on a folder called<code spellcheck="false" style="white-space: pre-wrap;">.obsidian</code>in the local storage, where you created the vault. When you copy the whole vault and open that copied vault using Obsidian in another system, all the extensions will be installed there as well. It will ask, &#x201C;Do you trust the author&#x201D; while opening such a copied vault. So, you don&#x2019;t need to handpick extensions every time, you migrate from one system to another.</div></div><h2 id="12-enable-languagetool">12. Enable LanguageTool</h2><p><a href="https://shareasale.com/r.cfm?b=2365254&amp;u=747593&amp;m=138470&amp;urllink=&amp;afftrack=&amp;ref=itsfoss.com">LanguageTool</a> is an open source proofreading software. You can use it to avoid spelling and grammatical mistakes.</p><p>You can easily set up <a href="https://itsfoss.com/languagetool-review/">LanguageTool</a> on Obsidian so that it just works inside the app.</p><p>First, install the obsidian community plugin for LanguageTool.</p><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card kg-card-hascaption"><img src="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/02/install-language-tool-extension.png" class="kg-image" alt="13 Super Useful Tips on Organizing Notes Better With Obsidian" loading="lazy" width="1333" height="630" srcset="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/size/w600/2024/02/install-language-tool-extension.png 600w, https://itsfoss.com/content/images/size/w1000/2024/02/install-language-tool-extension.png 1000w, https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/02/install-language-tool-extension.png 1333w" sizes="(min-width: 720px) 720px"><figcaption><span style="white-space: pre-wrap;">Install LanguageTool Plugin</span></figcaption></figure><p>You can enable the plugins one installed using the enable button.</p><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card kg-card-hascaption"><img src="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/02/enable-languagetool-plugin-from-its-page.png" class="kg-image" alt="13 Super Useful Tips on Organizing Notes Better With Obsidian" loading="lazy" width="1333" height="630" srcset="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/size/w600/2024/02/enable-languagetool-plugin-from-its-page.png 600w, https://itsfoss.com/content/images/size/w1000/2024/02/enable-languagetool-plugin-from-its-page.png 1000w, https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/02/enable-languagetool-plugin-from-its-page.png 1333w" sizes="(min-width: 720px) 720px"><figcaption><span style="white-space: pre-wrap;">Enable LanguageTool Plugin from </span></figcaption></figure><p>The plugin can be enabled from the Community Plugins page on Obsidian Settings as well.</p><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card kg-card-hascaption"><img src="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/02/enable-obsidian-plugin-from-community-plugins-settings-1.png" class="kg-image" alt="13 Super Useful Tips on Organizing Notes Better With Obsidian" loading="lazy" width="1333" height="630" srcset="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/size/w600/2024/02/enable-obsidian-plugin-from-community-plugins-settings-1.png 600w, https://itsfoss.com/content/images/size/w1000/2024/02/enable-obsidian-plugin-from-community-plugins-settings-1.png 1000w, https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/02/enable-obsidian-plugin-from-community-plugins-settings-1.png 1333w" sizes="(min-width: 720px) 720px"><figcaption><span style="white-space: pre-wrap;">Enable Plugin from Community Plugins</span></figcaption></figure><p>You need to set a hotkey for the Language tool. For that, click on the Plus button as shown in the above screenshot. On the next screen, set some non-conflicting shortcut keys. You should set a hotkey for at least the Check Text function.</p><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card kg-card-hascaption"><img src="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/02/set-a-shortcut-key-for-check-text.png" class="kg-image" alt="13 Super Useful Tips on Organizing Notes Better With Obsidian" loading="lazy" width="1327" height="591" srcset="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/size/w600/2024/02/set-a-shortcut-key-for-check-text.png 600w, https://itsfoss.com/content/images/size/w1000/2024/02/set-a-shortcut-key-for-check-text.png 1000w, https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/02/set-a-shortcut-key-for-check-text.png 1327w" sizes="(min-width: 720px) 720px"><figcaption><span style="white-space: pre-wrap;">Set Hotkey to Check Text</span></figcaption></figure><p>You can now disable the spell check by Obsidian since it&apos;s not necessary.</p><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card kg-card-hascaption"><img src="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/02/disable-spell-check-of-obsidian.png" class="kg-image" alt="13 Super Useful Tips on Organizing Notes Better With Obsidian" loading="lazy" width="1333" height="630" srcset="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/size/w600/2024/02/disable-spell-check-of-obsidian.png 600w, https://itsfoss.com/content/images/size/w1000/2024/02/disable-spell-check-of-obsidian.png 1000w, https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/02/disable-spell-check-of-obsidian.png 1333w" sizes="(min-width: 720px) 720px"><figcaption><span style="white-space: pre-wrap;">Disable Obsidian Spell Check</span></figcaption></figure><p>That&#x2019;s it. Now, when you need to check a text manually, press the hotkey you set.</p><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card kg-card-hascaption"><img src="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/02/languagetool-showing-errors.png" class="kg-image" alt="13 Super Useful Tips on Organizing Notes Better With Obsidian" loading="lazy" width="1327" height="591" srcset="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/size/w600/2024/02/languagetool-showing-errors.png 600w, https://itsfoss.com/content/images/size/w1000/2024/02/languagetool-showing-errors.png 1000w, https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/02/languagetool-showing-errors.png 1327w" sizes="(min-width: 720px) 720px"><figcaption><span style="white-space: pre-wrap;">LanguageTool spotting errors in Text</span></figcaption></figure><h2 id="13-set-an-icon-for-obsidian-appimage-only-for-linux-users">13. Set an icon for Obsidian AppImage (only for Linux users)</h2><p>If you are using Obsidian AppImage on GNOME, you will notice that, the Obsidian Icon is missing from the GNOME Dash. You can make it appear on the dash by placing the contents given below to a file called&#xA0;<code>Obsidian.desktop</code>&#xA0;in the&#xA0;<code>~/.local/share/applications/</code>&#xA0;directory.</p><pre><code>[Desktop Entry]
  100. Type=Application
  101. Name=Obsidian
  102. Comment=Knowledge Management Application
  103. Exec=&lt;/path/to/the.obsidian/appimage/file&gt;
  104. Icon=&lt;/path/to/the/required/icon/file.png&gt;
  105. Terminal=false
  106. StartupWMClass=obsidian</code></pre><h2 id="conclusion">Conclusion</h2><p>Even though Obsidian uses Markdown, and it is accessible through any platform that has Markdown support, there is a small amount of vendor lock in involved here. It is in the form of plugins and some built-in content blocks.</p><p>It is not a specific issue to Obsidian. Even open-source editors like Joplin have such issues. When you install plugins and other tools specific to an editor, you may not find it accessible on other editors, that do not support these plugins.</p><p>You may already be familiar with some of these Obsidian tips that I mentioned here. I am eager to know if you &apos;discovered&apos; something new. Please let me know in the comment section. </p>]]></content:encoded></item><item><title><![CDATA[Bluesky vs. Mastodon: Which Twitter Alternative Should You Choose?]]></title><description><![CDATA[Mastodon is one of the most-loved open-source social media platforms. But, what's different with Bluesky? Let us find out here.]]></description><link>https://itsfoss.com/bluesky-vs-mastodon/</link><guid isPermaLink="false">65d451a7d494f0097583b055</guid><category><![CDATA[Comparison]]></category><dc:creator><![CDATA[Ankush Das]]></dc:creator><pubDate>Sun, 25 Feb 2024 09:55:18 GMT</pubDate><media:content url="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/02/bluesky-mastodon-ft.png" medium="image"/><content:encoded><![CDATA[<img src="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/02/bluesky-mastodon-ft.png" alt="Bluesky vs. Mastodon: Which Twitter Alternative Should You Choose?"><p>Bluesky and Mastodon are two social media networks with an aim to provide a decentralized platform for users.</p><p>As microblogging platforms, they also wanted to pitch themselves as a Twitter alternative (<em>primarily</em>) when they started.</p><p><em>But, have they succeeded in their goals? What do they offer differently? What more do they have in common? And, should you consider using them?</em></p><p>Here, I shall compare Bluesky and Mastodon to give you all those answers.</p><h2 id="origins">Origins</h2><p><strong>Bluesky started as a </strong><a href="https://twitter.com/jack/status/1204766078468911106?ref=news.itsfoss.com" rel="noreferrer"><strong>team</strong></a><strong> to build an open and decentralized standard for social media in 2019</strong>. And, Jack Dorsey (Co-founder of Twitter) at the time wanted their platform to be the first client utilizing the protocol.</p><p>Of course, we all know what happened after that &#x2014; Elon Musk took over Twitter, and now it&apos;s called X.</p><p>The plan for an open standard for X (formerly known as Twitter) vanished into thin air.</p><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card"><img src="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/02/bluesky-cat.jpg" class="kg-image" alt="Bluesky vs. Mastodon: Which Twitter Alternative Should You Choose?" loading="lazy" width="1463" height="809" srcset="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/size/w600/2024/02/bluesky-cat.jpg 600w, https://itsfoss.com/content/images/size/w1000/2024/02/bluesky-cat.jpg 1000w, https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/02/bluesky-cat.jpg 1463w" sizes="(min-width: 720px) 720px"></figure><p>Since 2021, Bluesky is an independent company backed by Jack Dorsey. </p><div class="kg-card kg-callout-card kg-callout-card-green"><div class="kg-callout-emoji">&#x1F4A1;</div><div class="kg-callout-text">Bluesky open-sourced the client code for their platform back in 2023 with an invite-only system for the website. Fast-forward to 2024, it is now open for all.</div></div><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card"><img src="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/02/mastodon-ui.jpg" class="kg-image" alt="Bluesky vs. Mastodon: Which Twitter Alternative Should You Choose?" loading="lazy" width="1573" height="1260" srcset="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/size/w600/2024/02/mastodon-ui.jpg 600w, https://itsfoss.com/content/images/size/w1000/2024/02/mastodon-ui.jpg 1000w, https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/02/mastodon-ui.jpg 1573w" sizes="(min-width: 720px) 720px"></figure><p><strong>Mastodon launched as a decentralized microblogging platform by Eugen Rochko, back in 2016</strong>. Initially, it was more of a hit-and-miss, trying to mimic Twitter in some form (like posts were called &quot;Toots&quot;).</p><p>Later in 2022, amidst the Twitter chaos, it got the spotlight to help the platform grow, and evolve faster than ever before.</p><h2 id="the-technology">The Technology</h2><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card"><img src="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/02/at-protocol-github.jpg" class="kg-image" alt="Bluesky vs. Mastodon: Which Twitter Alternative Should You Choose?" loading="lazy" width="1099" height="907" srcset="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/size/w600/2024/02/at-protocol-github.jpg 600w, https://itsfoss.com/content/images/size/w1000/2024/02/at-protocol-github.jpg 1000w, https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/02/at-protocol-github.jpg 1099w" sizes="(min-width: 720px) 720px"></figure><p><strong>Bluesky is an open-source client app built on top of an open, </strong><a href="https://github.com/bluesky-social/atproto?ref=itsfoss.com" rel="noreferrer"><strong>AT Protocol</strong></a><strong> </strong>&#x2014; a federated protocol to help anyone build an open social media network.</p><p>The client and the protocol are built by the same Bluesky team. </p><p>The protocol wants social media networks built on top of it to behave like the traditional times, where anyone could use RSS to subscribe to blogs.</p><p>However, unlike having a traditional centralized authority, the AT protocol provides you with a federated network where you can <strong>easily port your accounts</strong>.</p><p>Yes, you heard that right &#x1F92F;</p><p>One of the unique traits of Bluesky&apos;s protocol is to give you the ability to migrate your social account to any other social media network utilizing the same protocol.</p><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card"><img src="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/02/at-protocol.jpg" class="kg-image" alt="Bluesky vs. Mastodon: Which Twitter Alternative Should You Choose?" loading="lazy" width="1011" height="729" srcset="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/size/w600/2024/02/at-protocol.jpg 600w, https://itsfoss.com/content/images/size/w1000/2024/02/at-protocol.jpg 1000w, https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/02/at-protocol.jpg 1011w" sizes="(min-width: 720px) 720px"></figure><p>They also want the standard to be compatible with Mastodon&apos;s ActivityPub protocol, which would allow them to interconnect. To get all the technical bits of the protocol, you can refer to the <a href="https://atproto.com/specs/atp?ref=itsfoss.com" rel="noreferrer">documentation</a>.</p><div class="kg-card kg-callout-card kg-callout-card-blue"><div class="kg-callout-emoji">&#x1F4CB;</div><div class="kg-callout-text">The federation functionality in Bluesky in its <a href="https://docs.bsky.app/blog/self-host-federation?ref=itsfoss.com" rel="noreferrer">early access stage</a>, with some limitations for self-hosters.</div></div><p>Mastodon is a<strong> free and open-source software</strong> <strong>based on the federated ActivityPub protocol</strong>. </p><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card"><img src="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/02/mastodon-github-page.jpg" class="kg-image" alt="Bluesky vs. Mastodon: Which Twitter Alternative Should You Choose?" loading="lazy" width="1070" height="518" srcset="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/size/w600/2024/02/mastodon-github-page.jpg 600w, https://itsfoss.com/content/images/size/w1000/2024/02/mastodon-github-page.jpg 1000w, https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/02/mastodon-github-page.jpg 1070w" sizes="(min-width: 720px) 720px"></figure><p>Unlike Bluesky, you can self-host it without any restrictions, and spin up a new Mastodon instance as per your requirements. Follow its <a href="https://docs.joinmastodon.org/user/run-your-own/?ref=itsfoss.com" rel="noreferrer">documentation</a> to know more.</p><figure class="kg-card kg-embed-card"><iframe width="200" height="113" src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/IPSbNdBmWKE?feature=oembed" frameborder="0" allow="accelerometer; autoplay; clipboard-write; encrypted-media; gyroscope; picture-in-picture; web-share" allowfullscreen title="What is Mastodon?"></iframe></figure><p>Even though ActivityPub protocol does not feature &quot;<em>account portability</em>&quot;, more types of social media platforms support it. And, any site who uses it, will be available in the federated network.</p><h2 id="corporate-vs-non-profit">Corporate vs Non-Profit</h2><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card"><img src="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/02/corporate-community.png" class="kg-image" alt="Bluesky vs. Mastodon: Which Twitter Alternative Should You Choose?" loading="lazy" width="800" height="450" srcset="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/size/w600/2024/02/corporate-community.png 600w, https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/02/corporate-community.png 800w" sizes="(min-width: 720px) 720px"></figure><p>Unfortunately, <strong>Bluesky is a corporate-backed product</strong>. And, we know what happened to Twitter &#x1F926;&#x200D;&#x2642;&#xFE0F;</p><p>Sure, they have made it open-source, and could soon let you host your Bluesky instance like Mastodon seamlessly. Until that happens, Bluesky is a controlled entity with Jack Dorsey as one of the board members.</p><p>Even if they complete their federation network and let you self-host an instance easily, <strong>Bluesky as the primary platform can have advertisements</strong> and other monetization strategies.</p><p>The <strong>Mastodon project is a non-profit German-based company</strong>. Unlike Bluesky, the development is crowdfunded, and does not rely on a couple of investors.</p><p>Numerous companies donate to Mastodon, along with users through Patreon.</p><p><strong>The official Mastodon platform does not need to entertain any kind of monetization strategy</strong> with advertisements.</p><h2 id="the-target-users">The Target Users</h2><p>While they both set out to provide a decentralized platform, not everyone is a fan.</p><p>Some people do not like Mastodon, and some do not like the idea of Bluesky. It is only fair, everyone has their preferences. For some, it could be the user experience, and for others it could be the demographics of users they interact with.</p><p>Bluesky gives a <strong>Twitter-like layout,</strong> and it does not feel fundamentally different.</p><p>So, anyone who is comfortable with the idea of a similar UI, and confident about a platform backed by Jack Dorsey, can give Bluesky a try.</p><p>However, if you want a <strong>change, and a community-powered platform</strong>, Mastodon is the better choice for you.</p><h2 id="user-experience">User Experience</h2><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card"><img src="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/02/mastodon-homepage.jpg" class="kg-image" alt="Bluesky vs. Mastodon: Which Twitter Alternative Should You Choose?" loading="lazy" width="1200" height="985" srcset="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/size/w600/2024/02/mastodon-homepage.jpg 600w, https://itsfoss.com/content/images/size/w1000/2024/02/mastodon-homepage.jpg 1000w, https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/02/mastodon-homepage.jpg 1200w" sizes="(min-width: 720px) 720px"></figure><p><strong>It is no surprise that Mastodon offers a mature user experience. </strong></p><p>Mastodon has been around for longer, and has been evolving with the community requirements pretty well.</p><p><strong>No special algorithm dictates what you see in the feed</strong> meant for the public. If a post has a higher engagement (likes+reshares), you will be more likely to see it first.</p><p>Of course, for your feed, posts by the people you follow should show up chronologically. Not to forget, the social media experience will vary depending on the Mastodon instance you signed up on.</p><p>Some instances (servers) have more active users, with posts that you might like better. </p><p>The user interface presents similar interaction buttons to X, yet feels different, which is a good thing. Not to forget, you get dark/light modes to tweak from the settings.</p><p><strong>Moreover, the moderation is managed by the humans</strong> responsible for a particular instance. So, like every human being, you can choose to stay with the ones who agree with your thoughts and idealogies.</p><p><strong>Bluesky tries to mimic the Twitter experience as closely as possible.</strong></p><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card"><img src="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/02/bsky-home.jpg" class="kg-image" alt="Bluesky vs. Mastodon: Which Twitter Alternative Should You Choose?" loading="lazy" width="1463" height="874" srcset="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/size/w600/2024/02/bsky-home.jpg 600w, https://itsfoss.com/content/images/size/w1000/2024/02/bsky-home.jpg 1000w, https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/02/bsky-home.jpg 1463w" sizes="(min-width: 720px) 720px"></figure><p>The user interface, the layout, everything should make you feel right at home as a Twitter user.</p><p>It gives you the option to choose an algorithm (feed) to follow as per your requirements. You can limit your feed to the people you follow (seeing every interaction with them) or pick a custom feed that learns what you like.</p><p>If you are looking for the federated network, and hosting your data, it is possible with Bluesky, but it&apos;s a work-in-progress at the moment. So, you need to explore their <a href="https://docs.bsky.app/blog/self-host-federation?ref=itsfoss.com" rel="noreferrer">documentation</a> to make it happen.</p><p><strong>The moderation is automated</strong>, which is not the best way to go.</p><h2 id="privacy">Privacy</h2><p>You can sign up on both the platforms without needing to share your phone number. So, that&apos;s an edge over any other social media network that requires it.</p><p><em>What about how they handle your data and the way you share/control information access?</em></p><p>Let me highlight more about them, starting with <strong>Mastodon&apos;s privacy features</strong>:</p><p>You can push public posts or posts limited to your followers, and interact with a particular follower using private mentions.</p><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card"><img src="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/02/itsfoss-mastodon-post.jpg" class="kg-image" alt="Bluesky vs. Mastodon: Which Twitter Alternative Should You Choose?" loading="lazy" width="1152" height="619" srcset="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/size/w600/2024/02/itsfoss-mastodon-post.jpg 600w, https://itsfoss.com/content/images/size/w1000/2024/02/itsfoss-mastodon-post.jpg 1000w, https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/02/itsfoss-mastodon-post.jpg 1152w" sizes="(min-width: 720px) 720px"></figure><p>For your data, you can request an archive and export it in an ActivityPub compatible format. You can also easily move your data to another instance or migrate the account to another handle (with some limitations).</p><p>The <a href="https://mastodon.social/privacy-policy?ref=itsfoss.com" rel="noreferrer">privacy policy for Mastodon</a> as a software is simple and easy-to-understand.</p><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card"><img src="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/02/mastodon-data.jpg" class="kg-image" alt="Bluesky vs. Mastodon: Which Twitter Alternative Should You Choose?" loading="lazy" width="1458" height="1015" srcset="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/size/w600/2024/02/mastodon-data.jpg 600w, https://itsfoss.com/content/images/size/w1000/2024/02/mastodon-data.jpg 1000w, https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/02/mastodon-data.jpg 1458w" sizes="(min-width: 720px) 720px"></figure><p>Mastodon also offers 2FA. So, you can secure your account in any instance. While you cannot make your account private, you can set up posts to automatically delete, and get the ability to approve followers.</p><p>With Bluesky, you get a feature to make your account private for users who aren&apos;t logged in. However, the data will remain public to any other server connected to the network.</p><p>The data export option is in its beta phase. So, it is tricky to get all your data downloaded at once.</p><p>Moreover, no two-factor authentication method is available with Bluesky, and this could be a bummer for most.</p><p>When it comes to the privacy policy, Bluesky does clarify it that they may use your personal information for marketing/research and with third-party services. That being said, it is not a good privacy policy for web service in 2024.</p><p><em>&#x1F4AC; What are your thoughts on Bluesky versus Mastodon? Let me know in the comments below.</em></p><p></p><p></p>]]></content:encoded></item><item><title><![CDATA[PipeWire vs PulseAudio: What's the Difference?]]></title><description><![CDATA[Classic PulseAudio or the new PipeWire? What's the difference? What's the buzz about Pipewire? Learn in this explainer.]]></description><link>https://itsfoss.com/pipewire-vs-pulseaudio/</link><guid isPermaLink="false">658285d4f864b805124cc4c4</guid><category><![CDATA[Explain]]></category><dc:creator><![CDATA[Sagar Sharma]]></dc:creator><pubDate>Fri, 23 Feb 2024 10:44:45 GMT</pubDate><media:content url="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/01/pipewire-vs-pulseaudio.png" medium="image"/><content:encoded><![CDATA[<img src="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/01/pipewire-vs-pulseaudio.png" alt="PipeWire vs PulseAudio: What&apos;s the Difference?"><p>If you are active in the Linux community, you will often come across the debate on what&apos;s better: PipeWire or PulseAudio?</p><p>Some users prefer going back to PulseAudio, while others find solving their decade-old audio problems much better. So the question here is: <strong>what is the difference between PipeWire and PulseAudio?</strong> &#x1F914;</p><p>Sure, PipeWire is a relatively new technology, it must have a purpose and which is why it is replacing PulseAudio for many Linux distributions. This does not mean PulseAudio doesn&apos;t work whatsoever. It has served very well to its users, but surely has its pros and cons. </p><p>Fret not, I shall highlight everything essential regarding <strong>the</strong> <strong>multimedia framework PipeWire</strong> and <strong>the</strong> <strong>sound server program, PulseAudio.</strong></p><h2 id="the-basics-of-audio-on-linux">The basics of audio on Linux </h2><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card"><img src="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/02/linux-audio-illustration.png" class="kg-image" alt="PipeWire vs PulseAudio: What&apos;s the Difference?" loading="lazy" width="800" height="450" srcset="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/size/w600/2024/02/linux-audio-illustration.png 600w, https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/02/linux-audio-illustration.png 800w" sizes="(min-width: 720px) 720px"></figure><p>Nowadays, every motherboard (PC/laptop) has an internal sound card, a hardware component that is used to convert analog audio signals to digital signals for recording and streaming purposes. </p><p>Sure, some can have an external sound card for audio, but that is a rare sight to see.</p><p>So, we need some sort of driver (or middleware) to interact with the hardware and work with applications like <a href="https://itsfoss.com/best-audio-editors-linux/" rel="noreferrer">audio editors on Linux</a>, right? </p><p>And that&apos;s where the role of ALSA (Advanced Linux Sound Architecture) comes into play.</p><p>ALSA (baked into the Linux kernel) provides necessary device drives to read and write from the sound card. You will find multiple applications that directly use the ALSA such as <a href="https://itsfoss.com/tag/vlc/" rel="noreferrer">VLC</a> for output, and Audacity, which can directly record audio through ALSA. </p><p>The point here is many applications use ALSA API directly without the need for an audio server like PulseAudio or PipeWire. </p><p>But you can&apos;t rely on ALSA as it will take control of the entire sound device, so you can only use it to handle one application at a time. So no hardware multiplexing. </p><p><strong>Due to this reason, we require an audio server like PulseAudio or PipeWire. </strong></p><p>The arrival of <strong>PulseAudio solved three major problems</strong> that we had with the ALSA:</p><ul><li>Play audio from multiple applications at the same time.</li><li>It came with advanced features like mixing multiple audio streams, audio streaming, per application volume control, etc. </li><li>Ease of use. </li></ul><p>So here&apos;s what the basic audio structure looks like based on prior explanation:</p><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card"><img src="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2023/12/How-audio-works-in-Linux.png" class="kg-image" alt="PipeWire vs PulseAudio: What&apos;s the Difference?" loading="lazy" width="935" height="246" srcset="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/size/w600/2023/12/How-audio-works-in-Linux.png 600w, https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2023/12/How-audio-works-in-Linux.png 935w" sizes="(min-width: 720px) 720px"></figure><p>Now that we have an idea of how the audio works on Linux. Let us dive in deeper to know the difference between the two audio servers that make our Linux experience better.</p><p><strong>Suggested Read &#x1F4D6;</strong></p><figure class="kg-card kg-bookmark-card"><a class="kg-bookmark-container" href="https://itsfoss.com/record-streaming-audio/"><div class="kg-bookmark-content"><div class="kg-bookmark-title">How to Record Streaming Audio in Ubuntu Linux</div><div class="kg-bookmark-description">Learn to record voice-over or audio from any streaming music source in Ubuntu using these nifty tools.</div><div class="kg-bookmark-metadata"><img class="kg-bookmark-icon" src="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/size/w256h256/2022/12/android-chrome-192x192.png" alt="PipeWire vs PulseAudio: What&apos;s the Difference?"><span class="kg-bookmark-author">It&apos;s FOSS</span><span class="kg-bookmark-publisher">Abhishek Prakash</span></div></div><div class="kg-bookmark-thumbnail"><img src="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/wordpress/2013/07/how-to-record-audio-in-ubuntu-linux.png" alt="PipeWire vs PulseAudio: What&apos;s the Difference?"></div></a></figure><h2 id="comparing-audio-servers-pipewire-vs-pulseaudio">Comparing audio servers: PipeWire vs PulseAudio</h2><p>We need to know what they are, how they work, and the feature-set to understand how they differ.</p><p>Sure, the easy part is &#x2014; one is newer tech and the other one is an older tech.</p><p>Let me highlight the rest of the details below, including a piece of interesting information related to audio servers.</p><div class="kg-card kg-callout-card kg-callout-card-green"><div class="kg-callout-emoji">&#x1F4A1;</div><div class="kg-callout-text">JACK (JACK Audio Connection Kit), an audio server made for professional audio artists that solved one problem with PulseAudio: redirecting output to any input. In simple terms, it worked like a physical patch panel.<br><br>An older tech to PulseAudio. The reason it didn&apos;t gain popularity is it was complex to use and was incompatible with PulseAudio.</div></div><h2 id="pulseaudio-the-old-guardian-of-linux-audio-experience">PulseAudio: The old guardian of Linux audio experience</h2><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card"><img src="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/02/pulseaudio-ft.png" class="kg-image" alt="PipeWire vs PulseAudio: What&apos;s the Difference?" loading="lazy" width="800" height="450" srcset="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/size/w600/2024/02/pulseaudio-ft.png 600w, https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/02/pulseaudio-ft.png 800w" sizes="(min-width: 720px) 720px"></figure><p><a href="https://www.freedesktop.org/wiki/Software/PulseAudio/?ref=itsfoss.com" rel="noreferrer"><strong>PulseAudio</strong></a><strong> is a super simple audio server designed for Linux systems. It was initially known as &quot;Polypaudio&quot;, and then later renamed.</strong></p><p><strong>It was created as a modern alternative to ESD (Enlightened Sound Daemon). ESD was the sound server maintained as part of the GNOME project, as a tech to unify sound drivers for all kinds of architectures.</strong></p><p>If it is a POSIX-compliant operating system (distro), PulseAudio can be a sound server system for it. </p><p>Furthermore, PulseAudio comes with various plugin modules, which makes it very capable for a lot of use-cases. Not just limited to desktops, PulseAudio is also used in various mobile devices.</p><h2 id="pipewire-getting-the-best-of-pulseaudio-and-jack">PipeWire: Getting the best of PulseAudio and JACK </h2><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card"><img src="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/02/pipewire-ft.png" class="kg-image" alt="PipeWire vs PulseAudio: What&apos;s the Difference?" loading="lazy" width="800" height="450" srcset="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/size/w600/2024/02/pipewire-ft.png 600w, https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/02/pipewire-ft.png 800w" sizes="(min-width: 720px) 720px"></figure><p><a href="https://www.pipewire.org/?ref=itsfoss.com" rel="noreferrer"><strong>PipeWire</strong></a><strong> is a multimedia framework (and an audio server program) that managed to provide advanced features to work with modern audio devices while being a simple utility for end-users.</strong></p><p>Remember, what I highlighted about JACK above? </p><p>It offered great features, but had compatibility issues with the existing PulseAudio setup. If that was not enough, using it was complex, making it difficult to recommend unless you were an audio professional. On the other hand, PulseAudio was user-friendly and had legacy support, but it had its issues.</p><p>So we needed a simple utility, compatible with other audio servers like PulseAudio, addressing all the PulseAudio issues, and offering a better feature set.</p><p>That&apos;s where PipeWire came to the rescue.</p><p>PipeWire is also designed in a way to provide better security when interacting with audio/video devices through containerized applications, supporting Flatpak primarily.</p><p>Not just providing better compatibility with newer packages, it also supports Wayland.</p><h2 id="how-do-they-work">How Do They Work?</h2><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card"><img src="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/02/pulseaudio-pipewire-works.png" class="kg-image" alt="PipeWire vs PulseAudio: What&apos;s the Difference?" loading="lazy" width="800" height="450" srcset="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/size/w600/2024/02/pulseaudio-pipewire-works.png 600w, https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/02/pulseaudio-pipewire-works.png 800w" sizes="(min-width: 720px) 720px"></figure><p><strong>PulseAudio</strong> utilizes a client/server architecture to function. There can be different clients with various APIs, and local/remote PulseAudio servers.</p><p>And, all of it should work flawlessly with the help of modules. Yes, PulseAudio functions through its modules, it is not much by itself but just a daemon for API and hosting modules.</p><p>By default, PulseAudio uses the configuration available system-wide. However, you can provide a custom configuration file in the home directory, and the next time you boot up, it will utilize that.</p><p><strong>PipeWire</strong> works differently without primarily relying on a module system. The daemon is responsible for processing, and a session manager uses the media graph (info on devices, port, and nodes) to decide how to link them all.</p><p>Unlike PulseAudio tailored only for consumer audio, PipeWire fulfills all kinds of low-latency requirements for everyday users and professionals (as an alternative to JACK).</p><p>I went through hundreds of community posts where users have praised PipeWire for fixing the crackling sound, or they found the perfect fit for their JACK replacement with ease of use and better reliability. </p><p>So, it works like it should. And, technically, a superior choice for many.</p><h2 id="key-features">Key Features</h2><p>PulseAudio is still in use, even if it is being replaced by PipeWire. </p><p>Some of the best features that make PulseAudio a usable tech include:</p><ul><li>Ability to adjust the volume for each software independently</li><li>Support for audio multiplexing, letting users play audio from multiple applications at the same time</li><li>Audio streaming over the TCP server</li><li>The zero-copy memory architecture of PulseAudio lets you transfer audio data between applications and audio devices without unnecessary copying or buffering for lower latency and better resource management</li><li>Provides compatibility layers for existing applications to work with it without any modifications</li><li>Variety of modules to provide all kinds of essential functionalities</li></ul><p>PipeWire wins in the feature-set game, which is why it is being preferred over PulseAudio.</p><p>So, what are the things that make it stand out? Here, they are:</p><ul><li>A unified solution that aims to replace PulseAudio and JACK to provide a solution for both basic and professional users</li><li>Better support for low latency</li><li>Compatible with PulseAudio and JACK APIs.</li><li>Virtual support for all the Bluetooth codecs by default</li><li>Efficient at merging devices and resampling</li><li>It can dynamically switch between different buffer sizes to adapt to the different latency requirements of different audio applications</li><li>Flatpak application support</li><li>Wayland desktop support</li></ul><p><strong>Suggested Read &#x1F4D6;</strong></p><figure class="kg-card kg-bookmark-card"><a class="kg-bookmark-container" href="https://itsfoss.com/best-audio-editors-linux/"><div class="kg-bookmark-content"><div class="kg-bookmark-title">Top 5 Best Audio Editors for Linux [2023]</div><div class="kg-bookmark-description">These awesome free and open source audio editors let you create amazing music in Linux.</div><div class="kg-bookmark-metadata"><img class="kg-bookmark-icon" src="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/size/w256h256/2022/12/android-chrome-192x192.png" alt="PipeWire vs PulseAudio: What&apos;s the Difference?"><span class="kg-bookmark-author">It&apos;s FOSS</span><span class="kg-bookmark-publisher">Ankush Das</span></div></div><div class="kg-bookmark-thumbnail"><img src="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/wordpress/2019/01/linux-audio-editors.jpeg" alt="PipeWire vs PulseAudio: What&apos;s the Difference?"></div></a></figure><h2 id="whats-my-take-on-pulseaudio-vs-pipewire">What&apos;s my take on PulseAudio vs. PipeWire?</h2><p>I&apos;ll start with &quot;If it ain&apos;t broke, don&apos;t fix it&quot;.&#x1F60E;</p><p>Not every Linux distribution has switched to the PipeWire yet, and some users are enjoying audio like they used to do with PulseAudio. I use PulseAudio as it works just fine with my 5.1 surround setup. So, I don&apos;t have any reason to make a switch. </p><p>For users with modern Bluetooth headphones or if you have a poor audio experience with PulseAudio, you can switch to PipeWire.</p><p>The easiest way to do that is to pick a Linux distribution that offers PipeWire out of the box.</p><p>If you want to try PipeWire out of curiosity, make sure to <a href="https://itsfoss.com/backup-restore-linux-timeshift/" rel="noreferrer">create a snapshot of your working system</a> before manually installing it:</p><figure class="kg-card kg-bookmark-card"><a class="kg-bookmark-container" href="https://itsfoss.com/backup-restore-linux-timeshift/"><div class="kg-bookmark-content"><div class="kg-bookmark-title">Guide to Backup and Restore Linux Systems with Timeshift</div><div class="kg-bookmark-description">This beginner&#x2019;s guide shows you how to back up and restore Linux systems easily with the Timeshift application.</div><div class="kg-bookmark-metadata"><img class="kg-bookmark-icon" src="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/size/w256h256/2022/12/android-chrome-192x192.png" alt="PipeWire vs PulseAudio: What&apos;s the Difference?"><span class="kg-bookmark-author">It&apos;s FOSS</span><span class="kg-bookmark-publisher">Abhishek Prakash</span></div></div><div class="kg-bookmark-thumbnail"><img src="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2023/07/data-backup-with-timeshift.png" alt="PipeWire vs PulseAudio: What&apos;s the Difference?"></div></a></figure>]]></content:encoded></item><item><title><![CDATA[FOSS Weekly #24.08: Ubuntu 24.04 Features, Arkane Linux, grep, Fedora COSMIC and More]]></title><description><![CDATA[Check out the promising new features in Ubuntu 24.04 LTS and a new immutable distro.]]></description><link>https://itsfoss.com/newsletter/foss-weekly-24-08/</link><guid isPermaLink="false">65d44334d494f0097583b00c</guid><category><![CDATA[Newsletter ✉️]]></category><dc:creator><![CDATA[Abhishek Prakash]]></dc:creator><pubDate>Thu, 22 Feb 2024 04:49:19 GMT</pubDate><media:content url="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/02/foss-weekly-24-08.png" medium="image"/><content:encoded><![CDATA[<img src="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/02/foss-weekly-24-08.png" alt="FOSS Weekly #24.08: Ubuntu 24.04 Features, Arkane Linux, grep, Fedora COSMIC and More"><p>It seems that Fedora is gearing up for more novel variants. Last week, I shared the news about Fedora Atomic spin and now they are considering a COSMIC spin. COSMIC is a new, Rust-based desktop environment by Pop!_OS. </p><p>The more, the merrier? </p><p><strong>&#x1F4AC; Let&apos;s see what else you get in this edition of FOSS Weekly:</strong></p><ul><li>Arcane Linux brings a unique touch to immutability.</li><li>A neat to-do app that doesn&apos;t get in the way.</li><li>The beginnings of a COSMIC-flavored Fedora spin.</li><li>Features that make Ubuntu 24.04 LTS worth the wait.</li><li>And other Linux news, videos and, of course, memes!</li></ul><hr><h2 id="%F0%9F%93%B0-linux-news">&#x1F4F0; Linux news</h2><ul><li>Mozilla has<a href="https://news.itsfoss.com/mozilla-firefox-revival/?ref=itsfoss.com" rel="noreferrer"> laid off</a> staff to focus more on their core offerings.</li><li>A COSMIC spin of Fedora may soon <a href="https://news.itsfoss.com/fedora-cosmic-spin/?ref=itsfoss.com" rel="noreferrer">become a reality</a> if the SIG moves forward.</li><li>Google&apos;s Magika AI-powered file-type identification tool has been made <a href="https://news.itsfoss.com/google-magika-ai/?ref=itsfoss.com" rel="noreferrer">open-source</a>.</li><li>Many <a href="https://news.itsfoss.com/bluesky-mastodon-bridge/?ref=itsfoss.com" rel="noreferrer">resorted to mobbing</a> a developer who just wanted to bridge Mastodon and Bluesky.</li><li>We have been promised a kernel <a href="https://news.itsfoss.com/linux-gaming-boost-driver/?ref=itsfoss.com">patch that boosts Linux gaming performance by 50%</a>. </li></ul><p>Ubuntu 24.04 LTS is just a few months out. Here are <a href="https://news.itsfoss.com/ubuntu-24-04-features/?ref=itsfoss.com" rel="noreferrer">7 features</a> that make it a contender for the cool distros club.</p><figure class="kg-card kg-bookmark-card"><a class="kg-bookmark-container" href="https://news.itsfoss.com/ubuntu-24-04-features/?ref=itsfoss.com"><div class="kg-bookmark-content"><div class="kg-bookmark-title">7 Features That Make Ubuntu 24.04 LTS Cool</div><div class="kg-bookmark-description">Curious what Ubuntu&#x2019;s next big LTS release brings? We tell you all about it here.</div><div class="kg-bookmark-metadata"><img class="kg-bookmark-icon" src="https://news.itsfoss.com/content/images/size/w256h256/2022/08/android-chrome-192x192.png" alt="FOSS Weekly #24.08: Ubuntu 24.04 Features, Arkane Linux, grep, Fedora COSMIC and More"><span class="kg-bookmark-author">It&apos;s FOSS News</span><span class="kg-bookmark-publisher">Ankush Das</span></div></div><div class="kg-bookmark-thumbnail"><img src="https://news.itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/02/ubuntu-24-04-release.jpg" alt="FOSS Weekly #24.08: Ubuntu 24.04 Features, Arkane Linux, grep, Fedora COSMIC and More"></div></a></figure><hr><h2 id="%F0%9F%8C%90-follow-us-on-google-news">&#x1F310; Follow us on Google News</h2><p>By the way, if you use Google,&#xA0;<a href="https://news.google.com/publications/CAAiENHoh-T8yP9Q8Qywor2dwGkqFAgKIhDR6Ifk_Mj_UPEMsKK9ncBp?ref=itsfoss.com">follow It&apos;s FOSS on Google News</a>&#xA0;to get trusted It&apos;s FOSS content before other websites in Google search.</p><figure class="kg-card kg-bookmark-card"><a class="kg-bookmark-container" href="https://news.google.com/publications/CAAiENHoh-T8yP9Q8Qywor2dwGkqFAgKIhDR6Ifk_Mj_UPEMsKK9ncBp?ref=itsfoss.com"><div class="kg-bookmark-content"><div class="kg-bookmark-title">It&#x2019;s FOSS - Google News</div><div class="kg-bookmark-description">Read full articles from It&#x2019;s FOSS and explore endless topics, magazines and more on your phone or tablet with Google News.</div><div class="kg-bookmark-metadata"><img class="kg-bookmark-icon" src="https://ssl.gstatic.com/gnews/logo/google_news_192.png" alt="FOSS Weekly #24.08: Ubuntu 24.04 Features, Arkane Linux, grep, Fedora COSMIC and More"><span class="kg-bookmark-author">Google News</span></div></div><div class="kg-bookmark-thumbnail"><img src="https://lh3.googleusercontent.com/8BtTTnoAEYry0KuwC0nPq5U_GERPzo_DTNxmR3FEzmJQxtUaUndM6ydGtZSnIorEoCSILMmf9g=rj-c-w300-h300-l95-c0xffffff" alt="FOSS Weekly #24.08: Ubuntu 24.04 Features, Arkane Linux, grep, Fedora COSMIC and More"></div></a></figure><hr><h2 id="%F0%9F%A7%A0-what-we%E2%80%99re-thinking-about">&#x1F9E0; What we&#x2019;re thinking about</h2><p>More indie publishers are realizing that Google is favoring big media publications in the search results. And this threatens the existence of independent websites like It&apos;s FOSS.</p><p>Bigger publications are using AI generated substandard content on Linux (and other topics) and yet, you&apos;ll get to see them first in the search results. <strong>All the more reasons to support your favorite blogs and websites before they are obliterated by the media giants and big tech.</strong></p><figure class="kg-card kg-bookmark-card"><a class="kg-bookmark-container" href="https://housefresh.com/david-vs-digital-goliaths/?ref=itsfoss.com"><div class="kg-bookmark-content"><div class="kg-bookmark-title">How Google is killing independent sites like ours - HouseFresh</div><div class="kg-bookmark-description">And why you shouldn&#x2019;t trust product reviews from big media publishers ranking at the top of Google.</div><div class="kg-bookmark-metadata"><img class="kg-bookmark-icon" src="https://housefresh.com/wp-content/uploads/favicon/apple-touch-icon.png" alt="FOSS Weekly #24.08: Ubuntu 24.04 Features, Arkane Linux, grep, Fedora COSMIC and More"><span class="kg-bookmark-author">HouseFresh</span><span class="kg-bookmark-publisher">Gisele Navarro</span></div></div><div class="kg-bookmark-thumbnail"><img src="https://housefresh.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/Header_Google-is-killing-independent-sites-1024x576.jpg" alt="FOSS Weekly #24.08: Ubuntu 24.04 Features, Arkane Linux, grep, Fedora COSMIC and More"></div></a></figure><hr><h2 id="%F0%9F%A7%AE-linux-tips-tutorials-and-more">&#x1F9EE; Linux Tips, Tutorials and More</h2><p>Unlock PDFs on Linux like a pro! Discover the quick steps to remove passwords effortlessly.</p><figure class="kg-card kg-bookmark-card"><a class="kg-bookmark-container" href="https://itsfoss.com/remove-pdf-password-linux/"><div class="kg-bookmark-content"><div class="kg-bookmark-title">How to Remove Password from PDF Files in Linux</div><div class="kg-bookmark-description">A neat trick to get rid of the annoyance of entering the password each time you open a password protected file.</div><div class="kg-bookmark-metadata"><img class="kg-bookmark-icon" src="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/size/w256h256/2022/12/android-chrome-192x192.png" alt="FOSS Weekly #24.08: Ubuntu 24.04 Features, Arkane Linux, grep, Fedora COSMIC and More"><span class="kg-bookmark-author">It&apos;s FOSS</span><span class="kg-bookmark-publisher">Abhishek Prakash</span></div></div><div class="kg-bookmark-thumbnail"><img src="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/02/remove-password-from-pdf-file.png" alt="FOSS Weekly #24.08: Ubuntu 24.04 Features, Arkane Linux, grep, Fedora COSMIC and More"></div></a></figure><p>The &#x201C;Grep&#x201D; command is handy for searching for and matching patterns within text files. Learn how to use it:</p><figure class="kg-card kg-bookmark-card"><a class="kg-bookmark-container" href="https://itsfoss.com/grep-command/"><div class="kg-bookmark-content"><div class="kg-bookmark-title">grep Command Examples in Linux</div><div class="kg-bookmark-description">Grep is a useful command to help you quickly search and find through file contents.</div><div class="kg-bookmark-metadata"><img class="kg-bookmark-icon" src="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/size/w256h256/2022/12/android-chrome-192x192.png" alt="FOSS Weekly #24.08: Ubuntu 24.04 Features, Arkane Linux, grep, Fedora COSMIC and More"><span class="kg-bookmark-author">It&apos;s FOSS</span><span class="kg-bookmark-publisher">Sagar Sharma</span></div></div><div class="kg-bookmark-thumbnail"><img src="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/02/grep-command-examples.png" alt="FOSS Weekly #24.08: Ubuntu 24.04 Features, Arkane Linux, grep, Fedora COSMIC and More"></div></a></figure><p>I wrote this tutorial more than 9 years ago. Recently, a reader notified in the comments that the steps still work. Arch is indeed a timeless distro ;)</p><figure class="kg-card kg-bookmark-card"><a class="kg-bookmark-container" href="https://itsfoss.com/iphone-antergos-linux/"><div class="kg-bookmark-content"><div class="kg-bookmark-title">How to Connect iPhone to Arch Linux</div><div class="kg-bookmark-description">Not able to connect your iPhone with your Arch Linux. This troubleshooter may help you with that.</div><div class="kg-bookmark-metadata"><img class="kg-bookmark-icon" src="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/size/w256h256/2022/12/android-chrome-192x192.png" alt="FOSS Weekly #24.08: Ubuntu 24.04 Features, Arkane Linux, grep, Fedora COSMIC and More"><span class="kg-bookmark-author">It&apos;s FOSS</span><span class="kg-bookmark-publisher">Abhishek Prakash</span></div></div><div class="kg-bookmark-thumbnail"><img src="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/wordpress/2015/10/iPhone-Antergos-Arch-Linux.jpg" alt="FOSS Weekly #24.08: Ubuntu 24.04 Features, Arkane Linux, grep, Fedora COSMIC and More"></div></a></figure><hr><h2 id="%F0%9F%93%B9-what-we-are-watching">&#x1F4F9; What we are watching</h2><figure class="kg-card kg-embed-card"><iframe width="200" height="113" src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/bMflg88S970?feature=oembed" frameborder="0" allow="accelerometer; autoplay; clipboard-write; encrypted-media; gyroscope; picture-in-picture; web-share" allowfullscreen title="Can Linux save this old laptop from obsolescence?"></iframe></figure><hr><h2 id="%E2%9C%A8-project-highlights">&#x2728; Project highlights</h2><p>This is an interesting new distro with the &apos;immutability&apos; touch. Apparently, you can even change the base distro (from Arch to Debian). Yet to experiment with the base distro change but the first impressions look nice.</p><figure class="kg-card kg-bookmark-card"><a class="kg-bookmark-container" href="https://news.itsfoss.com/arkane-linux/?ref=itsfoss.com"><div class="kg-bookmark-content"><div class="kg-bookmark-title">Arkane Linux: This &#x2018;Nix-worthy&#x2019; Arch-based Immutable Distro Shows Potential</div><div class="kg-bookmark-description">A GNOME-centered take on immutability with Arch Linux.</div><div class="kg-bookmark-metadata"><img class="kg-bookmark-icon" src="https://news.itsfoss.com/content/images/size/w256h256/2022/08/android-chrome-192x192.png" alt="FOSS Weekly #24.08: Ubuntu 24.04 Features, Arkane Linux, grep, Fedora COSMIC and More"><span class="kg-bookmark-author">It&apos;s FOSS News</span><span class="kg-bookmark-publisher">Sourav Rudra</span></div></div><div class="kg-bookmark-thumbnail"><img src="https://news.itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/02/arkane-linux-first-look.png" alt="FOSS Weekly #24.08: Ubuntu 24.04 Features, Arkane Linux, grep, Fedora COSMIC and More"></div></a></figure><p>In the market for a minimal to-do app that doesn&apos;t get in the way? <a href="https://news.itsfoss.com/errands-to-do-app/?ref=itsfoss.com" rel="noreferrer">Errands</a> might just be the one for you.</p><figure class="kg-card kg-bookmark-card"><a class="kg-bookmark-container" href="https://news.itsfoss.com/errands-to-do-app/?ref=itsfoss.com"><div class="kg-bookmark-content"><div class="kg-bookmark-title">Errands: A Simple and Elegant To-Do Companion for Linux</div><div class="kg-bookmark-description">Ready to take charge of your errands with a desktop Linux app? Here you go!</div><div class="kg-bookmark-metadata"><img class="kg-bookmark-icon" src="https://news.itsfoss.com/content/images/size/w256h256/2022/08/android-chrome-192x192.png" alt="FOSS Weekly #24.08: Ubuntu 24.04 Features, Arkane Linux, grep, Fedora COSMIC and More"><span class="kg-bookmark-author">It&apos;s FOSS News</span><span class="kg-bookmark-publisher">Sourav Rudra</span></div></div><div class="kg-bookmark-thumbnail"><img src="https://news.itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/02/errands-first-look.png" alt="FOSS Weekly #24.08: Ubuntu 24.04 Features, Arkane Linux, grep, Fedora COSMIC and More"></div></a></figure><hr><h2 id="%F0%9F%A7%A9-new-quiz-unit">&#x1F9E9; New quiz unit</h2><p>Like solving crosswords? How about this one?</p><figure class="kg-card kg-bookmark-card"><a class="kg-bookmark-container" href="https://itsfoss.com/quiz/linux-app-crossword/"><div class="kg-bookmark-content"><div class="kg-bookmark-title">Crossword: Popular Linux Apps</div><div class="kg-bookmark-description">The classic crossword puzzle with the Linux twist for you.</div><div class="kg-bookmark-metadata"><img class="kg-bookmark-icon" src="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/size/w256h256/2022/12/android-chrome-192x192.png" alt="FOSS Weekly #24.08: Ubuntu 24.04 Features, Arkane Linux, grep, Fedora COSMIC and More"><span class="kg-bookmark-author">It&apos;s FOSS</span><span class="kg-bookmark-publisher">Abhishek Prakash</span></div></div><div class="kg-bookmark-thumbnail"><img src="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/02/linux-app-crossword.png" alt="FOSS Weekly #24.08: Ubuntu 24.04 Features, Arkane Linux, grep, Fedora COSMIC and More"></div></a></figure><h2 id="%F0%9F%92%A1-quick-handy-tip">&#x1F4A1; Quick handy tip</h2><p>Here&apos;s a quick KDE Plasma tip. If you have a mouse with additional buttons, you can assign buttons for desktop tasks like Application Launcher, Switch Desktop etc.</p><p>For this, right-click on the desktop and select &#x201C;<em>Configure Desktop and Wallpaper</em>&#x201D;. Now, go into &#x201C;<em>Mouse Actions</em>&#x201D;.</p><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card"><img src="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/02/Desktop-mouse-actions-in-KDE.png" class="kg-image" alt="FOSS Weekly #24.08: Ubuntu 24.04 Features, Arkane Linux, grep, Fedora COSMIC and More" loading="lazy" width="1337" height="663" srcset="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/size/w600/2024/02/Desktop-mouse-actions-in-KDE.png 600w, https://itsfoss.com/content/images/size/w1000/2024/02/Desktop-mouse-actions-in-KDE.png 1000w, https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/02/Desktop-mouse-actions-in-KDE.png 1337w" sizes="(min-width: 720px) 720px"></figure><p>Here, click on the &#x201C;<em>Add Action</em>&#x201D; button and inside the &#x201C;<em>Input Here</em>&#x201D; button, click the additional button on your mouse that you want to use. Now, select the desired action from the dropdown menu and click &#x201C;<em>Apply</em>&#x201D;.</p><hr><h2 id="%F0%9F%A4%A3-meme-of-the-week">&#x1F923; Meme of the week</h2><p>The wait is always worth it. You can ask one of our <a href="https://itsfoss.community/?ref=itsfoss.com" rel="noreferrer">FOSSers</a>!</p><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card"><img src="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/02/debian-meme31.gif" class="kg-image" alt="FOSS Weekly #24.08: Ubuntu 24.04 Features, Arkane Linux, grep, Fedora COSMIC and More" loading="lazy" width="480" height="320"></figure><hr><h2 id="%F0%9F%97%93%EF%B8%8F-tech-trivia">&#x1F5D3;&#xFE0F; Tech Trivia</h2><p>On February 22, 1997, in Roslin, Scotland, scientists announced that they successfully cloned an adult sheep they named Dolly.</p><hr><h2 id="%F0%9F%A7%91%E2%80%8D%F0%9F%A4%9D%E2%80%8D%F0%9F%A7%91-fossverse-corner">&#x1F9D1;&#x200D;&#x1F91D;&#x200D;&#x1F9D1; FOSSverse corner</h2><p>A FOSSer shares how they ended up with Linux Mint.</p><figure class="kg-card kg-bookmark-card"><a class="kg-bookmark-container" href="https://itsfoss.community/t/ive-ended-up-on-linux-mint-of-all-places/11728?ref=itsfoss.com"><div class="kg-bookmark-content"><div class="kg-bookmark-title">I&#x2019;ve ended up on Linux Mint, of all places</div><div class="kg-bookmark-description">I never expected to end up on Linux Mint, but it ticks all the IMPORTANT boxes for me. it&#x2019;s stable, so I don&#x2019;t have to worry about my system. It delivers the performance I need. It&#x2019;s point&#x2019;n clicky, so no mucking about on the CLI when I don&#x2019;t want to. It&#x2019;s.deb , so when something is not in the repositories, odds are I can grab it from the web and install it without any problems. No updates which take forever. So, how did I end up here? After all, for a long time I preferred &#x201C;rolling release&#x201D;&#x2026;</div><div class="kg-bookmark-metadata"><img class="kg-bookmark-icon" src="https://itsfoss.community/uploads/default/optimized/1X/f274f9749e3fd8b4d6fbae1cf90c5c186d2f699c_2_180x180.png" alt="FOSS Weekly #24.08: Ubuntu 24.04 Features, Arkane Linux, grep, Fedora COSMIC and More"><span class="kg-bookmark-author">It&apos;s FOSS Community</span><span class="kg-bookmark-publisher">xahodo</span></div></div><div class="kg-bookmark-thumbnail"><img src="https://itsfoss.community/uploads/default/original/1X/f274f9749e3fd8b4d6fbae1cf90c5c186d2f699c.png" alt="FOSS Weekly #24.08: Ubuntu 24.04 Features, Arkane Linux, grep, Fedora COSMIC and More"></div></a></figure><hr><h2 id="%E2%9D%A4%EF%B8%8F-with-love">&#x2764;&#xFE0F; With love</h2><p><strong>Share it with your Linux-using friends</strong>&#xA0;and encourage them to subscribe (hint:&#xA0;<a href="https://itsfoss.com/newsletter/">it&apos;s here</a>).</p><p>Share the articles in Linux Subreddits and community forums.</p><p>Opt for&#xA0;<a href="https://itsfoss.com/membership">It&apos;s FOSS Plus membership</a>&#xA0;and support us &#x1F64F;</p><p>Enjoy using Linux &#x1F604;</p>]]></content:encoded></item><item><title><![CDATA[Grep Command Examples]]></title><description><![CDATA[Grep is a useful command to help you quickly search and find through file contents.]]></description><link>https://itsfoss.com/grep-command/</link><guid isPermaLink="false">65cc5521f30830050bcb80eb</guid><category><![CDATA[Linux Commands]]></category><dc:creator><![CDATA[Sagar Sharma]]></dc:creator><pubDate>Tue, 20 Feb 2024 07:13:50 GMT</pubDate><media:content url="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/02/grep-command-examples.png" medium="image"/><content:encoded><![CDATA[<img src="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/02/grep-command-examples.png" alt="Grep Command Examples"><p>&quot;<em>Everything is a file in Linux</em>&quot; and that is the reason most Linux users spend a large chunk of time tinkering the file contents. </p><p>This is where the importance of the grep command plays a crucial role by letting you <strong>search and match patterns within text files</strong> or get an output.</p><p>So in this tutorial, I will walk you through all the essentials required to learn the grep command:</p><ul><li><strong>The basic syntax and popular flags of the command</strong></li><li><strong>Practical examples of the command</strong></li><li><strong>Practice questions for grep command </strong></li></ul><h2 id="heres-how-to-use-the-grep-command">Here&apos;s How to Use the grep command </h2><p>To use the grep command, it is important to know the syntax. </p><p>So here&apos;s the basic syntax of the grep command:</p><pre><code>grep [OPTIONS] PATTERN &lt;Filename&gt;</code></pre><p>Here,</p><ul><li><code>[OPTIONS]</code>: using the given set of options, you can change the default behavior of the grep command such as using the <code>-i</code> enables case-insensitive search.</li><li><code>PATTERN</code>: Here&apos;s where you specify the text you are looking for from the file or the command output. It can also be a regular expression for more complex patterns.</li><li><code>&lt;Filename&gt;</code>: Here you specify the file you want to search within and if you don&apos;t specify any file then it will search from the standard input.</li></ul><p>Now, let&apos;s take a look at some commonly used options with the grep command:</p>
  107. <!--kg-card-begin: html-->
  108. <table>
  109. <thead>
  110. <tr>
  111. <th><strong>Option</strong></th>
  112. <th><strong>Description</strong></th>
  113. </tr>
  114. </thead>
  115. <tbody>
  116. <tr>
  117. <td><code>-i</code></td>
  118. <td>Ignores case sensitivity in the search.</td>
  119. </tr>
  120. <tr>
  121. <td><code>-v</code></td>
  122. <td>Prints lines that don&apos;t match the pattern.</td>
  123. </tr>
  124. <tr>
  125. <td><code>-n</code></td>
  126. <td>Displays the line number of each matching line.</td>
  127. </tr>
  128. <tr>
  129. <td><code>-w</code></td>
  130. <td>Matches only whole words, not parts of words.</td>
  131. </tr>
  132. <tr>
  133. <td><code>-c</code></td>
  134. <td>Counts the number of matching lines, doesn&apos;t print the lines.</td>
  135. </tr>
  136. <tr>
  137. <td><code>-r</code></td>
  138. <td>Searches through directories recursively.</td>
  139. </tr>
  140. <tr>
  141. <td><code>-A n</code></td>
  142. <td>Prints n lines after each matching line.</td>
  143. </tr>
  144. <tr>
  145. <td><code>-B n</code></td>
  146. <td>Prints n lines before each matching line.</td>
  147. </tr>
  148. <tr>
  149. <td><code>-C n</code></td>
  150. <td>Prints n lines before and after each matching line.</td>
  151. </tr>
  152. <tr>
  153. <td><code>-f Filename</code></td>
  154. <td>Reads search patterns from a file, one per line.</td>
  155. </tr>
  156. <tr>
  157. <td><code>-o</code></td>
  158. <td>Prints only the matched part of the line.</td>
  159. </tr>
  160. </tbody>
  161. </table>
  162. <!--kg-card-end: html-->
  163. <p>You might be wondering &#x2014; what happens when you use the grep command without any options? Well, it simply prints the lines containing the pattern.</p><p>For example, here, I want to search for the <code>error</code> keyword within the file named <code>error.log</code> , and without any additional options, it gave me this output:</p><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card"><img src="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/02/Effect-of-using-the-grep-command-without-any-options.png" class="kg-image" alt="Grep Command Examples" loading="lazy" width="836" height="156" srcset="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/size/w600/2024/02/Effect-of-using-the-grep-command-without-any-options.png 600w, https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/02/Effect-of-using-the-grep-command-without-any-options.png 836w" sizes="(min-width: 720px) 720px"></figure><p>Did you see that? It highlights the found pattern and also prints the lines containing the pattern. </p><p>To make this tutorial easy to follow, I will use a sample file named <code>error.log</code> which includes the following lines:</p><pre><code>This is a log file with various messages.
  164. An error occurred at 10:00 AM.
  165. The system encountered an unexpected issue.
  166. Everything is working normally now.
  167. Another error message at 11:30 AM.
  168. Warning: Please check disk usage.
  169. Log closed at 12:00 PM</code></pre><h2 id="practical-examples-of-the-grep-command">Practical examples of the grep command </h2><p>In this section, I cover various examples of the grep command so you can have a better idea of how you can use the grep command. </p><h3 id="1-case-insensitive-search">1. Case-insensitive search</h3><p>By default, the grep command patterns are case-sensitive, and for the most part, it works well, but you may want to turn off the case sensitivity. </p><p>To do so, you can use the <code>-i</code> flag as shown here:</p><pre><code>grep -i PATTERN Filename</code></pre><p>To demonstrate this, I will use <code>ERROR</code> as a search pattern, and it will show matching patterns irrespective of case sensitivity:</p><pre><code>grep -i ERROR error.log</code></pre><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card"><img src="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/02/case-insensitivity-in-the-grep-command.png" class="kg-image" alt="Grep Command Examples" loading="lazy" width="836" height="156" srcset="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/size/w600/2024/02/case-insensitivity-in-the-grep-command.png 600w, https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/02/case-insensitivity-in-the-grep-command.png 836w" sizes="(min-width: 720px) 720px"></figure><h3 id="2-show-n-lines-before-and-after-the-matching-lines">2. Show <code>n</code> lines before and after the matching lines </h3><p>By default, the grep command only prints the matching lines, but sometimes you want the context of the matched lines. So you print the lines before and after the matching lines.</p><h5 id="print-n-lines-before-the-matching-lines">Print <code>n</code> lines before the matching lines </h5><p>To print n number of lines before matching lines, you use the <code>-B</code> flag and specify the number of lines to print as shown here:</p><pre><code>grep -B &lt;number_of_lines&gt; PATTERN Filename</code></pre><p>For example, here, I printed the one line before every matching line:</p><pre><code>grep -B 1 error error.log </code></pre><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card"><img src="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/02/Show-lines-before-matching-pattern-in-grep-command.png" class="kg-image" alt="Grep Command Examples" loading="lazy" width="836" height="219" srcset="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/size/w600/2024/02/Show-lines-before-matching-pattern-in-grep-command.png 600w, https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/02/Show-lines-before-matching-pattern-in-grep-command.png 836w" sizes="(min-width: 720px) 720px"></figure><h5 id="print-n-lines-after-the-matching-lines">Print <code>n</code> lines after the matching lines </h5><p>To print the n number of lines after the matching lines, you use the <code>-A</code> flag and specify the number of lines as shown here:</p><pre><code>grep -A &lt;number_of_lines&gt; PATTERN Filename</code></pre><p>If I want to print one line after the matching lines, then I will use the following:</p><pre><code>grep -A 1 error error.log</code></pre><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card"><img src="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/02/Print-lines-after-the-matching-pattern-in-grep-command.png" class="kg-image" alt="Grep Command Examples" loading="lazy" width="836" height="219" srcset="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/size/w600/2024/02/Print-lines-after-the-matching-pattern-in-grep-command.png 600w, https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/02/Print-lines-after-the-matching-pattern-in-grep-command.png 836w" sizes="(min-width: 720px) 720px"></figure><h5 id="print-n-lines-before-and-after-matching-lines">Print <code>n</code> lines before and after matching lines </h5><p>If you want to print lines before and after altogether, then you use the <code>-C</code> flag and specify the number of lines to print as shown here:</p><pre><code>grep -C &lt;number_of_lines&gt; PATTERN Filename</code></pre><p>Let&apos;s say I want to display 1 line before and 1 line after the matching pattern line, then I will be using the following:</p><pre><code>grep -C 1 error error.log</code></pre><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card"><img src="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/02/Print-one-line-before-and-one-line-after-the-matching-pattern-line-using-grep.png" class="kg-image" alt="Grep Command Examples" loading="lazy" width="836" height="239" srcset="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/size/w600/2024/02/Print-one-line-before-and-one-line-after-the-matching-pattern-line-using-grep.png 600w, https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/02/Print-one-line-before-and-one-line-after-the-matching-pattern-line-using-grep.png 836w" sizes="(min-width: 720px) 720px"></figure><h3 id="3-show-lines-that-do-not-match-the-pattern">3. Show lines that do not match the pattern</h3><p>For the most part, you&apos;ll be using the grep command to match patterns, but it also allows you to invert the search results. </p><p>In simple terms, you specify the search term, and it will print lines that do not match the given pattern and for that purpose, you use the <code>-v</code> flag as shown here:</p><pre><code>grep -v PATTERN Filename</code></pre><p>For example, if I want to print every line that does not contain the <code>error</code> term, then I will use the following:</p><pre><code>grep -v error error.log</code></pre><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card"><img src="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/02/print-everything-except-the-given-pattern-using-the-grep-command.png" class="kg-image" alt="Grep Command Examples" loading="lazy" width="836" height="209" srcset="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/size/w600/2024/02/print-everything-except-the-given-pattern-using-the-grep-command.png 600w, https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/02/print-everything-except-the-given-pattern-using-the-grep-command.png 836w" sizes="(min-width: 720px) 720px"></figure><h3 id="4-display-the-number-of-matched-lines">4. Display the number of matched lines </h3><p>To display the number of matched lines, all you have to do is use the <code>-n</code> flag as shown:</p><pre><code>grep -n PATTERN Filename</code></pre><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card"><img src="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/02/display-the-number-of-the-matched-lines-using-the-grep-commadn-in-linux.png" class="kg-image" alt="Grep Command Examples" loading="lazy" width="836" height="151" srcset="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/size/w600/2024/02/display-the-number-of-the-matched-lines-using-the-grep-commadn-in-linux.png 600w, https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/02/display-the-number-of-the-matched-lines-using-the-grep-commadn-in-linux.png 836w" sizes="(min-width: 720px) 720px"></figure><h3 id="5-display-the-total-number-of-matched-results">5. Display the total number of matched results </h3><p>If you want to know the number of matched results, then you can use the <code>-c</code> flag as shown:</p><pre><code>grep -c PATTERN Filename</code></pre><p>For example, here, I wanted to find how many times the term <code>error</code> is mentioned in the <code>error.log</code> file, so I used the following command:</p><pre><code>grep -c error error.log</code></pre><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card"><img src="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/02/Find-the-number-of-matched-results-via-grep.png" class="kg-image" alt="Grep Command Examples" loading="lazy" width="836" height="139" srcset="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/size/w600/2024/02/Find-the-number-of-matched-results-via-grep.png 600w, https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/02/Find-the-number-of-matched-results-via-grep.png 836w" sizes="(min-width: 720px) 720px"></figure><h3 id="6-search-for-a-pattern-in-multiple-files">6. Search for a pattern in multiple files </h3><p>If you wish to search for a pattern from multiple files, then all you have to do is append multiple files to search, as shown here:</p><pre><code>grep PATTERN File1 File2</code></pre><p>For example, here, I searched for the <code>error</code> string from two files: <code>error.log</code> and <code>error.txt</code> and it gave me the following output:</p><pre><code>grep error error.log error.txt</code></pre><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card"><img src="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/02/Search-pattern-from-the-multiple-files-using-the-grep-command.png" class="kg-image" alt="Grep Command Examples" loading="lazy" width="836" height="195" srcset="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/size/w600/2024/02/Search-pattern-from-the-multiple-files-using-the-grep-command.png 600w, https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/02/Search-pattern-from-the-multiple-files-using-the-grep-command.png 836w" sizes="(min-width: 720px) 720px"></figure><h3 id="7-search-pattern-from-every-file-in-the-directory">7. Search pattern from every file in the directory </h3><p>If you want to search for a specific pattern from every file present in the directory, then you can use the grep command recursively, and it will search the given pattern from every file present in that specific directory.</p><p>To enable recursive search, use the <code>-r</code> flag as shown:</p><pre><code>grep -r PATTERN &lt;Directory or path to directory&gt;</code></pre><p>For example, here, I have searched for the <code>error</code> string in the current directory:</p><pre><code>grep -r error .</code></pre><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card"><img src="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/02/recursive-search-using-the-grep-command.png" class="kg-image" alt="Grep Command Examples" loading="lazy" width="836" height="198" srcset="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/size/w600/2024/02/recursive-search-using-the-grep-command.png 600w, https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/02/recursive-search-using-the-grep-command.png 836w" sizes="(min-width: 720px) 720px"></figure><h3 id="8-search-for-the-exact-word">8. Search for the exact word </h3><p>By default, the grep command will print all the matching patterns, which is not what you always want. Sounds strange? Allow me to explain.</p><p>Suppose you want to search for the term <code>Orange</code> but if the specific file also contains the term <code>Oranges</code> then the line containing the term <code>Oranges</code> will also be shown as an output.</p><p>To overcome this problem, you can use the <code>-w</code> option and specify the pattern:</p><pre><code>grep -w PATTERN Filename</code></pre><p>For example, here, I intend to find the term <code>err</code> so I will use the <code>-w</code> flag and will also show you the difference between what happens when you don&apos;t use it.</p><pre><code>grep -w err error.log</code></pre><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card"><img src="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/02/Find-the-exact-word-using-the-grep-command.png" class="kg-image" alt="Grep Command Examples" loading="lazy" width="836" height="176" srcset="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/size/w600/2024/02/Find-the-exact-word-using-the-grep-command.png 600w, https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/02/Find-the-exact-word-using-the-grep-command.png 836w" sizes="(min-width: 720px) 720px"></figure><p>When I used the <code>-w</code> flag to find the <code>err</code> string, it returned no results, as it does not exist.</p><p>But in the second attempt where I removed the <code>-w</code> flag, it returned two results displaying content where the string pattern is a part of another string (not separate).</p><h3 id="9-use-regex-pattern-for-advanced-search">9. Use regex pattern for advanced search</h3><p>If the normal search is not doing justice, then you can use the regex pattern (<em>sequence of characters</em>) to have better control over your search. You can use the <code>-e</code> flag to use the regex pattern, whereas <code>-E</code> let you use the extended regex:</p><pre><code>grep -e/-E PATTERN Filename</code></pre><p>For example, here I have used the extended regex to find two vowels used together in the file:</p><pre><code>grep -e &apos;[aeiouAEIOU]{2}&apos; error.log</code></pre><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card"><img src="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/02/Use-regex-with-grep-command.png" class="kg-image" alt="Grep Command Examples" loading="lazy" width="836" height="176" srcset="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/size/w600/2024/02/Use-regex-with-grep-command.png 600w, https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/02/Use-regex-with-grep-command.png 836w" sizes="(min-width: 720px) 720px"></figure><p><strong>Suggested Read &#x1F4D6;</strong></p><figure class="kg-card kg-bookmark-card"><a class="kg-bookmark-container" href="https://linuxhandbook.com/find-with-regex/?ref=itsfoss.com"><div class="kg-bookmark-content"><div class="kg-bookmark-title">Find Command in Linux With Regex [5 Examples]</div><div class="kg-bookmark-description">Enable the beast mode of the find command by using regex for your search.</div><div class="kg-bookmark-metadata"><img class="kg-bookmark-icon" src="https://linuxhandbook.com/content/images/size/w256h256/2021/08/Linux-Handbook-New-Logo.png" alt="Grep Command Examples"><span class="kg-bookmark-author">Linux Handbook</span><span class="kg-bookmark-publisher">Sagar Sharma</span></div></div><div class="kg-bookmark-thumbnail"><img src="https://linuxhandbook.com/content/images/2022/10/find-regex.png" alt="Grep Command Examples"></div></a></figure><h3 id="10-specify-multiple-patterns-using-the-or-operator">10. Specify multiple patterns using the OR operator </h3><p>You can use the OR operator to specify multiple patterns, which is quite helpful when you want to search for multiple patterns efficiently. </p><p>To specify multiple patterns, use the OR operator (|) in the following manner:</p><pre><code>grep &apos;PATTERN_1\|PATTERN_2&apos; Filename</code></pre><div class="kg-card kg-callout-card kg-callout-card-green"><div class="kg-callout-emoji">&#x1F4A1;</div><div class="kg-callout-text">You can press Shift + Backslash key to get the OR operator.</div></div><p>Let&apos;s say I wish to look for two patterns: <code>error</code> and <code>Please</code> then I will be using the following:</p><pre><code>grep &apos;error\|Please&apos; error.log</code></pre><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card"><img src="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/02/Use-multiple-patterns-with-the-grep-command.png" class="kg-image" alt="Grep Command Examples" loading="lazy" width="836" height="176" srcset="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/size/w600/2024/02/Use-multiple-patterns-with-the-grep-command.png 600w, https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/02/Use-multiple-patterns-with-the-grep-command.png 836w" sizes="(min-width: 720px) 720px"></figure><h2 id="practice-questions-%F0%9F%93%93">Practice questions &#x1F4D3;</h2><p>Practicing is the best way you can learn, and that&apos;s why I&apos;m about to share some practice questions for the grep command.</p><p>You can use the <code>error.log</code> file which I mentioned at the beginning of this guide to solve the following questions:</p><ol><li>Find the <code>error</code> string from every file present in your working directory.</li><li>Find lines that do not contain the term <code>success</code>.</li><li>Search for lines in a file that contain either <code>error</code> or <code>issue</code>.</li><li>Find the term <code>log</code> by disabling case-sensitive search and redirecting the output to a file.</li><li>How do you print only the last 2 results ignoring everything else? (Hint: <a href="https://linuxhandbook.com/tail-command/?ref=itsfoss.com" rel="noreferrer">use the tail command</a>)</li></ol><p>If you discover any difficulties solving the above problems, reach out to us through the comments or post your query in <a href="https://itsfoss.community/?ref=itsfoss.com" rel="noreferrer">our community forum.</a></p><p>You can download a <a href="https://linuxhandbook.com/grep-command-cheatsheet/?ref=itsfoss.com" rel="noreferrer">grep command cheat sheet</a> for more examples and info:</p><figure class="kg-card kg-bookmark-card"><a class="kg-bookmark-container" href="https://linuxhandbook.com/grep-command-cheatsheet/?ref=itsfoss.com"><div class="kg-bookmark-content"><div class="kg-bookmark-title">Grep Command Cheat Sheet With Examples [Free PDF Download]</div><div class="kg-bookmark-description">Here are some practical and common use cases of the grep command. You can also download the cheat sheet for quick reference.</div><div class="kg-bookmark-metadata"><img class="kg-bookmark-icon" src="https://linuxhandbook.com/content/images/size/w256h256/2021/08/Linux-Handbook-New-Logo.png" alt="Grep Command Examples"><span class="kg-bookmark-author">Linux Handbook</span><span class="kg-bookmark-publisher">Abhishek Prakash</span></div></div><div class="kg-bookmark-thumbnail"><img src="https://linuxhandbook.com/content/images/2022/02/grep-quick-reference.png" alt="Grep Command Examples"></div></a></figure><h2 id="are-you-an-advanced-user-try-ripgrep">Are You An Advanced User? Try ripgrep</h2><p>The ripgrep command does everything the grep command does but has some additional benefits like performance and features including the ability to search within the zip file.</p><p>Sounds cool? Here&apos;s <a href="https://linuxhandbook.com/ripgrep/?ref=itsfoss.com" rel="noreferrer">how to install and use ripgrep in Linux</a>:</p><figure class="kg-card kg-bookmark-card"><a class="kg-bookmark-container" href="https://linuxhandbook.com/ripgrep/?ref=itsfoss.com"><div class="kg-bookmark-content"><div class="kg-bookmark-title">Using ripgrep Command in Linux</div><div class="kg-bookmark-description">Rust based ripgrep may not be an exact replacement for the classic grep command, it provides plenty of useful search features like the grep command.</div><div class="kg-bookmark-metadata"><img class="kg-bookmark-icon" src="https://linuxhandbook.com/content/images/size/w256h256/2021/08/Linux-Handbook-New-Logo.png" alt="Grep Command Examples"><span class="kg-bookmark-author">Linux Handbook</span><span class="kg-bookmark-publisher">Team LHB</span></div></div><div class="kg-bookmark-thumbnail"><img src="https://linuxhandbook.com/content/images/2022/04/how-to-use-ripgrep.png" alt="Grep Command Examples"></div></a></figure><p>Moreover, if you are new to Linux, I suggest you to also go through our <a href="https://itsfoss.com/tag/terminal-basics/" rel="noreferrer">command tutorial for beginners</a>.</p><figure class="kg-card kg-bookmark-card"><a class="kg-bookmark-container" href="https://itsfoss.com/tag/terminal-basics/"><div class="kg-bookmark-content"><div class="kg-bookmark-title">Linux Command Tutorials for Absolute Beginners</div><div class="kg-bookmark-description">Never used Linux commands before? No worries. This tutorial series is for absolute beginners to the Linux terminal.</div><div class="kg-bookmark-metadata"><img class="kg-bookmark-icon" src="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/size/w256h256/2022/12/android-chrome-192x192.png" alt="Grep Command Examples"><span class="kg-bookmark-author">It&apos;s FOSS</span></div></div><div class="kg-bookmark-thumbnail"><img src="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2023/03/terminal-basics-series-tag.png" alt="Grep Command Examples"></div></a></figure><p>&#x1F4AC;<em>Share your thoughts on the command, your experience with it, and what do you prefer as an alternative to grep?</em></p>]]></content:encoded></item><item><title><![CDATA[How to Remove Password from PDF Files in Linux]]></title><description><![CDATA[A neat trick to get rid of the annoyance of entering the password each time you open a password protected file.]]></description><link>https://itsfoss.com/remove-pdf-password-linux/</link><guid isPermaLink="false">65cce56bf30830050bcb82d4</guid><category><![CDATA[Tips 💡]]></category><dc:creator><![CDATA[Abhishek Prakash]]></dc:creator><pubDate>Mon, 19 Feb 2024 07:20:28 GMT</pubDate><media:content url="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/02/remove-password-from-pdf-file.png" medium="image"/><content:encoded><![CDATA[<img src="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/02/remove-password-from-pdf-file.png" alt="How to Remove Password from PDF Files in Linux"><p>The other day, I received a PDF file which was password protected. I also received the password of the file.</p><p>Now, when I open this PDF file, it asks to enter the password first. The default document viewer gives the option to save the password to avoid entering it again and again. However, the PDF will still be required if the file is to be read on some other device or if I want to transfer the file to my Kindle.</p><p>Thankfully, it is fairly easy to &apos;remove&apos; password from a password protected PDF file. Actually, you create a new password-less version of the file.</p><p>I&apos;ll share two methods for getting this task done:</p><ul><li>GUI method that uses Evince document viewer</li><li>CLI method that uses qpdf CLI tool</li></ul><div class="kg-card kg-callout-card kg-callout-card-red"><div class="kg-callout-emoji">&#x1F6A7;</div><div class="kg-callout-text">This tutorial is NOT about cracking a password protected PDF file. It works when you have the password of the PDF file but do not want to enter it every time you open it. </div></div><h2 id="gui-method-remove-password-from-pdf-using-evince-document-reader">GUI Method: Remove password from PDF using Evince document reader</h2><p>Ubuntu and many other distributions come with the <a href="https://wiki.gnome.org/Apps/Evince?ref=itsfoss.com">Evince document reader app</a> installed. It is usually displayed as &apos;Document Viewer&apos; in the GNOME desktop environment.</p><p>If you do not have it installed, please install it using the package manager or software center of your distribution.</p><p>Open the PDF file in the Document Viewer. Enter the password of the document when asked.</p><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card"><img src="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/02/unlock-password-protected-pdf-linux.png" class="kg-image" alt="How to Remove Password from PDF Files in Linux" loading="lazy" width="1107" height="651" srcset="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/size/w600/2024/02/unlock-password-protected-pdf-linux.png 600w, https://itsfoss.com/content/images/size/w1000/2024/02/unlock-password-protected-pdf-linux.png 1000w, https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/02/unlock-password-protected-pdf-linux.png 1107w" sizes="(min-width: 720px) 720px"></figure><p>The PDF document will be open for reading now. However, you have a different motive here. </p><p>Click on the hamburger menu in the top-right corner and click the print icon. You could also use the Ctrl+P keyboard shortcut.</p><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card"><img src="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/02/print-option-in-pdf-document-viewer.png" class="kg-image" alt="How to Remove Password from PDF Files in Linux" loading="lazy" width="925" height="712" srcset="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/size/w600/2024/02/print-option-in-pdf-document-viewer.png 600w, https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/02/print-option-in-pdf-document-viewer.png 925w" sizes="(min-width: 720px) 720px"></figure><p>It will give you the option to print the document. What you have to do here is to select &apos;Print to file&apos; option. This option is also available as &apos;Print to PDF&apos; at times. This will save a copy of the document as PDF.</p><p>You may also choose the location and name of the unlocked output file.</p><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card"><img src="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/02/print-document-to-file-1.png" class="kg-image" alt="How to Remove Password from PDF Files in Linux" loading="lazy" width="698" height="557" srcset="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/size/w600/2024/02/print-document-to-file-1.png 600w, https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/02/print-document-to-file-1.png 698w"></figure><p>It will show a notification that it is &apos;printing the file&apos; but it is actually creating the new PDF file.</p><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card kg-card-hascaption"><img src="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/02/saving-pdf-by-printing-it.png" class="kg-image" alt="How to Remove Password from PDF Files in Linux" loading="lazy" width="865" height="652" srcset="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/size/w600/2024/02/saving-pdf-by-printing-it.png 600w, https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/02/saving-pdf-by-printing-it.png 865w" sizes="(min-width: 720px) 720px"><figcaption><span style="white-space: pre-wrap;">Unlocked PDF file being created but you&apos;ll see it as Printing Job</span></figcaption></figure><p>Once the process is done, you can go to the output PDF file, double click on it to open it and enjoy the PDF file without password.</p><div class="kg-card kg-callout-card kg-callout-card-blue"><div class="kg-callout-emoji">&#x1F4CB;</div><div class="kg-callout-text">I think that the default PDF document viewer apps in many other desktop environments are also capable of this. You are welcome to explore it in your choice of desktop environments.</div></div><h2 id="cli-method-remove-password-from-pdf-file-using-qpdf-command">CLI Method: Remove password from PDF file using qpdf command</h2><p>You can use the <code>qpdf</code> utility in the terminal to remove the password from the PDF file (if you know it). <strong><em>You may have to install it first.</em></strong></p><p>The syntax is quite simple:</p><pre><code>qpdf --password=PDF-PASSWORD --decrypt input_pdf output_pdf
  170. </code></pre><p>Here, you have to replace PDF-PASSWORD with the password of the PDF file, input_pdf with the password-protected PDF file&apos;s name and path (if required). Similarly, you should replace output_pdf with an appropriate PDF file name.</p><p>When I tested this command, its output showed me some warnings but the resulted PDF file worked just fine.</p><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card"><img src="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/02/removing-passowrd-from-pdf-linux.png" class="kg-image" alt="How to Remove Password from PDF Files in Linux" loading="lazy" width="1108" height="582" srcset="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/size/w600/2024/02/removing-passowrd-from-pdf-linux.png 600w, https://itsfoss.com/content/images/size/w1000/2024/02/removing-passowrd-from-pdf-linux.png 1000w, https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/02/removing-passowrd-from-pdf-linux.png 1108w" sizes="(min-width: 720px) 720px"></figure><p>There are many other command line utilities that can do the same job. For example, you can use the pdftk tool:</p><pre><code>pdftk input_pdf output output_pdf user_pw PDF-PASSWORD
  171. </code></pre><h2 id="conclusion">Conclusion</h2><p>As you can see, it is fairly easy to remove the password from PDF files. Of course, it won&apos;t work if you do not know the password of the file in the first place. This is more for removing the annoyance of entering passwords again and again.</p><p>I hope you liked this quick tip. Let me know in the comments if you have any questions.</p>]]></content:encoded></item><item><title><![CDATA[FOSS Weekly #24.07: Fedora Atomic Distro, Android FOSS Apps, Mozilla Monitor Plus and More]]></title><description><![CDATA[Open source rival to Twitter, a hyped new terminal and a cool new Brave/Chrome feature among many other things.]]></description><link>https://itsfoss.com/newsletter/foss-weekly-24-07/</link><guid isPermaLink="false">65caf4b6f30830050bcb7d99</guid><category><![CDATA[Newsletter ✉️]]></category><dc:creator><![CDATA[Abhishek Prakash]]></dc:creator><pubDate>Thu, 15 Feb 2024 11:28:24 GMT</pubDate><media:content url="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/02/foss-weekly-24-07.png" medium="image"/><content:encoded><![CDATA[<img src="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/02/foss-weekly-24-07.png" alt="FOSS Weekly #24.07: Fedora Atomic Distro, Android FOSS Apps, Mozilla Monitor Plus and More"><p>Twitter&apos;s open source rival BlueSky is now open for all. It is based on the <a href="https://atproto.com/?ref=itsfoss.com">AT Protocol</a>. And <a href="https://bsky.app/profile/itsfoss.bsky.social?ref=itsfoss.com">It&apos;s FOSS is already on this new platform</a>. We got to try new things, right?</p><p>Speaking of new things, there is a new Rust-based terminal that is generating quite a buzz in various coding communities on the web. It is called <a href="https://www.warp.dev/linux-terminal?utm_source=its_foss&amp;utm_medium=newsletter&amp;utm_campaign=linux_launch" rel="noreferrer">Warp</a> and it brings IDE-styled editor to the terminal. </p><p>It is not open source and it is not available to everyone on Linux yet. However, I have got my hands it and soon I&apos;ll be checking if it&apos;s really worth all the hype. Afterwards, I&apos;ll share my experience with you, hopefully next week. If interested, you can check out its other promised features from its website below.</p><figure class="kg-card kg-bookmark-card"><a class="kg-bookmark-container" href="https://www.warp.dev/linux-terminal?utm_source=its_foss&amp;utm_medium=newsletter&amp;utm_campaign=linux_launch"><div class="kg-bookmark-content"><div class="kg-bookmark-title">Linux Terminal</div><div class="kg-bookmark-description">The modern, Rust-based command line terminal with AI built in. Now available in beta for Linux. Join the waitlist today.</div><div class="kg-bookmark-metadata"><img class="kg-bookmark-icon" src="https://assets-global.website-files.com/64b6f3636f598299028e8577/64b6ff9f4bb4e174f770ceb1_Favicon%20-%20Warp.png" alt="FOSS Weekly #24.07: Fedora Atomic Distro, Android FOSS Apps, Mozilla Monitor Plus and More"><span class="kg-bookmark-author">Warp logo</span></div></div><div class="kg-bookmark-thumbnail"><img src="https://storage.googleapis.com/website-image-preview/www_warp_dev.png" alt="FOSS Weekly #24.07: Fedora Atomic Distro, Android FOSS Apps, Mozilla Monitor Plus and More"></div></a></figure><p><strong>&#x1F4AC; Let&apos;s see what else you get in this edition of FOSS Weekly:</strong></p><ul><li>Fedora rebranding some of their spins.</li><li>Intel is changing the names of their processors.</li><li>Firefox has a new privacy-focused offering.</li><li>Ankush switched to Fedora from Ubuntu and now he is going back.</li><li>Canonical pushing for more Snaps in Ubuntu 24.04.</li><li>And other Linux news, videos and, of course, memes!</li></ul><hr><h2 id="%F0%9F%93%B0-linux-news">&#x1F4F0; Linux news</h2><ul><li>SparkyLinux 2024.02 is here with <a href="https://news.itsfoss.com/sparky-2024-02-release/?ref=itsfoss.com" rel="noreferrer">important tweaks</a> and fixes.</li><li>BlueSky is now <a href="https://news.itsfoss.com/bluesky-open/?ref=itsfoss.com" rel="noreferrer">open for everyone</a> to join, there&apos;s no need for an invite anymore.</li><li>Thunderbird <a href="https://news.itsfoss.com/thunderbird-snap/?ref=itsfoss.com" rel="noreferrer">will be offered</a> as a Snap on the upcoming Ubuntu 24.04 LTS release.</li><li>Fedora Atomic Desktops is the <a href="https://news.itsfoss.com/fedora-atomic-desktops/?ref=itsfoss.com" rel="noreferrer">new family</a> of spins that features some popular existing Fedora spins.</li><li>Mozilla has launched a new <a href="https://news.itsfoss.com/mozilla-monitor-plus/?ref=itsfoss.com" rel="noreferrer">Plus tier</a> for their Monitor service that deletes personal data from over 190 data brokers.</li></ul><p>The Linux Foundation has formed an alliance with some influential organizations to tackle Post-Quantum Cryptography.</p><figure class="kg-card kg-bookmark-card"><a class="kg-bookmark-container" href="https://news.itsfoss.com/linux-foundation-quantum/?ref=itsfoss.com"><div class="kg-bookmark-content"><div class="kg-bookmark-title">The Linux Foundation Creates an Alliance to Work On Post-Quantum Cryptography</div><div class="kg-bookmark-description">The Linux Foundation launches an exciting endeavor for post-quantum cryptography.</div><div class="kg-bookmark-metadata"><img class="kg-bookmark-icon" src="https://news.itsfoss.com/content/images/size/w256h256/2022/08/android-chrome-192x192.png" alt="FOSS Weekly #24.07: Fedora Atomic Distro, Android FOSS Apps, Mozilla Monitor Plus and More"><span class="kg-bookmark-author">It&apos;s FOSS News</span><span class="kg-bookmark-publisher">Sourav Rudra</span></div></div><div class="kg-bookmark-thumbnail"><img src="https://news.itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/02/linux-foundation-quantum-alliance.png" alt="FOSS Weekly #24.07: Fedora Atomic Distro, Android FOSS Apps, Mozilla Monitor Plus and More"></div></a></figure><hr><h2 id="%F0%9F%8C%90-follow-us-on-google-news">&#x1F310; Follow us on Google News</h2><p>By the way, if you use Google,&#xA0;<a href="https://news.google.com/publications/CAAiENHoh-T8yP9Q8Qywor2dwGkqFAgKIhDR6Ifk_Mj_UPEMsKK9ncBp?ref=itsfoss.com">follow It&apos;s FOSS on Google News</a>&#xA0;to get trusted It&apos;s FOSS content before other websites in Google search.</p><figure class="kg-card kg-bookmark-card"><a class="kg-bookmark-container" href="https://news.google.com/publications/CAAiENHoh-T8yP9Q8Qywor2dwGkqFAgKIhDR6Ifk_Mj_UPEMsKK9ncBp?ref=itsfoss.com"><div class="kg-bookmark-content"><div class="kg-bookmark-title">It&#x2019;s FOSS - Google News</div><div class="kg-bookmark-description">Read full articles from It&#x2019;s FOSS and explore endless topics, magazines and more on your phone or tablet with Google News.</div><div class="kg-bookmark-metadata"><img class="kg-bookmark-icon" src="https://ssl.gstatic.com/gnews/logo/google_news_192.png" alt="FOSS Weekly #24.07: Fedora Atomic Distro, Android FOSS Apps, Mozilla Monitor Plus and More"><span class="kg-bookmark-author">Google News</span></div></div><div class="kg-bookmark-thumbnail"><img src="https://lh3.googleusercontent.com/8BtTTnoAEYry0KuwC0nPq5U_GERPzo_DTNxmR3FEzmJQxtUaUndM6ydGtZSnIorEoCSILMmf9g=rj-c-w300-h300-l95-c0xffffff" alt="FOSS Weekly #24.07: Fedora Atomic Distro, Android FOSS Apps, Mozilla Monitor Plus and More"></div></a></figure><hr><h2 id="%F0%9F%A7%A0-what-we%E2%80%99re-thinking-about">&#x1F9E0; What we&#x2019;re thinking about</h2><p>Linux, but in space! Learn how our favorite kernel is being used to power spacecrafts. </p><figure class="kg-card kg-bookmark-card"><a class="kg-bookmark-container" href="https://hackaday.com/2024/02/10/the-usage-of-embedded-linux-in-spacecraft/?ref=itsfoss.com"><div class="kg-bookmark-content"><div class="kg-bookmark-title">The Usage Of Embedded Linux In Spacecraft</div><div class="kg-bookmark-description">As the first part of a series, [George Emad] takes us through a few examples of the Linux operating system being used in spacecraft. These range from SpaceX&#x2019;s Dragon capsule to everyone&amp;#8217&#x2026;</div><div class="kg-bookmark-metadata"><img class="kg-bookmark-icon" src="https://hackaday.com/wp-content/themes/hackaday-2/img/hackaday-logo_1024x1024.png?v=3" alt="FOSS Weekly #24.07: Fedora Atomic Distro, Android FOSS Apps, Mozilla Monitor Plus and More"><span class="kg-bookmark-author">Hackaday</span><span class="kg-bookmark-publisher">Maya Posch</span></div></div><div class="kg-bookmark-thumbnail"><img src="https://hackaday.com/wp-content/uploads/2021/04/perseverance-ingenuity-selfie.jpg" alt="FOSS Weekly #24.07: Fedora Atomic Distro, Android FOSS Apps, Mozilla Monitor Plus and More"></div></a></figure><hr><h2 id="%F0%9F%A7%AE-linux-tips-tutorials-and-more">&#x1F9EE; Linux Tips, Tutorials and More</h2><p>If you are an Android user, here are some open source Android apps you could explore and use.</p><figure class="kg-card kg-bookmark-card"><a class="kg-bookmark-container" href="https://itsfoss.com/open-source-android-apps/"><div class="kg-bookmark-content"><div class="kg-bookmark-title">40+ Best Open Source Android Apps</div><div class="kg-bookmark-description">The best open source Android apps. Replace the proprietary options to enjoy a potentially better experience!</div><div class="kg-bookmark-metadata"><img class="kg-bookmark-icon" src="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/size/w256h256/2022/12/android-chrome-192x192.png" alt="FOSS Weekly #24.07: Fedora Atomic Distro, Android FOSS Apps, Mozilla Monitor Plus and More"><span class="kg-bookmark-author">It&apos;s FOSS</span><span class="kg-bookmark-publisher">Ankush Das</span></div></div><div class="kg-bookmark-thumbnail"><img src="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2023/02/best-foss-android-apps.png" alt="FOSS Weekly #24.07: Fedora Atomic Distro, Android FOSS Apps, Mozilla Monitor Plus and More"></div></a></figure><p>Learn how to properly use UARTs to debug a Raspberry Pi.</p><figure class="kg-card kg-bookmark-card"><a class="kg-bookmark-container" href="https://itsfoss.com/use-uart-raspberry-pi/"><div class="kg-bookmark-content"><div class="kg-bookmark-title">Using a USB Serial Adapter (UART) to Help Debug Raspberry Pi</div><div class="kg-bookmark-description">A UART attached to your Raspberry Pi can help you troubleshoot issues with your Raspberry Pi. Here&#x2019;s what you need to know.</div><div class="kg-bookmark-metadata"><img class="kg-bookmark-icon" src="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/size/w256h256/2022/12/android-chrome-192x192.png" alt="FOSS Weekly #24.07: Fedora Atomic Distro, Android FOSS Apps, Mozilla Monitor Plus and More"><span class="kg-bookmark-author">It&apos;s FOSS</span><span class="kg-bookmark-publisher">Pratham Patel</span></div></div><div class="kg-bookmark-thumbnail"><img src="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/02/debug-raspberry-pi-with-usb-adapter.png" alt="FOSS Weekly #24.07: Fedora Atomic Distro, Android FOSS Apps, Mozilla Monitor Plus and More"></div></a></figure><p>Thereafter, you can see how the &#x201C;Cut&#x201D; command works in Linux.</p><figure class="kg-card kg-bookmark-card"><a class="kg-bookmark-container" href="https://itsfoss.com/cut-command/"><div class="kg-bookmark-content"><div class="kg-bookmark-title">Cut Command Examples in Linux</div><div class="kg-bookmark-description">The Cut command lets you extract a part of the file to print without affecting the original file. Learn more here.</div><div class="kg-bookmark-metadata"><img class="kg-bookmark-icon" src="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/size/w256h256/2022/12/android-chrome-192x192.png" alt="FOSS Weekly #24.07: Fedora Atomic Distro, Android FOSS Apps, Mozilla Monitor Plus and More"><span class="kg-bookmark-author">It&apos;s FOSS</span><span class="kg-bookmark-publisher">Sagar Sharma</span></div></div><div class="kg-bookmark-thumbnail"><img src="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/02/cut-command-in-linux.png" alt="FOSS Weekly #24.07: Fedora Atomic Distro, Android FOSS Apps, Mozilla Monitor Plus and More"></div></a></figure><p>Learn about the changes Intel is brining to its processor names.</p><figure class="kg-card kg-bookmark-card"><a class="kg-bookmark-container" href="https://itsfoss.com/intel-processor-naming/"><div class="kg-bookmark-content"><div class="kg-bookmark-title">Intel Processor Naming Changes: All You Need to Know</div><div class="kg-bookmark-description">Intel makes things confusing, I guess. Let&#x2019;s try making the processor naming changes simpler.</div><div class="kg-bookmark-metadata"><img class="kg-bookmark-icon" src="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/size/w256h256/2022/12/android-chrome-192x192.png" alt="FOSS Weekly #24.07: Fedora Atomic Distro, Android FOSS Apps, Mozilla Monitor Plus and More"><span class="kg-bookmark-author">It&apos;s FOSS</span><span class="kg-bookmark-publisher">Ankush Das</span></div></div><div class="kg-bookmark-thumbnail"><img src="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/02/intel-processors-naming-changes.png" alt="FOSS Weekly #24.07: Fedora Atomic Distro, Android FOSS Apps, Mozilla Monitor Plus and More"></div></a></figure><hr><h2 id="%F0%9F%93%B9-what-we-are-watching">&#x1F4F9; What we are watching</h2><p>Torvalds talking about Rust (2 months old video).</p><figure class="kg-card kg-embed-card"><iframe width="200" height="113" src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/OvuEYtkOH88?feature=oembed" frameborder="0" allow="accelerometer; autoplay; clipboard-write; encrypted-media; gyroscope; picture-in-picture; web-share" allowfullscreen title="Keynote: Linus Torvalds, Creator of Linux &amp; Git, in Conversation with Dirk Hohndel"></iframe></figure><hr><h2 id="%E2%9C%A8-project-highlights">&#x2728; Project highlights</h2><p>This is how Fedora fared for a long-time Ubuntu user. Hint: It didn&apos;t go as planned.</p><figure class="kg-card kg-bookmark-card"><a class="kg-bookmark-container" href="https://news.itsfoss.com/fedora-ubuntu-switch/?ref=itsfoss.com"><div class="kg-bookmark-content"><div class="kg-bookmark-title">I Switched to Fedora From Ubuntu: Going Back Again!</div><div class="kg-bookmark-description">Here&#x2019;s how it went with the switch to Fedora.</div><div class="kg-bookmark-metadata"><img class="kg-bookmark-icon" src="https://news.itsfoss.com/content/images/size/w256h256/2022/08/android-chrome-192x192.png" alt="FOSS Weekly #24.07: Fedora Atomic Distro, Android FOSS Apps, Mozilla Monitor Plus and More"><span class="kg-bookmark-author">It&apos;s FOSS News</span><span class="kg-bookmark-publisher">Ankush Das</span></div></div><div class="kg-bookmark-thumbnail"><img src="https://news.itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/02/fedora-switch.png" alt="FOSS Weekly #24.07: Fedora Atomic Distro, Android FOSS Apps, Mozilla Monitor Plus and More"></div></a></figure><p>And an interesting AI-based open source project for creating digital avatars.</p><figure class="kg-card kg-bookmark-card"><a class="kg-bookmark-container" href="https://news.itsfoss.com/instantid/?ref=itsfoss.com"><div class="kg-bookmark-content"><div class="kg-bookmark-title">This Open-Source AI Tech Generates Personalised Digital Avatars</div><div class="kg-bookmark-description">A pretty cool open-source AI project.</div><div class="kg-bookmark-metadata"><img class="kg-bookmark-icon" src="https://news.itsfoss.com/content/images/size/w256h256/2022/08/android-chrome-192x192.png" alt="FOSS Weekly #24.07: Fedora Atomic Distro, Android FOSS Apps, Mozilla Monitor Plus and More"><span class="kg-bookmark-author">It&apos;s FOSS News</span><span class="kg-bookmark-publisher">Rishabh Moharir</span></div></div><div class="kg-bookmark-thumbnail"><img src="https://news.itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/02/instantid.png" alt="FOSS Weekly #24.07: Fedora Atomic Distro, Android FOSS Apps, Mozilla Monitor Plus and More"></div></a></figure><hr><h2 id="%F0%9F%A7%A9-new-quiz-unit">&#x1F9E9; New quiz unit</h2><p>You love Firefox, don&apos;t you? How about playing this quiz and &apos;saving Firefox&apos;?</p><figure class="kg-card kg-bookmark-card"><a class="kg-bookmark-container" href="https://itsfoss.com/quiz/saving-firefox/"><div class="kg-bookmark-content"><div class="kg-bookmark-title">Save Firefox With This Knowledge Test</div><div class="kg-bookmark-description">Do you think you can save Firefox? Free your favorite open-source browser by testing your knowledge!</div><div class="kg-bookmark-metadata"><img class="kg-bookmark-icon" src="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/size/w256h256/2022/12/android-chrome-192x192.png" alt="FOSS Weekly #24.07: Fedora Atomic Distro, Android FOSS Apps, Mozilla Monitor Plus and More"><span class="kg-bookmark-author">It&apos;s FOSS</span><span class="kg-bookmark-publisher">Ankush Das</span></div></div><div class="kg-bookmark-thumbnail"><img src="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/02/Firefox.png" alt="FOSS Weekly #24.07: Fedora Atomic Distro, Android FOSS Apps, Mozilla Monitor Plus and More"></div></a></figure><hr><h2 id="%F0%9F%92%A1-quick-handy-tip">&#x1F4A1; Quick handy tip</h2><p>Did you know that you could check the memory usage of an active tab on the Brave browser by just hovering on one? I think it&apos;s a recent feature added to Chromium and it probably works with other Chromium-based browsers as well.</p><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card"><img src="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/02/brave-memory-tab-usage.gif" class="kg-image" alt="FOSS Weekly #24.07: Fedora Atomic Distro, Android FOSS Apps, Mozilla Monitor Plus and More" loading="lazy" width="1068" height="571" srcset="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/size/w600/2024/02/brave-memory-tab-usage.gif 600w, https://itsfoss.com/content/images/size/w1000/2024/02/brave-memory-tab-usage.gif 1000w, https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/02/brave-memory-tab-usage.gif 1068w" sizes="(min-width: 720px) 720px"></figure><hr><h2 id="%F0%9F%A4%A3-meme-of-the-week">&#x1F923; Meme of the week</h2><p>K is for KDE. That&apos;s the (k)law, right?</p><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card"><img src="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/02/kde-meme.jpg" class="kg-image" alt="FOSS Weekly #24.07: Fedora Atomic Distro, Android FOSS Apps, Mozilla Monitor Plus and More" loading="lazy" width="640" height="555" srcset="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/size/w600/2024/02/kde-meme.jpg 600w, https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/02/kde-meme.jpg 640w"></figure><hr><h2 id="%F0%9F%97%93%EF%B8%8F-tech-trivia">&#x1F5D3;&#xFE0F; Tech Trivia</h2><p>The first fully electronic computer (as compared to electro-mechanical designs) ENIAC unveiled at the University of Pennsylvania on 14 February 1946. It occupied over 1,500 square feet of space, weighed 30 tons, and used 18,000 vacuum tubes. </p><hr><h2 id="%F0%9F%A7%91%E2%80%8D%F0%9F%A4%9D%E2%80%8D%F0%9F%A7%91-fossverse-corner">&#x1F9D1;&#x200D;&#x1F91D;&#x200D;&#x1F9D1; FOSSverse corner</h2><p>One of our longtime FOSSer and an It&apos;s FOSS Plus member, Ernie, is taking steps to switch to Solus Linux from Windows. Got any advice?</p><figure class="kg-card kg-bookmark-card"><a class="kg-bookmark-container" href="https://itsfoss.community/t/today-i-take-the-next-step-in-my-journey-to-replace-windows-with-solus-linux/11707?ref=itsfoss.com"><div class="kg-bookmark-content"><div class="kg-bookmark-title">Today I take the next step in my journey to replace Windows with Solus Linux</div><div class="kg-bookmark-description">Begin Rant: Recently, I have been very unhappy with the direction Microsoft has been taking as a corporation, and with Windows. As a corporation, I&#x2019;m seeing shades of the Microsoft of old emerging. I find their all-in attitude toward AI, and their penchant to integrate it into all the apps they include with their OS, very disturbing. As far as I&#x2019;m concerned, AI is a two-sided sword. On the positive side, it offers the potential to be a great boon to humanity. On the other hand, it poses an equ&#x2026;</div><div class="kg-bookmark-metadata"><img class="kg-bookmark-icon" src="https://itsfoss.community/uploads/default/optimized/1X/f274f9749e3fd8b4d6fbae1cf90c5c186d2f699c_2_180x180.png" alt="FOSS Weekly #24.07: Fedora Atomic Distro, Android FOSS Apps, Mozilla Monitor Plus and More"><span class="kg-bookmark-author">It&apos;s FOSS Community</span><span class="kg-bookmark-publisher">ernie</span></div></div><div class="kg-bookmark-thumbnail"><img src="https://itsfoss.community/uploads/default/original/1X/f274f9749e3fd8b4d6fbae1cf90c5c186d2f699c.png" alt="FOSS Weekly #24.07: Fedora Atomic Distro, Android FOSS Apps, Mozilla Monitor Plus and More"></div></a></figure><hr><h2 id="%E2%9D%A4%EF%B8%8F-with-love">&#x2764;&#xFE0F; With love</h2><p><strong>Share it with your Linux-using friends</strong>&#xA0;and encourage them to subscribe (hint:&#xA0;<a href="https://itsfoss.com/newsletter/">it&apos;s here</a>).</p><p>Share the articles in Linux Subreddits and community forums.</p><p>Opt for&#xA0;<a href="https://itsfoss.com/membership">It&apos;s FOSS Plus membership</a>&#xA0;and support us &#x1F64F;</p><p>Enjoy using Linux &#x1F604;</p>]]></content:encoded></item><item><title><![CDATA[Intel Processor Naming Changes: All You Need to Know]]></title><description><![CDATA[Intel makes things confusing, I guess. Let's try making the processor naming changes simpler.]]></description><link>https://itsfoss.com/intel-processor-naming/</link><guid isPermaLink="false">65a77e33f30830050bc8cb73</guid><category><![CDATA[Explain]]></category><dc:creator><![CDATA[Ankush Das]]></dc:creator><pubDate>Wed, 14 Feb 2024 10:04:10 GMT</pubDate><media:content url="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/02/intel-processors-naming-changes.png" medium="image"/><content:encoded><![CDATA[<img src="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/02/intel-processors-naming-changes.png" alt="Intel Processor Naming Changes: All You Need to Know"><p>Whenever a product name or branding changes, it is always confusing. And, Intel has made sure that their product lineup is no longer as simple to grasp.</p><p>Every so often we cannot get over with the naming we are comfortable with, or maybe the new one is no longer straightforward to remember. In this case, it is more about the later part.</p><p>Intel processors got a naming and branding revamp. So, if you are going to stick calling them &quot;i3&quot; or &quot;i9&quot; processors, you might end up purchasing the wrong chip for your use-case.</p><p>So, how do you different the newer processors, entry-level ones, and performance-focused chips? </p><p>Here, I decode all the different naming schemes for active Intel chips.</p><h2 id="new-processor-names-%F0%9F%96%A5%EF%B8%8F">New Processor Names &#x1F5A5;&#xFE0F;</h2><p><strong>Some processor names are dropping the &quot;i&quot; from the naming scheme</strong>. While the number stay the same with 3, 5, 7, and 9 respectively representing the hierarchy, there&apos;s no &quot;i&quot; as the prefix to the numbering &#x1F62E;</p><p>In addition to the change, you will no longer have Intel Pentium and Celeron line up. The essential processors (or the entry-level ones) have a different series name.</p><p>So, let me take a top-down approach to inform you about all the processors in the order of higher capabilities.</p><ul><li><strong>Intel Core Ultra Processors</strong></li><li><strong>Intel Core Processors (Series 1)</strong></li><li><strong>Intel 14th-gen Core Desktop Processors</strong></li><li><strong>Intel Processor</strong></li><li><strong>Intel Processor N-Series</strong></li><li><strong>Intel Pentium Silver and Gold Processors</strong></li><li><strong>Intel Celeron Processors</strong></li></ul><h2 id="the-intel-core-ultra-processors">The Intel Core Ultra Processors</h2><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card kg-card-hascaption"><img src="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/02/intel-ultra-core.png" class="kg-image" alt="Intel Processor Naming Changes: All You Need to Know" loading="lazy" width="1920" height="1080" srcset="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/size/w600/2024/02/intel-ultra-core.png 600w, https://itsfoss.com/content/images/size/w1000/2024/02/intel-ultra-core.png 1000w, https://itsfoss.com/content/images/size/w1600/2024/02/intel-ultra-core.png 1600w, https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/02/intel-ultra-core.png 1920w" sizes="(min-width: 720px) 720px"><figcaption><span style="white-space: pre-wrap;">Image Credit: Intel</span></figcaption></figure><p>The Intel Core Ultra processors come equipped with a new 3D performance hybrid design which includes NPU (Neural Processing Units) and may have Arc GPU  for AI acceleration.</p><p>The Core Ultra processors are built for enthusiasts and professionals on top the newer Meteor Lake CPU architecture. </p><p>The processor family includes <strong>Intel Core Ultra 5, Intel Core Ultra 7, Intel Core Ultra 9.</strong></p><p>You may notice processor names with suffixes H and U, where H signifies a high-performance chip, and U is the standard.</p><p><strong>Examples include</strong>: <em>Intel Core&#x2122; Ultra 7 processor 165H and Intel Core&#x2122; Ultra 5 processor 135U.</em></p><h2 id="the-intel-core-processors-series-1">The Intel Core processors (Series 1)</h2><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card kg-card-hascaption"><img src="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/02/intel-series-1.png" class="kg-image" alt="Intel Processor Naming Changes: All You Need to Know" loading="lazy" width="1920" height="1080" srcset="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/size/w600/2024/02/intel-series-1.png 600w, https://itsfoss.com/content/images/size/w1000/2024/02/intel-series-1.png 1000w, https://itsfoss.com/content/images/size/w1600/2024/02/intel-series-1.png 1600w, https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/02/intel-series-1.png 1920w" sizes="(min-width: 720px) 720px"><figcaption><span style="white-space: pre-wrap;">Image Credit: Intel</span></figcaption></figure><p>The usual core i3, i5, and i7 processors will now be designated simply as &quot;<strong>Intel Core 3</strong>&quot; or &quot;Intel Core 7&quot; with a three-digit number.</p><div class="kg-card kg-callout-card kg-callout-card-blue"><div class="kg-callout-emoji">&#x1F4CB;</div><div class="kg-callout-text">A smallcase &quot;p&quot; is used for processor here.</div></div><p><strong>This applies to laptops only for now.</strong></p><p>Intel mentions &quot;Series 1&quot; here while dropping the generational scheme (like i5-11600K) which denoted the 11th Gen.</p><p>Compared to Intel Ultra Core Processors, <strong>the Intel Core Processors will have an older architecture</strong>. That&apos;s one difference to note.</p><p>The processor name will look like: <strong>Intel Core 7 processor 150U</strong></p><p>At the time of writing this, as per the official Intel documentation, there are no other suffixes except U. The processor names look like:</p><ul><li><em>Intel Core 3 processor 100U</em></li><li><em>Intel Core 5 processor 120U</em></li></ul><div class="kg-card kg-callout-card kg-callout-card-green"><div class="kg-callout-emoji">&#x1F4A1;</div><div class="kg-callout-text">Intel recommends Intel Core 3 particularly for browsing and streaming, Intel Core 5 for productivity and others included, and Intel Core 7 for casual gaming and photo/video editing among other essentials included.</div></div><h2 id="the-intel-14th-gen-core-processors">The Intel 14th Gen Core Processors</h2><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card kg-card-hascaption"><img src="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/02/intel-14-gen.png" class="kg-image" alt="Intel Processor Naming Changes: All You Need to Know" loading="lazy" width="1920" height="1080" srcset="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/size/w600/2024/02/intel-14-gen.png 600w, https://itsfoss.com/content/images/size/w1000/2024/02/intel-14-gen.png 1000w, https://itsfoss.com/content/images/size/w1600/2024/02/intel-14-gen.png 1600w, https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/02/intel-14-gen.png 1920w" sizes="(min-width: 720px) 720px"><figcaption><span style="white-space: pre-wrap;">Image Credit: Intel</span></figcaption></figure><p>The 14th Gen Core Processors are desktop processors built on the same Raptor Lake CPU architecture (same as 13th gen). So, the Series 1 and this both mean the same thing &#x2014; but for laptops and desktops respectively.</p><p>It gets a bit confusing here because Intel retains the &quot;i&quot; naming scheme. You have Intel Core i9 Processors, Core i7, and so on.</p><div class="kg-card kg-callout-card kg-callout-card-blue"><div class="kg-callout-emoji">&#x1F4CB;</div><div class="kg-callout-text">The uppercase P in the Processor is another difference compared to the Core (Series 1) processors.</div></div><h2 id="intel-processor">Intel Processor</h2><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card kg-card-hascaption"><img src="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/02/intel-processor-name.png" class="kg-image" alt="Intel Processor Naming Changes: All You Need to Know" loading="lazy" width="1920" height="1080" srcset="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/size/w600/2024/02/intel-processor-name.png 600w, https://itsfoss.com/content/images/size/w1000/2024/02/intel-processor-name.png 1000w, https://itsfoss.com/content/images/size/w1600/2024/02/intel-processor-name.png 1600w, https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/02/intel-processor-name.png 1920w" sizes="(min-width: 720px) 720px"><figcaption><span style="white-space: pre-wrap;">Image Credit: Intel</span></figcaption></figure><p>The Intel Pentium and Celeron space will be replaced by the <strong>Intel Processor</strong>.</p><p>It will look like: <strong>Intel Processor N200</strong></p><p>Here, <strong>the prefix to the alphanumeric can be N or U</strong>. And, Intel clarifies that there is  no generation indicator for this range of processors. So, maybe, the processor number can give a hint at that. We can only assume for now.</p><h2 id="intel-core-processors-n-series">Intel Core Processors N-Series</h2><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card kg-card-hascaption"><img src="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/02/intel-n-series.png" class="kg-image" alt="Intel Processor Naming Changes: All You Need to Know" loading="lazy" width="1920" height="1080" srcset="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/size/w600/2024/02/intel-n-series.png 600w, https://itsfoss.com/content/images/size/w1000/2024/02/intel-n-series.png 1000w, https://itsfoss.com/content/images/size/w1600/2024/02/intel-n-series.png 1600w, https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/02/intel-n-series.png 1920w" sizes="(min-width: 720px) 720px"><figcaption><span style="white-space: pre-wrap;">Image Credit: Intel</span></figcaption></figure><p>The Intel Core Processors N-Series is basically a step-up from Pentium and Celeron-level chips. It will be available for both laptops and desktops. </p><p>In other words: <strong>Intel Core Processor &gt; Intel Processor </strong>(in terms of capabilities).</p><p>The naming scheme looks like: <strong>Intel Core i3-N305</strong></p><h2 id="intel-pentium-silver-and-gold-processors">Intel Pentium Silver and Gold Processors</h2><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card kg-card-hascaption"><img src="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/02/intel-pentium.jpg" class="kg-image" alt="Intel Processor Naming Changes: All You Need to Know" loading="lazy" width="800" height="450" srcset="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/size/w600/2024/02/intel-pentium.jpg 600w, https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/02/intel-pentium.jpg 800w" sizes="(min-width: 720px) 720px"><figcaption><span style="white-space: pre-wrap;">Image Credit: Intel</span></figcaption></figure><p>While the Pentium lineup won&apos;t get a new gen update, the silver and gold lineup continue to exist with the older CPU architecture.</p><p>I still do not understand why they keep it. But, probably for some niche customers and affordable projects (mini PCs, Chromebooks, entry-level laptops, etc.) where these processors can be used.</p><p>The products look like:</p><ul><li><em>Intel Pentium Silver N6000 processor</em></li><li><em>Intel Pentium Gold G7400 processor</em></li></ul><p>A higher number represents a better performance class for this lineup.</p><h2 id="intel-celeron-processors">Intel Celeron Processors</h2><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card kg-card-hascaption"><img src="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/02/intel-celeron.jpg" class="kg-image" alt="Intel Processor Naming Changes: All You Need to Know" loading="lazy" width="720" height="405" srcset="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/size/w600/2024/02/intel-celeron.jpg 600w, https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/02/intel-celeron.jpg 720w" sizes="(min-width: 720px) 720px"><figcaption><span style="white-space: pre-wrap;">Image Credit: Intel</span></figcaption></figure><p>A good fit for educational and learning purposes. </p><p>The processors look like:</p><ul><li><em>Intel Celeron Processor 7305L</em></li><li><em>Intel Celeron Processor 7305E</em></li><li><em>Intel Celeron Processor 7300</em></li></ul><p>So, you will notice suffixes as L, E or nothing at all. Similar to the Pentium lineup, the higher the number, the better the performance.</p><h2 id="wrapping-up">Wrapping Up</h2><p>Phew, that&apos;s it for all the Intel processors and the new name changes&#x1F971;</p><p>Intel wants a new naming scheme, but also did not get rid of the old one for desktop immediately. For some newer chips, it retained the older CPU architecture with a generational update in the naming scheme.</p><p>I am sure it is not just me alone, Intel should simplify their offering as soon as possible &#x1F610;</p><p>Sure, there can be further adjustments down the line in the near future. And, we will make sure to update the information to help you understand the best.</p><p><em>&#x1F4AC; What do you think of the new naming changes with the Intel chips? Do y0u think it is simplified enough or got more complex?</em></p>]]></content:encoded></item><item><title><![CDATA[Cut Command Examples]]></title><description><![CDATA[The Cut command lets you extract a part of the file to print without affecting the original file. Learn more here.]]></description><link>https://itsfoss.com/cut-command/</link><guid isPermaLink="false">65aa4690f30830050bc95ee5</guid><category><![CDATA[Linux Commands]]></category><dc:creator><![CDATA[Sagar Sharma]]></dc:creator><pubDate>Tue, 13 Feb 2024 04:46:49 GMT</pubDate><media:content url="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/02/cut-command-in-linux.png" medium="image"/><content:encoded><![CDATA[<img src="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/02/cut-command-in-linux.png" alt="Cut Command Examples"><p>The cut command is used to cut a specific part of a file and print it to the standard output <strong>without changing the actual file.</strong></p><p>In other words, you can pull out a specific number of words or characters from a file using the cut command.</p><p>Fret not, I walk you through the essentials to help you know more about it:</p><ul><li><strong>The basic syntax of the command</strong></li><li><strong>Practical examples of using the cut command </strong></li><li><strong>Practice questions for the cut command</strong></li></ul><p>So, let&apos;s get started.</p><h2 id="heres-how-to-use-the-cut-command">Here&apos;s How to use the cut command </h2><p>To use the cut command, it is important to know the syntax.</p><p>So here&apos;s the basic syntax you need to follow to use the cut command:</p><pre><code>cut [option] &lt;Filename or path to file&gt;</code></pre><p>Here,</p><ul><li><code>[option]</code>: it is used to change the default behavior of the cut command.</li><li><code>Filename</code>: it is where you append the filename or the path to the file to work with the cut command.</li></ul><p>If you are curious, here&apos;s a list of popular options used with the cut command:</p>
  172. <!--kg-card-begin: html-->
  173. <table>
  174. <thead>
  175. <tr>
  176. <th><strong>Option</strong></th>
  177. <th><strong>Description</strong></th>
  178. </tr>
  179. </thead>
  180. <tbody>
  181. <tr>
  182. <td><code>-d <delim></delim></code></td>
  183. <td>Sets the field delimiter (default is tab).</td>
  184. </tr>
  185. <tr>
  186. <td><code>-f <fields></fields></code></td>
  187. <td>Specifies which fields to extract (e.g., <code>-f 2</code> for the second field).</td>
  188. </tr>
  189. <tr>
  190. <td><code>-b <bytes></bytes></code></td>
  191. <td>Cuts specific bytes or byte ranges.</td>
  192. </tr>
  193. <tr>
  194. <td><code>-c <chars></chars></code></td>
  195. <td>Cuts specific characters or character ranges.</td>
  196. </tr>
  197. <tr>
  198. <td><code>-s</code></td>
  199. <td>Only prints lines containing delimiters (default prints empty lines).</td>
  200. </tr>
  201. <tr>
  202. <td><code>--complement</code></td>
  203. <td>Cuts everything except the specified bytes, characters, or fields.</td>
  204. </tr>
  205. </tbody>
  206. </table>
  207. <!--kg-card-end: html-->
  208. <p>To keep the tutorial easy to follow, I will be using one text file named <code>Haruki.txt</code> throughout all the examples, which contains the following content:</p><pre><code>Book_Name       Year
  209. Hear the Wind Sing (A Wild Sheep Chase) (1973)
  210. Pinball,        (1973)
  211. Norwegian Wood  (1987)
  212. A Walk to the Bakery    (1982)
  213. Hard-Boiled Wonderland and the End of the World (1985)
  214. The Wind-Up Bird Chronicle      (1994-1995)
  215. Sputnik Sweetheart      (1999)
  216. Kafka on the Shore      (2002)
  217. After Dark      (2004)
  218. 1Q84    (2009-2010)
  219. Colorless Tsukuru Tazaki and His Years of Pilgrimage    (2013)
  220. Killing Commendatore    (2017)
  221. First Person Singular   (2020)</code></pre><p>Now, let&apos;s take a look at some examples of using the cut command in Linux.</p><h2 id="1-cut-by-bytes">1. Cut by bytes </h2><div class="kg-card kg-callout-card kg-callout-card-blue"><div class="kg-callout-emoji">&#x1F4CB;</div><div class="kg-callout-text">1 character = 1 byte.</div></div><p>The simplest way you can cut the characters using the cut command is to specify the byte of space in memory occupied by a text and cut the desired part of the file.</p><p>To cut by bytes, you can use the <code>-b</code> flag, and then you specify the position in-terms of terms of indexing:</p><pre><code>cut -b &lt;nth byte&gt; Filename</code></pre><p>For example, if I want to cut the <strong>fifth character</strong>, then use the following:</p><pre><code>cut -b 5 Haruki.txt</code></pre><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card"><img src="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/01/image-7.png" class="kg-image" alt="Cut Command Examples" loading="lazy" width="1090" height="466" srcset="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/size/w600/2024/01/image-7.png 600w, https://itsfoss.com/content/images/size/w1000/2024/01/image-7.png 1000w, https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/01/image-7.png 1090w" sizes="(min-width: 720px) 720px"></figure><p>In simple terms, use the bytes as the index number. Let&apos;s say you would like to cut the seventh character, then you specify <code>7</code> along with the <code>-b</code> flag.</p><h5 id="cut-multiple-characters-from-each-line">Cut multiple characters from each line </h5><p>You can cut multiple characters from each line using the <code>-b</code> flag, where you specify the multiple bytes separated by commas.</p><p>For example, if I want to cut the third, sixth, and seventh character from each line, then I&apos;ll use the following:</p><pre><code>cut -b 3,6,7 Haruki.txt</code></pre><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card"><img src="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/01/image-8.png" class="kg-image" alt="Cut Command Examples" loading="lazy" width="1090" height="466" srcset="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/size/w600/2024/01/image-8.png 600w, https://itsfoss.com/content/images/size/w1000/2024/01/image-8.png 1000w, https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/01/image-8.png 1090w" sizes="(min-width: 720px) 720px"></figure><h5 id="cut-a-range-of-characters">Cut a range of characters </h5><p>With the cut command, you can also specify the range of the characters that need to be cut. </p><p>For example, if I wish to cut from the third to seventh character, then I will use the following:</p><pre><code>cut -b 3-7 Haruki.txt</code></pre><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card"><img src="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/01/image-9.png" class="kg-image" alt="Cut Command Examples" loading="lazy" width="1090" height="466" srcset="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/size/w600/2024/01/image-9.png 600w, https://itsfoss.com/content/images/size/w1000/2024/01/image-9.png 1000w, https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/01/image-9.png 1090w" sizes="(min-width: 720px) 720px"></figure><h5 id="cut-everything-except-specific-bytes">Cut everything except specific bytes</h5><p>You can use the <code>--complement</code> flag to cut everything but not the specific bytes by which you can ignore the specified bytes and print everything else.</p><p>To use the <code>--complement</code> flag, you&apos;d have to follow the given syntax:</p><pre><code>cut -b &lt;bytes&gt; --complement Filename</code></pre><p>Let&apos;s say I want to ignore the first five bytes, then I will use the following:</p><pre><code>cut -b 1-5 --complement Haruki.txt</code></pre><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card"><img src="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/01/image-15.png" class="kg-image" alt="Cut Command Examples" loading="lazy" width="1090" height="466" srcset="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/size/w600/2024/01/image-15.png 600w, https://itsfoss.com/content/images/size/w1000/2024/01/image-15.png 1000w, https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/01/image-15.png 1090w" sizes="(min-width: 720px) 720px"></figure><h5 id="specify-the-starting-or-end-point-to-cut">Specify the starting or end point to cut</h5><p>Using the cut command, you can also specify the starting point from where you intend to start cutting the characters or the endpoint to stop. </p><p>To specify the starting point, you use the <code>n-</code> where the <code>n</code> is the number from where you want to start cutting off the characters until the end of the line:</p><pre><code>cut -b n- Filename</code></pre><p>For example, if I wish to cut from the fifth character until the end of the line, then I will use the following:</p><pre><code>cut -b 5- Haruki.txt</code></pre><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card"><img src="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/01/image-6.png" class="kg-image" alt="Cut Command Examples" loading="lazy" width="1090" height="466" srcset="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/size/w600/2024/01/image-6.png 600w, https://itsfoss.com/content/images/size/w1000/2024/01/image-6.png 1000w, https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/01/image-6.png 1090w" sizes="(min-width: 720px) 720px"></figure><p>To specify the endpoint, you use the <code>-n</code> (<em>notice the dash before n</em>) where the <code>n</code> is the last character indicating the borderline to cut:</p><pre><code>cut -b -n Filename</code></pre><p>For example, if I want to cut until the  seventh character, I will use the following:</p><pre><code>cut -b -7 Haruki.txt</code></pre><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card"><img src="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/01/image-10.png" class="kg-image" alt="Cut Command Examples" loading="lazy" width="1090" height="466" srcset="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/size/w600/2024/01/image-10.png 600w, https://itsfoss.com/content/images/size/w1000/2024/01/image-10.png 1000w, https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/01/image-10.png 1090w" sizes="(min-width: 720px) 720px"></figure><p><strong>Suggested Read &#x1F4D6;</strong></p><figure class="kg-card kg-bookmark-card"><a class="kg-bookmark-container" href="https://itsfoss.com/essential-ubuntu-commands/"><div class="kg-bookmark-content"><div class="kg-bookmark-title">31 Basic Yet Essential Ubuntu Commands</div><div class="kg-bookmark-description">An extensive list of essential Linux commands that every Ubuntu user will find helpful in their Linux journey.</div><div class="kg-bookmark-metadata"><img class="kg-bookmark-icon" src="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/size/w256h256/2022/12/android-chrome-192x192.png" alt="Cut Command Examples"><span class="kg-bookmark-author">It&apos;s FOSS</span><span class="kg-bookmark-publisher">Abhishek Prakash</span></div></div><div class="kg-bookmark-thumbnail"><img src="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/wordpress/2022/11/must-know-linux-commands-for-ubuntu-user.png" alt="Cut Command Examples"></div></a></figure><h2 id="2-cut-by-characters">2. Cut by characters </h2><p>This is exactly like the byte option but here, it utilizes character indexing rather than byte indexing which is helpful, especially in cases where a single character uses multiple bytes.</p><p>For example, if I want to cut the first five characters, then I will use the <code>-c</code> flag in the following manner:</p><pre><code>cut -c 5 Haruki.txt</code></pre><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card"><img src="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/01/image-11.png" class="kg-image" alt="Cut Command Examples" loading="lazy" width="1090" height="466" srcset="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/size/w600/2024/01/image-11.png 600w, https://itsfoss.com/content/images/size/w1000/2024/01/image-11.png 1000w, https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/01/image-11.png 1090w" sizes="(min-width: 720px) 720px"></figure><p>You can also specify the range of the characters using the <code>-c</code> flag. Let&apos;s say I would like to cut from the seventh to tenth character, then I will be using the following:</p><pre><code>cut -c 7-10 Haruki.txt</code></pre><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card"><img src="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/01/image-12.png" class="kg-image" alt="Cut Command Examples" loading="lazy" width="1090" height="466" srcset="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/size/w600/2024/01/image-12.png 600w, https://itsfoss.com/content/images/size/w1000/2024/01/image-12.png 1000w, https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/01/image-12.png 1090w" sizes="(min-width: 720px) 720px"></figure><p>Furthermore, you can also cut by specifying the starting and endpoint as I explained earlier. Here&apos;s how I will cut till the 10th character using the <code>-c</code> flag:</p><pre><code>cut -c -10 Haruki.txt</code></pre><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card"><img src="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/01/image-13.png" class="kg-image" alt="Cut Command Examples" loading="lazy" width="1090" height="466" srcset="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/size/w600/2024/01/image-13.png 600w, https://itsfoss.com/content/images/size/w1000/2024/01/image-13.png 1000w, https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/01/image-13.png 1090w" sizes="(min-width: 720px) 720px"></figure><p>You can also specify what characters to ignore and print everything else using the <code>--complement</code> flag. </p><p>For example, here, I printed everything ignoring 10th to 15th character:</p><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card"><img src="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/01/image-16.png" class="kg-image" alt="Cut Command Examples" loading="lazy" width="1090" height="466" srcset="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/size/w600/2024/01/image-16.png 600w, https://itsfoss.com/content/images/size/w1000/2024/01/image-16.png 1000w, https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/01/image-16.png 1090w" sizes="(min-width: 720px) 720px"></figure><h2 id="3-cut-by-the-fields">3. Cut by the fields </h2><p>By default, when you want to cut by field, it will use a tab space as a delimiter. Sure you can use a different delimiter, which I will also mention.</p><p>To cut by the field, use the <code>-f</code> flag as shown here:</p><pre><code>cut -f &lt;number of fields&gt; Filename</code></pre><p>For example, if I wish to cut 1 field, then I will be using the following:</p><pre><code>cut -f 1 Haruki.txt</code></pre><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card"><img src="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/01/image-14.png" class="kg-image" alt="Cut Command Examples" loading="lazy" width="1090" height="466" srcset="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/size/w600/2024/01/image-14.png 600w, https://itsfoss.com/content/images/size/w1000/2024/01/image-14.png 1000w, https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/01/image-14.png 1090w" sizes="(min-width: 720px) 720px"></figure><p>To change the delimiter, you have to use the <code>-d</code> flag followed by the delimiter you want to use:</p><pre><code>cut -d &quot;delimiter&quot; -f &lt;number of fields&gt; Filename</code></pre><p>For example, here, I have used <code>a</code> as a character so it will print until the character <code>a</code> appears in the line:</p><pre><code>cut -d &quot;a&quot; -f 1 Haruki.txt</code></pre><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card"><img src="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/01/image-17.png" class="kg-image" alt="Cut Command Examples" loading="lazy" width="1090" height="466" srcset="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/size/w600/2024/01/image-17.png 600w, https://itsfoss.com/content/images/size/w1000/2024/01/image-17.png 1000w, https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/01/image-17.png 1090w" sizes="(min-width: 720px) 720px"></figure><h2 id="4-concatenate-output-using-delimiter">4. Concatenate output using delimiter </h2><p>When you use a delimiter, it concatenates output without using a delimiter, so you end up having output separated by space. </p><p>You can change this behavior using the <code>--output-delimite</code> flag. </p><div class="kg-card kg-callout-card kg-callout-card-blue"><div class="kg-callout-emoji">&#x1F4CB;</div><div class="kg-callout-text">The --output-delimite flag will only with when the output is divided into two or more columns.</div></div><p>To use the <code>--output-delimite</code> flag, use the following syntax:</p><pre><code>cut &lt;options for cutting file&gt; --output-delimite=delimiter Filename </code></pre><p>For example, here, I used the <code>-c</code> flag to cut different parts of the file and then use the <code>--output-delimite</code> flag to concatenate output with the <code>@</code>:</p><pre><code>cut -c 1-5,9,11-14 --output-delimiter=@ Haruki.txt</code></pre><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card"><img src="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/01/image-18.png" class="kg-image" alt="Cut Command Examples" loading="lazy" width="1090" height="466" srcset="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/size/w600/2024/01/image-18.png 600w, https://itsfoss.com/content/images/size/w1000/2024/01/image-18.png 1000w, https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/01/image-18.png 1090w" sizes="(min-width: 720px) 720px"></figure><p>Did you see that? First I used the <code>-c</code> flag to print the 1 to 5, then 9th, and then 11 to 14th characters, and then merged the whole output with the <code>@</code>.</p><h2 id="practice-questions-%F0%9F%97%92%EF%B8%8F">Practice questions &#x1F5D2;&#xFE0F;</h2><p>In this section, I share some practice questions that you can use to get better at using the cut command:</p><ol><li>Save the output of the cut command by <a href="https://linuxhandbook.com/command-output-to-file/?ref=itsfoss.com" rel="noreferrer">redirecting it to a file.</a></li><li>How do you print the first 5 characters of the file using the cut command?</li><li>Print everything ignoring the following range of characters: 2-6, 10, 12-15.</li><li>Use <code>e</code> as a delimiter and divide the file into 2 parts.</li></ol><h2 id="wrapping-up">Wrapping Up</h2><p>This tutorial went through the basics of using the cut command, including the syntax, practical examples, and practice questions. You can explore more examples in our blog post at Linux Handbook:</p><figure class="kg-card kg-bookmark-card"><a class="kg-bookmark-container" href="https://linuxhandbook.com/cut-command/?ref=itsfoss.com"><div class="kg-bookmark-content"><div class="kg-bookmark-title">4 Essential and Practical Usage of Cut Command in Linux</div><div class="kg-bookmark-description">The cut command in Linux allows removing data on each line of a file. Read this tutorial to know how to use it effectively to process text or CSV data file.</div><div class="kg-bookmark-metadata"><img class="kg-bookmark-icon" src="https://linuxhandbook.com/content/images/size/w256h256/2021/08/Linux-Handbook-New-Logo.png" alt="Cut Command Examples"><span class="kg-bookmark-author">Linux Handbook</span><span class="kg-bookmark-publisher">Sylvain Leroux</span></div></div><div class="kg-bookmark-thumbnail"><img src="https://linuxhandbook.com/content/images/2020/07/cut-command-linux.jpeg" alt="Cut Command Examples"></div></a></figure><p>If you are starting out, you might want to refer to our <a href="https://itsfoss.com/tag/terminal-basics/" rel="noreferrer">Linux command guide for beginners</a>:</p><figure class="kg-card kg-bookmark-card"><a class="kg-bookmark-container" href="https://itsfoss.com/tag/terminal-basics/"><div class="kg-bookmark-content"><div class="kg-bookmark-title">Linux Command Tutorials for Absolute Beginners</div><div class="kg-bookmark-description">Never used Linux commands before? No worries. This tutorial series is for absolute beginners to the Linux terminal.</div><div class="kg-bookmark-metadata"><img class="kg-bookmark-icon" src="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/size/w256h256/2022/12/android-chrome-192x192.png" alt="Cut Command Examples"><span class="kg-bookmark-author">It&apos;s FOSS</span></div></div><div class="kg-bookmark-thumbnail"><img src="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2023/03/terminal-basics-series-tag.png" alt="Cut Command Examples"></div></a></figure>]]></content:encoded></item><item><title><![CDATA[Using a USB Serial Adapter (UART) to Help Debug Your Raspberry Pi]]></title><description><![CDATA[A UART attached to your Raspberry Pi can help you troubleshoot issues with your Raspberry Pi. Here's what you need to know.]]></description><link>https://itsfoss.com/use-uart-raspberry-pi/</link><guid isPermaLink="false">65bdb3bff30830050bcac992</guid><category><![CDATA[Raspberry Pi]]></category><dc:creator><![CDATA[Pratham Patel]]></dc:creator><pubDate>Mon, 12 Feb 2024 07:28:24 GMT</pubDate><media:content url="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/02/debug-raspberry-pi-with-usb-adapter.png" medium="image"/><content:encoded><![CDATA[<img src="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/02/debug-raspberry-pi-with-usb-adapter.png" alt="Using a USB Serial Adapter (UART) to Help Debug Your Raspberry Pi"><p>A serial console allows you to see the boot logs even before the Linux kernel has started booting! Therefore, a serial console attached to your Raspberry Pi can help you find causes of problems like the following:</p><ul><li>A new Linux distribution that you flashed on your Raspberry Pi does not boot.</li><li>Your Raspberry Pi boots into an older kernel even though you installed a newer kernel provided by your distribution maintainer via <code>apt</code>/<code>pacman</code>/<code>dnf</code>.</li><li>You installed a new kernel using <code>apt</code>/<code>pacman</code>/<code>dnf</code> but now the Ethernet port does not work and you can&apos;t SSH into it to uninstall that kernel.</li><li>Your Raspberry Pi does not boot at all.</li><li>You are learning kernel development and want to see why the change that you made is preventing the kernel from booting.</li><li>You have so many Raspberry Pis that you have run out of displays to connect to and just want to watch the boot logs to sanity check if they are booting correctly or not.</li></ul><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card kg-card-hascaption"><img src="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/02/raspberry-pi-uart.webp" class="kg-image" alt="Using a USB Serial Adapter (UART) to Help Debug Your Raspberry Pi" loading="lazy" width="1000" height="750" srcset="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/size/w600/2024/02/raspberry-pi-uart.webp 600w, https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/02/raspberry-pi-uart.webp 1000w" sizes="(min-width: 720px) 720px"><figcaption><span style="white-space: pre-wrap;">My Raspberry Pi connected to my MacBook via UART</span></figcaption></figure><div class="kg-card kg-callout-card kg-callout-card-green"><div class="kg-callout-emoji">&#x1F4A1;</div><div class="kg-callout-text">Though the above bulletin mentions the Raspberry Pi in particular, this can be done for any other Single Board Computer that exposes a UART/serial interface. I have personally done this for many ARM and even RISC-V boards ;)</div></div><p>If any of the points listed above are interesting for you (which basically are &quot;My Raspberry Pi does not boot and I can&apos;t see why.&quot;), follow along!</p><h2 id="what-is-a-serial-adapter">What is a serial adapter?</h2><p>Simply put, a serial adapter is like your HDMI/DP cable. But instead of carrying data in form of video, it carries data in form of plaintext. This means that the drivers needed for serial interface initialisation are dead simple and can be loaded in without any dependencies (i.e., as early as possible in the boot flow).</p><div class="kg-card kg-callout-card kg-callout-card-blue"><div class="kg-callout-emoji">&#x1F4CB;</div><div class="kg-callout-text">The article contains affiliate links from Amazon. Please read our <a href="https://itsfoss.com/affiliate-policy/">affiliate policy</a>.</div></div><h2 id="choosing-and-purchasing-serial-adapter">Choosing and purchasing serial adapter</h2><p>Now that you know the function of a serial adapter, you might want one. And there are just as many choices for a serial adapter as there are Linux distributions! And just like Linux distributions, there are some that <em>I</em> prefer.</p><p>They are the serial adapters with the following chipsets:</p><ul><li>CP2102: This is my go-to chipset almost every time. You can <a href="https://amzn.to/3SjUHLS?ref=itsfoss.com">get one from Amazon</a> (affiliate link).</li><li>FT232 series: Some boards use a baud rate (we will discuss &quot;baud rate&quot; later on in this article) of 1.5 million. The CP2102 maxes out at 921,600 bauds. In which case, CP2102 won&apos;t work. Therefore using an adapter with this chipset is an excellent bet. You can <a href="https://amzn.to/3SVkKe8?ref=itsfoss.com">get it from Amazon</a> (affiliate link).</li><li>Adafruit 954: This is a serial adapter to buy if you can digest the [comparatively] high price. It&apos;s quite nice! (The 954 is just the Adafruit product ID.) Here&apos;s the <a href="https://amzn.to/48cKNBR?ref=itsfoss.com">Amazon link</a> (affiliate link).</li><li>Raspberry Pi Debug Probe: This accessory from the Raspberry Pi foundation does not only provide a UART device (what we&apos;re concerned with for the scope of this article), but also works with OpenOCD! If you know what the later means, you&apos;re already salivating!</li></ul><p>A serial adapter that uses either one of these chipsets will work fine with the Raspberry Pi. But if you are unsure, I recommend that you go with an adapter that uses the <strong>CP2102 chipset</strong>.</p><p>If you purchased a serial adapter with exposed pins (metal prongs) on one side (like in the image below), it is <em>necessary</em> that you purchase <strong>female to female jumper wires</strong> to connect the serial adapter to the Raspberry Pi&apos;s GPIO pins! (We need only 3 such jumper wires.)</p><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card kg-card-hascaption"><img src="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/02/uart.jpg" class="kg-image" alt="Using a USB Serial Adapter (UART) to Help Debug Your Raspberry Pi" loading="lazy" width="2000" height="1536" srcset="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/size/w600/2024/02/uart.jpg 600w, https://itsfoss.com/content/images/size/w1000/2024/02/uart.jpg 1000w, https://itsfoss.com/content/images/size/w1600/2024/02/uart.jpg 1600w, https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/02/uart.jpg 2120w" sizes="(min-width: 720px) 720px"><figcaption><span style="white-space: pre-wrap;">A USB to serial adapter (with the CP2102 chipset) which has exposed pins</span></figcaption></figure><p>You can <a href="https://amzn.to/3whxJ0U?ref=itsfoss.com">get these easily at any electronic shop or e-commerce sites like Amazon</a> (affiliate link).</p><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card kg-card-hascaption"><img src="https://m.media-amazon.com/images/I/512IkswpobL.jpg" class="kg-image" alt="Using a USB Serial Adapter (UART) to Help Debug Your Raspberry Pi" loading="lazy"><figcaption><span style="white-space: pre-wrap;">A set of female to female jumper wires</span></figcaption></figure><h2 id="preliminary-setup">Preliminary setup</h2><p>Before connecting these to your Raspberry Pi, you need to perform some preliminary setup.</p><h3 id="enable-uart">Enable UART</h3><div class="kg-card kg-callout-card kg-callout-card-red"><div class="kg-callout-emoji">&#x1F6A7;</div><div class="kg-callout-text"><i><b><strong class="italic" style="white-space: pre-wrap;">Follow this specific step only if you are connecting to a Raspberry Pi.</strong></b></i> If not, please feel free to skip this step, as this is not something you need (or even have) to do for other SBCs/computers. ;)</div></div><p>The Raspberry Pi&apos;s bootloader reads a file called <code>config.txt</code> before booting the Linux kernel. It is located in the <code>/boot</code> directory as <code>/boot/config.txt</code>. If you are on the Bookworm or later release of the Raspberry Pi OS, the <code>config.txt</code> file is located at <code>/boot/firmware/config.txt</code>.</p><p>This file is responsible for toggling UART on or off. For some reason, the default value for UART is set to off. I don&apos;t know why this decision was taken, since turning it on has no negative impact (that I&apos;m aware of)!</p><p>It is time to toggle this on. In your <code>/boot/config.txt</code> file, ensure that the <code>enable_uart</code> parameter&apos;s value is set to <code>1</code> (enabled) and also that it is not commented out.</p><pre><code class="language-bash"># before Bookworm release
  222. $ sudo grep &apos;^enable_uart=1&apos; /boot/config.txt
  223. enable_uart=1
  224.  
  225. # Bookworm and later releases
  226. $ sudo grep &apos;^enable_uart=1&apos; /boot/firmware/config.txt
  227. enable_uart=1</code></pre><p>If, running either of the above commands does not result in any output, either</p><ol><li>The value for the <code>enable_uart</code> parameter is set to <code>0</code> instead of <code>1</code>.</li><li>The line defining the value for the <code>enable_uart</code> parameter is commented out.</li><li>The value for the <code>enable_uart</code> parameter is not even defined.</li></ol><p>In which case, append the following line at the <strong>end</strong> of the <code>config.txt</code> file:</p><pre><code>enable_uart=1</code></pre><h3 id="install-a-serial-communication-program">Install a serial communication program</h3><p>There are many choices to using a program that enables serial communication. Of the many, a few of them are:</p><ul><li><code>picocom</code>: This is what I prefer.</li><li><code>minicom</code>: Most guides use this, so if you are new, using <code>minicom</code> might be advantageous. Although I will be using <code>picocom</code> in this article since it is dead simple.</li><li><code>screen</code>: Some guides also mention this but I have never tried it.</li></ul><p>Since neither of them is &quot;new&quot;, even the most stable/LTS distros like RHEL  7.x should have all three of them available in the first party repos. Simply use your package manager to install either one. I will be using <code>picocom</code> so install that please.</p><h2 id="attaching-the-serial-adapter">Attaching the serial adapter</h2><p>Please follow the following steps <strong>in order</strong>:</p><div class="kg-card kg-callout-card kg-callout-card-green"><div class="kg-callout-emoji">&#x1F4A1;</div><div class="kg-callout-text">In case you face any difficulties, there is a troubleshooting section near the end. I recommend you go through it in such cases.</div></div><ol><li>Plug the USB end of the serial adapter into your computer/laptop.</li><li>Get the serial device from the output of <code>sudo dmesg</code>. (Check the troubleshooting section to find what the log entries might look like for you.)</li><li><strong>Safely power down the Raspberry Pi.</strong></li><li>Using the GPIO pinout diagram below, attach the<ol><li><strong>RX of adapter to TX of Raspberry Pi</strong> (pin 8 in diagram)</li><li><strong>TX of adapter to RX of Raspberry Pi</strong> (pin 9 in diagram)</li><li>Ground of adapter to <em>any</em> ground pin on the Raspberry Pi (pin 14 in diagram)</li><li><strong>PLEASE MAKE SURE NOT TO CONNECT ANY 5v OR 3.3v PINS!</strong></li></ol></li><li>Connect to the serial interface using the command: <code>picocom --quiet --baud 115200 &lt;serial device&gt;</code></li></ol><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card kg-card-hascaption"><img src="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/02/GPIO-Pinout-Diagram-2.png" class="kg-image" alt="Using a USB Serial Adapter (UART) to Help Debug Your Raspberry Pi" loading="lazy" width="2000" height="1148" srcset="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/size/w600/2024/02/GPIO-Pinout-Diagram-2.png 600w, https://itsfoss.com/content/images/size/w1000/2024/02/GPIO-Pinout-Diagram-2.png 1000w, https://itsfoss.com/content/images/size/w1600/2024/02/GPIO-Pinout-Diagram-2.png 1600w, https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/02/GPIO-Pinout-Diagram-2.png 2064w" sizes="(min-width: 720px) 720px"><figcaption><span style="white-space: pre-wrap;">Raspberry Pi&apos;s 40-pin GPIO pin layout</span></figcaption></figure><p><code>picocom</code> has now started listening to the serial adapter that you mentioned, but don&apos;t worry if there is no output. The Raspberry Pi is powered off and therefore not communicating anything with your computer/laptop. It is time to power it on so we can see the boot logs from it.</p><div class="kg-card kg-callout-card kg-callout-card-green"><div class="kg-callout-emoji">&#x1F4A1;</div><div class="kg-callout-text">If you want to quit `<b><strong>picocom</strong></b>`, press `<b><strong>Ctrl + a</strong></b>` and then press `<b><strong>Ctrl + x</strong></b>`.</div></div><p>Following is a capture of booting Raspberry Pi OS on my Raspberry Pi 4B:</p>
  228. <!--kg-card-begin: html-->
  229. <script async id="asciicast-636045" src="https://asciinema.org/a/636045.js"></script>
  230. <!--kg-card-end: html-->
  231. <p>As you can see in the above recording of my terminal, the boot logs as the Linux kernel boots up are visible on my computer&apos;s screen. These messages are typically what you might see in the output of the <code>dmesg</code> command.</p><p>But that&apos;s not all. You can also interact with it! At the end, you might have noticed that I was at the <code>getty</code> (console login prompt). I could have logged in, but didn&apos;t, to keep the recording short.</p><p>Sometimes when you are tinkering with the Linux kernel, it might panic and throw you in an initramfs shell so you can undo/fix anything that you consider potentially problematic. You can interact with that too, using this serial console!</p><p>Think of this as your keyboard directly connected to the Raspberry Pi but it outputs to your terminal&apos;s screen :)</p><h2 id="troubleshooting">Troubleshooting</h2><p><strong>Q: My serial device does not show up.</strong></p><p>There can be two reasons why this might happen:</p><ol><li><strong>The serial adapter is not plugged in properly.</strong> In which case, make sure that the serial adapter has been plugged in properly. <strong>Avoid <em>un-powered</em> USB extension cables.</strong> Powered USB hubs are fine, by the way. Rely on the indicator LED on the adapter to know if it is plugged in properly or not.</li><li><strong>Drivers for the UART chipset aren&apos;t found/loaded.</strong> In which case, check if the output of the <code>sudo dmesg</code> command mentions the chipset of the serial adapter that you bought. Since I used an adapter with the CP2102 chipset, I have the following log entries in my kernel log:</li></ol><pre><code>$ sudo dmesg | grep &apos;cp210x&apos;
  232. [    9.485125] usbcore: registered new interface driver cp210x
  233. [    9.486925] usbserial: USB Serial support registered for cp210x
  234. [    9.488967] cp210x 2-1.1:1.0: cp210x converter detected
  235. [    9.494169] usb 2-1.1: cp210x converter now attached to ttyUSB0
  236.  
  237. # yes, the chipset driver for the CP2102 chipset is called `cp210x`</code></pre><p><strong>Q: I get permission error with the <code>picocom</code> command.</strong></p><p>This is an easy one to solve. Your user needs to be a part of the <code>dialout</code> group. Add your user to the <code>dialout</code> group, log-out then log back in. Make sure that you see <code>dialout</code> in the output after running the <code>groups</code> command. It should work now.<strong> This solution is only for Linux users.</strong></p><figure class="kg-card kg-bookmark-card"><a class="kg-bookmark-container" href="https://learnubuntu.com/add-user-group/?ref=itsfoss.com"><div class="kg-bookmark-content"><div class="kg-bookmark-title">How to Add User to a Group in Ubuntu Command Line</div><div class="kg-bookmark-description">Here&#x2019;s how you can assign a new group to an existing user or change its primary user group in Ubuntu. Also learn about creating new users with given groups.</div><div class="kg-bookmark-metadata"><img class="kg-bookmark-icon" src="https://learnubuntu.com/assets/icon-192x192.png?v=feaa0469d0" alt="Using a USB Serial Adapter (UART) to Help Debug Your Raspberry Pi"><span class="kg-bookmark-author">Learn Ubuntu</span><span class="kg-bookmark-publisher">Abhishek</span></div></div><div class="kg-bookmark-thumbnail"><img src="https://learnubuntu.com/content/images/2022/07/add-user-to-group-ubuntu.png" alt="Using a USB Serial Adapter (UART) to Help Debug Your Raspberry Pi"></div></a></figure><p><strong>Q: In <code>picocom</code> after powering board up, I don&apos;t see anything.</strong></p><p>There are several reasons for why this might happen:</p><ol><li>It might take up-to 5-10 seconds for the Raspberry Pi to start communicating via the serial interface. Please be patient.</li><li>You connected RX to RX and TX to TX. Please refer to step 4. There I mention that it is a &quot;cross&quot; connection where the RX of one side goes to the TX of another side and vice-a-versa.</li><li>If you followed step 4 as per my instructions, make sure that the jumper wires maintain a connection on both ends and either end isn&apos;t loose or has come off while you were connecting.</li><li>Make sure that <code>enable_uart=1</code> is present/uncommented in the <code>/boot/config.txt</code> file on the Raspberry Pi&apos;s SD card.</li><li>If you&apos;re still here, the SD card might be at fault. Try re-imaging and/or using a different SD card if possible.</li><li>You are trying to boot an image that is intended for a different CPU ISA than what your board has. For example, you are trying to boot the x86 ISO of Fedora on an ARM Raspberry Pi or on a RISC-V computer. <strong>This will never work.</strong></li></ol><figure class="kg-card kg-bookmark-card"><a class="kg-bookmark-container" href="https://itsfoss.com/arm-aarch64-x86_64/"><div class="kg-bookmark-content"><div class="kg-bookmark-title">arm vs aarch64 vs amd64 vs x86_64: What&#x2019;s the Difference</div><div class="kg-bookmark-description">There are so many terms when it comes to CPU: aarch64, x86_64, amd64, arm and more. Learn what they are and how they differ from each other.</div><div class="kg-bookmark-metadata"><img class="kg-bookmark-icon" src="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/size/w256h256/2022/12/android-chrome-192x192.png" alt="Using a USB Serial Adapter (UART) to Help Debug Your Raspberry Pi"><span class="kg-bookmark-author">It&apos;s FOSS</span><span class="kg-bookmark-publisher">Pratham Patel</span></div></div><div class="kg-bookmark-thumbnail"><img src="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2023/09/cpu-architectures.png" alt="Using a USB Serial Adapter (UART) to Help Debug Your Raspberry Pi"></div></a></figure><p><strong>Q: I see some random garbage characters in <code>picocom</code>.</strong></p><p>There are two reasons why this might happen:</p><ol><li><strong>The baud rate is set incorrectly.</strong> Though the widely used baud rate for a <em>lot</em> of ARM and RISC-V boards is 115200 bauds, some boards use a baud rate of 1500000 bauds. Please refer to the board&apos;s documentation for the baud rate that you should use.</li><li><strong>You didn&apos;t follow step 4 correctly.</strong></li></ol><h2 id="conclusion">Conclusion</h2><p>So here, I go over what a serial console even means, why it is used and is helpful. I also explained how to get a serial adapter and how to connect it to your Raspberry Pi (or any other Single Board Computer for that matter!).</p><p>I also mentioned some troubleshooting tips about problems I have encountered myself. That said, if you still have difficulties understanding things, please don&apos;t hesitate to leave a comment and I&apos;ll get back to you!</p><p>Let me know if you want similar how-tos by leaving a comment ;)</p>]]></content:encoded></item><item><title><![CDATA[FOSS Weekly #24.06: Ollama AI, Zorin OS Upgrade, Damn Small Linux, Sudo on Windows and More]]></title><description><![CDATA[Damn Small Linux resumes development after 16 years.]]></description><link>https://itsfoss.com/newsletter/foss-weekly-24-06/</link><guid isPermaLink="false">65c20aebf30830050bcad55d</guid><category><![CDATA[Newsletter ✉️]]></category><dc:creator><![CDATA[Abhishek Prakash]]></dc:creator><pubDate>Thu, 08 Feb 2024 04:29:44 GMT</pubDate><media:content url="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/02/foss-weekly-24-06.png" medium="image"/><content:encoded><![CDATA[<img src="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/02/foss-weekly-24-06.png" alt="FOSS Weekly #24.06: Ollama AI, Zorin OS Upgrade, Damn Small Linux, Sudo on Windows and More"><p>I&apos;ll open the newsletter with good news.</p><p>Damn Small Linux is back from a long slumber, features a new antiX base. It&apos;s one of the <a href="https://itsfoss.com/super-lightweight-distros/">smallest Linux distros</a> out there. </p><figure class="kg-card kg-bookmark-card"><a class="kg-bookmark-container" href="https://news.itsfoss.com/damn-small-linux-release/?ref=itsfoss.com"><div class="kg-bookmark-content"><div class="kg-bookmark-title">Damn Small Linux Release Makes a Comeback After 16 Long Years</div><div class="kg-bookmark-description">Damn Small Linux 2024 makes a return!</div><div class="kg-bookmark-metadata"><img class="kg-bookmark-icon" src="https://news.itsfoss.com/content/images/size/w256h256/2022/08/android-chrome-192x192.png" alt="FOSS Weekly #24.06: Ollama AI, Zorin OS Upgrade, Damn Small Linux, Sudo on Windows and More"><span class="kg-bookmark-author">It&apos;s FOSS News</span><span class="kg-bookmark-publisher">Sourav Rudra</span></div></div><div class="kg-bookmark-thumbnail"><img src="https://news.itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/02/dsl-24.png" alt="FOSS Weekly #24.06: Ollama AI, Zorin OS Upgrade, Damn Small Linux, Sudo on Windows and More"></div></a></figure><p>This is a special project because back in its earlier version, it was an OS that fit under 50 MB. Yes, you read that right. Even in the new edition, everything will be under 700 MB.</p><p>It&apos;s a work in development. Hardly an alpha release but good to see the project being resurrected.</p><p>So, don&apos;t throw that 1 GB RAM laptop yet. It may still be useful to some extent with Damn Small Linux &#x1F604;</p><p><strong>&#x1F4AC; Let&apos;s see what else you get in this edition of FOSS Weekly:</strong></p><ul><li>Two new office suite releases for Linux.</li><li>GNOME steps up its documentation game.</li><li>A neat way to run LLMs locally on Raspberry Pis.</li><li>And other Linux news, videos and, of course, memes!</li></ul><hr><h2 id="%F0%9F%93%B0-linux-news">&#x1F4F0; Linux news</h2><ul><li>Mozilla&apos;s abandoned Servo project is <a href="https://news.itsfoss.com/servo-rust-web-engine/?ref=itsfoss.com" rel="noreferrer">going all in</a> for 2024.</li><li>ONLYOFFICE Docs 8.0 <a href="https://news.itsfoss.com/onlyoffice-8-0-release/?ref=itsfoss.com" rel="noreferrer">is here</a> with improved collaboration.</li><li>GNOME has <a href="https://news.itsfoss.com/gnome-project-handbook/?ref=itsfoss.com" rel="noreferrer">stepped up</a> their documentation game for contributors.</li><li><a href="https://news.itsfoss.com/libreoffice-24-2-is-here/?ref=itsfoss.com" rel="noreferrer">LibreOffice 24.2</a> is here, features a new version naming system, among other things.</li><li>KaOS 2024.01 recently landed <a href="https://news.itsfoss.com/kaos-2024-01-release/?ref=itsfoss.com" rel="noreferrer">with Plasma 6</a>, becoming one of the first distros to do that.</li></ul><p>Windows is slowly but surely becoming more like Linux day-by-day.</p><figure class="kg-card kg-bookmark-card"><a class="kg-bookmark-container" href="https://news.itsfoss.com/sudo-on-windows/?ref=itsfoss.com"><div class="kg-bookmark-content"><div class="kg-bookmark-title">Wow! Windows is Coming up With its Linux Like Sudo Command</div><div class="kg-bookmark-description">Yes! You read that right. A leak shows a sudo utility for Windows operating system.</div><div class="kg-bookmark-metadata"><img class="kg-bookmark-icon" src="https://news.itsfoss.com/content/images/size/w256h256/2022/08/android-chrome-192x192.png" alt="FOSS Weekly #24.06: Ollama AI, Zorin OS Upgrade, Damn Small Linux, Sudo on Windows and More"><span class="kg-bookmark-author">It&apos;s FOSS News</span><span class="kg-bookmark-publisher">Sourav Rudra</span></div></div><div class="kg-bookmark-thumbnail"><img src="https://news.itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/02/sudo-windows.png" alt="FOSS Weekly #24.06: Ollama AI, Zorin OS Upgrade, Damn Small Linux, Sudo on Windows and More"></div></a></figure><hr><h2 id="%F0%9F%8C%90-follow-us-on-google-news">&#x1F310; Follow us on Google News</h2><p>By the way, if you use Google,&#xA0;<a href="https://news.google.com/publications/CAAiENHoh-T8yP9Q8Qywor2dwGkqFAgKIhDR6Ifk_Mj_UPEMsKK9ncBp?ref=itsfoss.com">follow It&apos;s FOSS on Google News</a>&#xA0;to get trusted It&apos;s FOSS content before other websites in Google search.</p><figure class="kg-card kg-bookmark-card"><a class="kg-bookmark-container" href="https://news.google.com/publications/CAAiENHoh-T8yP9Q8Qywor2dwGkqFAgKIhDR6Ifk_Mj_UPEMsKK9ncBp?ref=itsfoss.com"><div class="kg-bookmark-content"><div class="kg-bookmark-title">It&#x2019;s FOSS - Google News</div><div class="kg-bookmark-description">Read full articles from It&#x2019;s FOSS and explore endless topics, magazines and more on your phone or tablet with Google News.</div><div class="kg-bookmark-metadata"><img class="kg-bookmark-icon" src="https://ssl.gstatic.com/gnews/logo/google_news_192.png" alt="FOSS Weekly #24.06: Ollama AI, Zorin OS Upgrade, Damn Small Linux, Sudo on Windows and More"><span class="kg-bookmark-author">Google News</span></div></div><div class="kg-bookmark-thumbnail"><img src="https://lh3.googleusercontent.com/8BtTTnoAEYry0KuwC0nPq5U_GERPzo_DTNxmR3FEzmJQxtUaUndM6ydGtZSnIorEoCSILMmf9g=rj-c-w300-h300-l95-c0xffffff" alt="FOSS Weekly #24.06: Ollama AI, Zorin OS Upgrade, Damn Small Linux, Sudo on Windows and More"></div></a></figure><hr><h2 id="%F0%9F%A7%A0-what-we%E2%80%99re-thinking-about">&#x1F9E0; What we&#x2019;re thinking about</h2><p>Google is betting big on making the interoperability between C++ and Rust easier for organizations.</p><figure class="kg-card kg-bookmark-card"><a class="kg-bookmark-container" href="https://security.googleblog.com/2024/02/improving-interoperability-between-rust-and-c.html?ref=itsfoss.com"><div class="kg-bookmark-content"><div class="kg-bookmark-title">Improving Interoperability Between Rust and C++</div><div class="kg-bookmark-description">Posted by Lars Bergstrom &#x2013; Director, Android Platform Tools &amp; Libraries and Chair of the Rust Foundation Board Back in 2021, we announced&#x2026;</div><div class="kg-bookmark-metadata"><img class="kg-bookmark-icon" src="https://security.googleblog.com/favicon.ico" alt="FOSS Weekly #24.06: Ollama AI, Zorin OS Upgrade, Damn Small Linux, Sudo on Windows and More"><span class="kg-bookmark-author">Google Online Security Blog</span><span class="kg-bookmark-publisher">Google</span></div></div><div class="kg-bookmark-thumbnail"><img src="http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-7bZ5EziliZQ/VynIS9F7OAI/AAAAAAAASQ0/BJFntXCAntstZe6hQuo5KTrhi5Dyz9yHgCK4B/s1600/googlelogo_color_200x200.png" alt="FOSS Weekly #24.06: Ollama AI, Zorin OS Upgrade, Damn Small Linux, Sudo on Windows and More"></div></a></figure><hr><h2 id="%F0%9F%A7%AE-linux-tips-tutorials-and-more">&#x1F9EE; Linux Tips, Tutorials and More</h2><p>If you want to run LLMs locally on your Raspberry Pi, then Ollama can be a great choice.</p><figure class="kg-card kg-bookmark-card"><a class="kg-bookmark-container" href="https://itsfoss.com/raspberry-pi-ollama-ai-setup/"><div class="kg-bookmark-content"><div class="kg-bookmark-title">How to Run LLMs Locally on Raspberry Pi Using Ollama AI</div><div class="kg-bookmark-description">Got a Raspberry Pi? How about using it ton run some LLMs using Ollama for your own private AI?</div><div class="kg-bookmark-metadata"><img class="kg-bookmark-icon" src="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/size/w256h256/2022/12/android-chrome-192x192.png" alt="FOSS Weekly #24.06: Ollama AI, Zorin OS Upgrade, Damn Small Linux, Sudo on Windows and More"><span class="kg-bookmark-author">It&apos;s FOSS</span><span class="kg-bookmark-publisher">Abhishek Kumar</span></div></div><div class="kg-bookmark-thumbnail"><img src="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/02/using-ollama-ai.png" alt="FOSS Weekly #24.06: Ollama AI, Zorin OS Upgrade, Damn Small Linux, Sudo on Windows and More"></div></a></figure><p>Zorin OS now provides a way to upgrade from version 16 to 17. Here&apos;s how it works.</p><figure class="kg-card kg-bookmark-card"><a class="kg-bookmark-container" href="https://itsfoss.com/zorin-os-upgrade/"><div class="kg-bookmark-content"><div class="kg-bookmark-title">How to upgrade to Zorin OS 17</div><div class="kg-bookmark-description">Zorin OS now provides a way to upgrade to a newer major version. Here&#x2019;s how to do that.</div><div class="kg-bookmark-metadata"><img class="kg-bookmark-icon" src="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/size/w256h256/2022/12/android-chrome-192x192.png" alt="FOSS Weekly #24.06: Ollama AI, Zorin OS Upgrade, Damn Small Linux, Sudo on Windows and More"><span class="kg-bookmark-author">It&apos;s FOSS</span><span class="kg-bookmark-publisher">Sagar Sharma</span></div></div><div class="kg-bookmark-thumbnail"><img src="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/02/zorin-os-17-upgrade.png" alt="FOSS Weekly #24.06: Ollama AI, Zorin OS Upgrade, Damn Small Linux, Sudo on Windows and More"></div></a></figure><p>Here are some helpful examples for the &#x201C;Less&#x201D; command in Linux.</p><figure class="kg-card kg-bookmark-card"><a class="kg-bookmark-container" href="https://itsfoss.com/less-command/"><div class="kg-bookmark-content"><div class="kg-bookmark-title">Less Command Examples in Linux</div><div class="kg-bookmark-description">Easily look through the contents of a big file with the help of less command.</div><div class="kg-bookmark-metadata"><img class="kg-bookmark-icon" src="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/size/w256h256/2022/12/android-chrome-192x192.png" alt="FOSS Weekly #24.06: Ollama AI, Zorin OS Upgrade, Damn Small Linux, Sudo on Windows and More"><span class="kg-bookmark-author">It&apos;s FOSS</span><span class="kg-bookmark-publisher">Sagar Sharma</span></div></div><div class="kg-bookmark-thumbnail"><img src="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/02/less-command-in-linux.png" alt="FOSS Weekly #24.06: Ollama AI, Zorin OS Upgrade, Damn Small Linux, Sudo on Windows and More"></div></a></figure><hr><h2 id="%F0%9F%93%B9-what-we-are-watching">&#x1F4F9; What we are watching</h2><p>An interesting take on Chromebooks by (not the OG) Linus.</p><figure class="kg-card kg-embed-card"><iframe width="200" height="113" src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/EE7bed5vD0Y?feature=oembed" frameborder="0" allow="accelerometer; autoplay; clipboard-write; encrypted-media; gyroscope; picture-in-picture; web-share" allowfullscreen title="Stop Calling these &#x201C;Chromebooks&#x201D;"></iframe></figure><hr><h2 id="%E2%9C%A8-project-highlights">&#x2728; Project highlights</h2><p>We did a book review after quite some time! This time it&apos;s &#x201C;<a href="https://packt.link/FPOp7?ref=itsfoss.com" rel="noreferrer">The Software Developer&apos;s Guide to Linux</a>&#x201D; from the house of Packt.</p><figure class="kg-card kg-bookmark-card"><a class="kg-bookmark-container" href="https://itsfoss.com/software-developers-guide-linux-review/"><div class="kg-bookmark-content"><div class="kg-bookmark-title">Teaching Linux to Software Developers With This Book</div><div class="kg-bookmark-description">Reading through &#x201C;The Software Developer&#x2019;s Guide to Linux&#x201D; and sharing our experience with the book.</div><div class="kg-bookmark-metadata"><img class="kg-bookmark-icon" src="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/size/w256h256/2022/12/android-chrome-192x192.png" alt="FOSS Weekly #24.06: Ollama AI, Zorin OS Upgrade, Damn Small Linux, Sudo on Windows and More"><span class="kg-bookmark-author">It&apos;s FOSS</span><span class="kg-bookmark-publisher">Ankush Das</span></div></div><div class="kg-bookmark-thumbnail"><img src="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/02/software-developers-guide-to-linux-book-review.png" alt="FOSS Weekly #24.06: Ollama AI, Zorin OS Upgrade, Damn Small Linux, Sudo on Windows and More"></div></a></figure><hr><h2 id="%F0%9F%A7%A9-new-quiz-unit">&#x1F9E9; New quiz unit</h2><p>A movie buff? Let&apos;s see if you can correctly guess the real life geniuses these movies were based on.</p><figure class="kg-card kg-bookmark-card"><a class="kg-bookmark-container" href="https://itsfoss.com/quiz/genius-minds-movies/"><div class="kg-bookmark-content"><div class="kg-bookmark-title">Guess the Genius Minds from the movies</div><div class="kg-bookmark-description">You have probably seen the movies. Can you identify the personalities behind the characters?</div><div class="kg-bookmark-metadata"><img class="kg-bookmark-icon" src="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/size/w256h256/2022/12/android-chrome-192x192.png" alt="FOSS Weekly #24.06: Ollama AI, Zorin OS Upgrade, Damn Small Linux, Sudo on Windows and More"><span class="kg-bookmark-author">It&apos;s FOSS</span><span class="kg-bookmark-publisher">Ankush Das</span></div></div><div class="kg-bookmark-thumbnail"><img src="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/02/cinematic-labs.png" alt="FOSS Weekly #24.06: Ollama AI, Zorin OS Upgrade, Damn Small Linux, Sudo on Windows and More"></div></a></figure><hr><h2 id="%F0%9F%8E%9F%EF%B8%8F-event-alert">&#x1F39F;&#xFE0F; Event alert</h2><p>Free and open source conference Installfest in Prague is gearing up for its latest event. Most talks from previous years are in Czech, but there will be some in English as well.</p><p>Call for speakers is now open, so if you have interesting thoughts to share at the event, please apply on their website.</p><figure class="kg-card kg-bookmark-card"><a class="kg-bookmark-container" href="https://installfest.cz/if24/?ref=itsfoss.com"><div class="kg-bookmark-content"><div class="kg-bookmark-title">InstallFest 2024</div><div class="kg-bookmark-description">Konference pro za&#x10D;&#xE1;te&#x10D;n&#xED;ky i odborn&#xED;ky o Linuxu, open-source a o v&#x161;em, co s t&#xED;m souvis&#xED;.</div><div class="kg-bookmark-metadata"><img class="kg-bookmark-icon" src="https://installfest.cz/if24/favicon.ico" alt="FOSS Weekly #24.06: Ollama AI, Zorin OS Upgrade, Damn Small Linux, Sudo on Windows and More"><span class="kg-bookmark-publisher">m.jezdinskysh.cvut.cz</span></div></div><div class="kg-bookmark-thumbnail"><img src="https://installfest.cz/if22/images/media_image.jpg" alt="FOSS Weekly #24.06: Ollama AI, Zorin OS Upgrade, Damn Small Linux, Sudo on Windows and More"></div></a></figure><hr><h2 id="%F0%9F%92%A1-quick-handy-tip">&#x1F4A1; Quick handy tip</h2><p>Add emojis inline in gedit by right-clicking inside the editor while editing a file and selecting &#x201C;<em>Insert Emoji</em>&#x201D;.</p><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card"><img src="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/02/click-on-insert-emoji.png" class="kg-image" alt="FOSS Weekly #24.06: Ollama AI, Zorin OS Upgrade, Damn Small Linux, Sudo on Windows and More" loading="lazy" width="1307" height="551" srcset="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/size/w600/2024/02/click-on-insert-emoji.png 600w, https://itsfoss.com/content/images/size/w1000/2024/02/click-on-insert-emoji.png 1000w, https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/02/click-on-insert-emoji.png 1307w" sizes="(min-width: 720px) 720px"></figure><p>Thereafter, select the required emoji from the emoji selection window.</p><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card"><img src="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/02/select-emoji-in-gedit.png" class="kg-image" alt="FOSS Weekly #24.06: Ollama AI, Zorin OS Upgrade, Damn Small Linux, Sudo on Windows and More" loading="lazy" width="1272" height="512" srcset="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/size/w600/2024/02/select-emoji-in-gedit.png 600w, https://itsfoss.com/content/images/size/w1000/2024/02/select-emoji-in-gedit.png 1000w, https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/02/select-emoji-in-gedit.png 1272w" sizes="(min-width: 720px) 720px"></figure><hr><h2 id="%F0%9F%A4%A3-meme-of-the-week">&#x1F923; Meme of the week</h2><p>Indeed, I have had peaceful nights after switching back to stable.</p><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card"><img src="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/02/hjmccc2keefc1.png" class="kg-image" alt="FOSS Weekly #24.06: Ollama AI, Zorin OS Upgrade, Damn Small Linux, Sudo on Windows and More" loading="lazy" width="647" height="386" srcset="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/size/w600/2024/02/hjmccc2keefc1.png 600w, https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/02/hjmccc2keefc1.png 647w"></figure><hr><h2 id="%F0%9F%97%93%EF%B8%8F-tech-trivia">&#x1F5D3;&#xFE0F; Tech Trivia</h2><p>The eminent computer scientist Ken Thompson turned 81 on 4th February. He co-created UNIX, B Programming language (yes, that existed once upon a time) and Go programming language. He also wrote the magical grep command. Grep command has <a href="https://twitter.com/LinuxHandbook/status/1712720794240082125?ref=itsfoss.com">an interesting backstory itself</a>.</p><hr><h2 id="%F0%9F%A7%91%E2%80%8D%F0%9F%A4%9D%E2%80%8D%F0%9F%A7%91-fossverse-corner">&#x1F9D1;&#x200D;&#x1F91D;&#x200D;&#x1F9D1; FOSSverse corner</h2><p>One of our FOSSers is quite impressed with Windows 11. What about you?</p><figure class="kg-card kg-bookmark-card"><a class="kg-bookmark-container" href="https://itsfoss.community/t/windows-11-dare-i-say-i-like-it/11694?ref=itsfoss.com"><div class="kg-bookmark-content"><div class="kg-bookmark-title">Windows 11: Dare I say I like it?</div><div class="kg-bookmark-description">Hi Guys, I haven&#x2019;t been spending much time online lately but did miss coming here to talk Linux etc. A couple months back, I picked up a Lenovo IdeaPad for a new laptop. Of course, the first thing I did was partition and install Ubuntu which runs perfectly on this machine. The only thing that doesn&#x2019;t work in Ubuntu is the fingerprint reader which isn&#x2019;t a huge deal but it&#x2019;s so convenient to just swipe my finger to login to Windows and unlock Bit Defender under W11. Lenovo Ideapad 5 15.6&#x2033; FH&#x2026;</div><div class="kg-bookmark-metadata"><img class="kg-bookmark-icon" src="https://itsfoss.community/uploads/default/optimized/1X/f274f9749e3fd8b4d6fbae1cf90c5c186d2f699c_2_180x180.png" alt="FOSS Weekly #24.06: Ollama AI, Zorin OS Upgrade, Damn Small Linux, Sudo on Windows and More"><span class="kg-bookmark-author">It&apos;s FOSS Community</span><span class="kg-bookmark-publisher">DanTheManDRH</span></div></div><div class="kg-bookmark-thumbnail"><img src="https://itsfoss.community/uploads/default/optimized/2X/4/4259c2238f8c8de6d651984885683d3beefeac7e_2_1024x1024.jpeg" alt="FOSS Weekly #24.06: Ollama AI, Zorin OS Upgrade, Damn Small Linux, Sudo on Windows and More"></div></a></figure><hr><h2 id="%E2%9D%A4%EF%B8%8F-with-love">&#x2764;&#xFE0F; With love</h2><p><strong>Share it with your Linux-using friends</strong>&#xA0;and encourage them to subscribe (hint:&#xA0;<a href="https://itsfoss.com/newsletter/">it&apos;s here</a>).</p><p>Share the articles in Linux Subreddits and community forums.</p><p>Opt for&#xA0;<a href="https://itsfoss.com/membership">It&apos;s FOSS Plus membership</a>&#xA0;and support us &#x1F64F;</p><p>Enjoy using Linux &#x1F604;</p>]]></content:encoded></item><item><title><![CDATA[How to upgrade to Zorin OS 17]]></title><description><![CDATA[Zorin OS now provides a way to upgrade to a newer major version. Here's how to do that.]]></description><link>https://itsfoss.com/zorin-os-upgrade/</link><guid isPermaLink="false">65bb498ff30830050bcaa6f2</guid><category><![CDATA[Tutorial]]></category><dc:creator><![CDATA[Sagar Sharma]]></dc:creator><pubDate>Wed, 07 Feb 2024 05:34:11 GMT</pubDate><media:content url="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/02/zorin-os-17-upgrade.png" medium="image"/><content:encoded><![CDATA[<img src="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/02/zorin-os-17-upgrade.png" alt="How to upgrade to Zorin OS 17"><p>Zorin OS 17 is a beautiful Linux distribution on top of Ubuntu 22.04 LTS. </p><p>One of the <a href="https://itsfoss.com/beautiful-linux-distributions/" rel="noreferrer">best-looking Ubuntu-based distro</a>, and provides an excellent user experience for all kinds of users.</p><p>If you are already a Zorin OS user, how can you access and upgrade your system to the latest version?</p><p>Fret not, here, I tell you more about it.</p><p><strong>Interesting backstory</strong>: I tried the standard approach you follow to <a href="https://itsfoss.com/upgrade-ubuntu-version/" rel="noreferrer">upgrade Ubuntu to the latest version</a>, but that does not work here:</p><pre><code>sudo apt update &amp;&amp; sudo apt dist-upgrade</code></pre><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card"><img src="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/02/can-t-update-zorinOS-using-the-terminal.png" class="kg-image" alt="How to upgrade to Zorin OS 17" loading="lazy" width="858" height="588" srcset="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/size/w600/2024/02/can-t-update-zorinOS-using-the-terminal.png 600w, https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/02/can-t-update-zorinOS-using-the-terminal.png 858w" sizes="(min-width: 720px) 720px"></figure><p>Instead, you will have to use the Zorin OS upgrader GUI tool that lets you upgrade to the latest release of the Zorin OS.</p><h2 id="before-you-upgrade-to-the-zorin-os-17">Before You Upgrade to the Zorin OS 17</h2><p>Don&apos;t jump onto upgrade just yet. I know you want to get the Zorin OS 17 update, but, here are a couple of things for you to know:</p><ul><li>You must be using the last iteration of Zorin OS 16 which is <strong>16.3</strong> to upgrade to Zorin OS 17.</li><li>Upgrading to Zorin OS will remove installed PPAs and data of installed software.  </li></ul><h3 id="step-1-create-a-backup-optional">Step 1: Create a backup (optional)</h3><p>While this is optional, I would suggest creating a backup before upgrading your system, as there&apos;s always a slight chance that the upgrade goes bad.</p><p>There&apos;s a utility called <code>Backups</code> pre-installed in Zorin OS 16. Start it and there you will find a button to create a backup labeled as <code>Back Up Now..</code>:</p><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card"><img src="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/02/create-a-backup-1-2.png" class="kg-image" alt="How to upgrade to Zorin OS 17" loading="lazy" width="908" height="522" srcset="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/size/w600/2024/02/create-a-backup-1-2.png 600w, https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/02/create-a-backup-1-2.png 908w" sizes="(min-width: 720px) 720px"></figure><p>Next, you will be asked whether you want to password-protect your backup or not. </p><p>I went with the without password option:</p><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card"><img src="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/02/Create-a-backup--2-1.png" class="kg-image" alt="How to upgrade to Zorin OS 17" loading="lazy" width="547" height="472"></figure><p>Once you click the <code>Forward</code> button, it will create a backup, and you are good to go.</p><p>If you want better control over creating a backup, then you can use Timeshift, and here&apos;s <a href="https://itsfoss.com/backup-restore-linux-timeshift/" rel="noreferrer">a detailed guide on how to install and use Timeshift</a>:</p><figure class="kg-card kg-bookmark-card"><a class="kg-bookmark-container" href="https://itsfoss.com/backup-restore-linux-timeshift/"><div class="kg-bookmark-content"><div class="kg-bookmark-title">Guide to Backup and Restore Linux Systems with Timeshift</div><div class="kg-bookmark-description">This beginner&#x2019;s guide shows you how to back up and restore Linux systems easily with the Timeshift application.</div><div class="kg-bookmark-metadata"><img class="kg-bookmark-icon" src="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/size/w256h256/2022/12/android-chrome-192x192.png" alt="How to upgrade to Zorin OS 17"><span class="kg-bookmark-author">It&apos;s FOSS</span><span class="kg-bookmark-publisher">Abhishek Prakash</span></div></div><div class="kg-bookmark-thumbnail"><img src="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2023/07/data-backup-with-timeshift.png" alt="How to upgrade to Zorin OS 17"></div></a></figure><h3 id="step-2-choose-between-pro-and-non-pro-options">Step 2: Choose between pro and non-pro options</h3><p>Once you open the Zorin OS upgrader, it will show you the available upgrades for your current installation:</p><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card"><img src="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/02/Start-the-ZorinOS-upgrade-min.png" class="kg-image" alt="How to upgrade to Zorin OS 17" loading="lazy" width="1270" height="733" srcset="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/size/w600/2024/02/Start-the-ZorinOS-upgrade-min.png 600w, https://itsfoss.com/content/images/size/w1000/2024/02/Start-the-ZorinOS-upgrade-min.png 1000w, https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/02/Start-the-ZorinOS-upgrade-min.png 1270w" sizes="(min-width: 720px) 720px"></figure><p>Now, if you want to upgrade to the Zorin OS 17 Pro, you will have to purchase it on Zorin OS&apos;s official website, and then click on upgrade here.</p><p>It will give you the option for a minimal installation or a fully loaded one.</p><p>The full installation comes with office suite and other additional software, whereas the minimal installation only comes with the premium layouts and core system utilities:</p><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card"><img src="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/02/Step-1-for-upgrading-to-the-ZorinOS-17-pro-min.png" class="kg-image" alt="How to upgrade to Zorin OS 17" loading="lazy" width="1270" height="733" srcset="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/size/w600/2024/02/Step-1-for-upgrading-to-the-ZorinOS-17-pro-min.png 600w, https://itsfoss.com/content/images/size/w1000/2024/02/Step-1-for-upgrading-to-the-ZorinOS-17-pro-min.png 1000w, https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/02/Step-1-for-upgrading-to-the-ZorinOS-17-pro-min.png 1270w" sizes="(min-width: 720px) 720px"></figure><p>Next, you&apos;ll be asked to enter the credentials for your pro membership:</p><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card"><img src="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/02/Step-2-for-upgrading-to-the-ZorinOS-17-pro-min.png" class="kg-image" alt="How to upgrade to Zorin OS 17" loading="lazy" width="1270" height="733" srcset="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/size/w600/2024/02/Step-2-for-upgrading-to-the-ZorinOS-17-pro-min.png 600w, https://itsfoss.com/content/images/size/w1000/2024/02/Step-2-for-upgrading-to-the-ZorinOS-17-pro-min.png 1000w, https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/02/Step-2-for-upgrading-to-the-ZorinOS-17-pro-min.png 1270w" sizes="(min-width: 720px) 720px"></figure><p>Of course, if you do not want the extras, go with the Zorin OS core edition for free. You will not be asked for a support code with the free edition.</p><p>No matter what edition you opt for, this is how the next screen would look like:</p><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card"><img src="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/02/ZorinOS-upgrader-showing-summery-of-changes-min.png" class="kg-image" alt="How to upgrade to Zorin OS 17" loading="lazy" width="1270" height="733" srcset="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/size/w600/2024/02/ZorinOS-upgrader-showing-summery-of-changes-min.png 600w, https://itsfoss.com/content/images/size/w1000/2024/02/ZorinOS-upgrader-showing-summery-of-changes-min.png 1000w, https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/02/ZorinOS-upgrader-showing-summery-of-changes-min.png 1270w" sizes="(min-width: 720px) 720px"></figure><p>Press the <code>Upgrade</code> button, and it will start downloading Zorin OS 17:</p><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card"><img src="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/02/Upgrading-to-ZorinOS-17-min.png" class="kg-image" alt="How to upgrade to Zorin OS 17" loading="lazy" width="1373" height="799" srcset="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/size/w600/2024/02/Upgrading-to-ZorinOS-17-min.png 600w, https://itsfoss.com/content/images/size/w1000/2024/02/Upgrading-to-ZorinOS-17-min.png 1000w, https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/02/Upgrading-to-ZorinOS-17-min.png 1373w" sizes="(min-width: 720px) 720px"></figure><h3 id="step-3-reboot-into-zorin-os-17">Step 3: Reboot into Zorin OS 17</h3><p>Once the upgrade is finished, you will be asked to reboot your system to take effect of the upgrade:</p><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card"><img src="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/02/Restart-your-device-to-take-efffect-from-the-upgrade-you-did-in-ZorinOS-min.png" class="kg-image" alt="How to upgrade to Zorin OS 17" loading="lazy" width="1373" height="799" srcset="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/size/w600/2024/02/Restart-your-device-to-take-efffect-from-the-upgrade-you-did-in-ZorinOS-min.png 600w, https://itsfoss.com/content/images/size/w1000/2024/02/Restart-your-device-to-take-efffect-from-the-upgrade-you-did-in-ZorinOS-min.png 1000w, https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/02/Restart-your-device-to-take-efffect-from-the-upgrade-you-did-in-ZorinOS-min.png 1373w" sizes="(min-width: 720px) 720px"></figure><p>Press the <code>Restart</code> button and that&apos;s it!</p><h2 id="want-to-explore-whats-new-in-zorin-os-17">Want to Explore What&apos;s New in Zorin OS 17?</h2><p>Once you boot into your upgraded machine, you might want to know the new features and changes done for a better user experience.</p><p>For that purpose, I recommend checking out more about the <a href="https://news.itsfoss.com/zorin-os-17/?ref=itsfoss.com" rel="noreferrer">changes introduced to ZorinOS 17</a> in our release coverage:</p><figure class="kg-card kg-bookmark-card"><a class="kg-bookmark-container" href="https://news.itsfoss.com/zorin-os-17/?ref=itsfoss.com"><div class="kg-bookmark-content"><div class="kg-bookmark-title">Zorin OS 17 Introduces a Hybrid User Experience to Linux Distros</div><div class="kg-bookmark-description">Zorin OS 17 has landed!</div><div class="kg-bookmark-metadata"><img class="kg-bookmark-icon" src="https://news.itsfoss.com/content/images/size/w256h256/2022/08/android-chrome-192x192.png" alt="How to upgrade to Zorin OS 17"><span class="kg-bookmark-author">It&apos;s FOSS News</span><span class="kg-bookmark-publisher">Sourav Rudra</span></div></div><div class="kg-bookmark-thumbnail"><img src="https://news.itsfoss.com/content/images/2023/12/zorin-os-17--1-.png" alt="How to upgrade to Zorin OS 17"></div></a></figure><p><em>I hope you find this guide helpful and if you discover any issues while upgrading the system, then leave a comment or reach out to fellow users on </em><a href="https://itsfoss.community/?ref=itsfoss.com" rel="noreferrer"><em>It&apos;s FOSS Community</em></a><em>.</em></p>]]></content:encoded></item><item><title><![CDATA[Less Command Examples]]></title><description><![CDATA[Easily look through the contents of a big file with the help of less command.]]></description><link>https://itsfoss.com/less-command/</link><guid isPermaLink="false">65a76d2ef30830050bc8cb53</guid><category><![CDATA[Linux Commands]]></category><dc:creator><![CDATA[Sagar Sharma]]></dc:creator><pubDate>Tue, 06 Feb 2024 07:17:56 GMT</pubDate><media:content url="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/02/less-command-in-linux.png" medium="image"/><content:encoded><![CDATA[<img src="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/02/less-command-in-linux.png" alt="Less Command Examples"><p>Most Linux users will use the cat command to print the file contents, and that&apos;s pretty cool until you are dealing with a file worth hundreds of lines.</p><p>It will fill the entire window with text, which is frustrating, as you may not be able to find the line you were looking for from the file. </p><p>In that case, you need a tool that prints one page at a time, allowing you to navigate through the file contents, and has some extra features to get things done easily.</p><p>This is where the less command comes into play. </p><p>The less command only prints one page at a time. And the best part is &#x2014; it won&apos;t load the entire file at once, and does it incrementally. So, you do not have to wait for the file to load entirely before you view the output.</p><p>Here, I will walk you through the following:</p><ul><li>The basic syntax of the less command</li><li>Practical examples of the less command</li><li>Practice questions for the less command </li></ul><p>Let&apos;s start with the first one.</p><h2 id="heres-how-to-use-the-less-command-in-linux">Here&apos;s How to Use the less command in Linux</h2><p>To use the less command, it is important to know the basic syntax.</p><p>Here&apos;s the syntax of the less command:</p><pre><code>less [options] &lt;filename or path to file&gt;</code></pre><p>Let&apos;s break down the syntax. </p><ul><li><code>[options]</code>: it is optional and used to modify the default behavior of the less command such as you can use the <code>-N</code> option to show the number of lines.</li><li><code>filename or path to file&gt;</code>: here&apos;s where you specify the filename or the path to the file to use it with the less command.</li></ul><p>Here&apos;s a list of some useful options that you can use with the less command:</p>
  238. <!--kg-card-begin: html-->
  239. <table>
  240. <thead>
  241. <tr>
  242. <th>Option</th>
  243. <th>Description</th>
  244. </tr>
  245. </thead>
  246. <tbody>
  247. <tr>
  248. <td><code>-E</code></td>
  249. <td>Quit immediately when you reach the end of the file.</td>
  250. </tr>
  251. <tr>
  252. <td><code>-F</code></td>
  253. <td>Quit if the entire file fits on the first screen.</td>
  254. </tr>
  255. <tr>
  256. <td><code>-N</code></td>
  257. <td>Show the number of lines.</td>
  258. </tr>
  259. <tr>
  260. <td><code>-S</code></td>
  261. <td>Chop long lines rather than wrapping them.</td>
  262. </tr>
  263. <tr>
  264. <td><code>-I</code></td>
  265. <td>Ignore the case while searching.</td>
  266. </tr>
  267. <tr>
  268. <td><code>+F</code></td>
  269. <td>Track changes made to the file in real-time.</td>
  270. </tr>
  271. <tr>
  272. <td><code>-M</code></td>
  273. <td>Show descriptive prompt with filename and line number.</td>
  274. </tr>
  275. <tr>
  276. <td><code>+/PATTERN</code></td>
  277. <td>Specify the search term while executing the command.</td>
  278. </tr>
  279. <tr>
  280. <td><code>-~</code></td>
  281. <td>Suppress the tilde at the end of the file.</td>
  282. </tr>
  283. </tbody>
  284. </table>
  285. <!--kg-card-end: html-->
  286. <p>If you like, you can also use the less command without any options, and it will open the file as shown here:</p><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card"><img src="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/01/use-the-less-command-in-Linux.gif" class="kg-image" alt="Less Command Examples" loading="lazy" width="744" height="384" srcset="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/size/w600/2024/01/use-the-less-command-in-Linux.gif 600w, https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/01/use-the-less-command-in-Linux.gif 744w" sizes="(min-width: 720px) 720px"></figure><p>In the above example, I&apos;m using the arrow keys to navigate through the file. </p><p>But less command can be used in a lot more ways by utilizing the options, and this is what I will be showing you next. </p><h3 id="1-navigate-through-the-file-effectively">1. Navigate through the file effectively </h3><p>In my opinion, learning how you navigate through the file is more essential than anything else.</p><p>To navigate through a file in the output, you can refer to the given table:</p>
  287. <!--kg-card-begin: html-->
  288. <table>
  289. <thead>
  290. <tr>
  291. <th>Key</th>
  292. <th>Action</th>
  293. </tr>
  294. </thead>
  295. <tbody>
  296. <tr>
  297. <td><code>Spacebar</code> or <code>f</code></td>
  298. <td>Scroll down one page.</td>
  299. </tr>
  300. <tr>
  301. <td><code>b</code></td>
  302. <td>Scroll up one page.</td>
  303. </tr>
  304. <tr>
  305. <td><code>j</code> or <code>Down Arrow</code></td>
  306. <td>Move down one line.</td>
  307. </tr>
  308. <tr>
  309. <td><code>k</code> or <code>Up Arrow</code></td>
  310. <td>Move up one line.</td>
  311. </tr>
  312. <tr>
  313. <td><code>d</code> or <code>Ctrl+F</code></td>
  314. <td>Scroll down half a page.</td>
  315. </tr>
  316. <tr>
  317. <td><code>u</code> or <code>Ctrl+B</code></td>
  318. <td>Scroll up half a page.</td>
  319. </tr>
  320. <tr>
  321. <td><code>G</code></td>
  322. <td>Go to the end of the file.</td>
  323. </tr>
  324. <tr>
  325. <td><code>g</code></td>
  326. <td>Go to the beginning of the file.</td>
  327. </tr>
  328. <tr>
  329. <td><code>/pattern</code></td>
  330. <td>Search forward for a pattern.</td>
  331. </tr>
  332. <tr>
  333. <td><code>?pattern</code></td>
  334. <td>Search backward for a pattern.</td>
  335. </tr>
  336. <tr>
  337. <td><code>n</code></td>
  338. <td>Jump to the next search match.</td>
  339. </tr>
  340. <tr>
  341. <td><code>N</code></td>
  342. <td>Jump to the previous search match.</td>
  343. </tr>
  344. <tr>
  345. <td><code>q</code></td>
  346. <td>Quit the less utility.</td>
  347. </tr>
  348. </tbody>
  349. </table>
  350. <!--kg-card-end: html-->
  351. <p>For example, here, I will demonstrate three actions at once: searching for a pattern, how you jump to the next and previous search:</p><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card kg-card-hascaption"><img src="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/01/nevigate-through-the-less-utility-in-Linux-1.gif" class="kg-image" alt="Less Command Examples" loading="lazy" width="744" height="320" srcset="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/size/w600/2024/01/nevigate-through-the-less-utility-in-Linux-1.gif 600w, https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/01/nevigate-through-the-less-utility-in-Linux-1.gif 744w" sizes="(min-width: 720px) 720px"><figcaption><span style="white-space: pre-wrap;">Searching and then navigating through the search results in less</span></figcaption></figure><h3 id="2-display-line-numbers">2. Display line numbers </h3><p>To display the number of lines, all you have to do is use the <code>-N</code> flag with the less command, as shown here:</p><pre><code>less -N filename</code></pre><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card"><img src="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/01/line.svg" class="kg-image" alt="Less Command Examples" loading="lazy" width="840" height="407"></figure><h3 id="3-open-the-file-at-a-specific-line">3. Open the file at a specific line </h3><p>If you want to open the file at a specific line, all you have to do is specify the line number as shown here:</p><pre><code>less +line_number Filename</code></pre><p>For example, here, I opened the <code>Haruki.txt</code> file from the 15th line:</p><pre><code>less +15 Haruki.txt</code></pre><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card"><img src="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/01/line_number.svg" class="kg-image" alt="Less Command Examples" loading="lazy" width="840" height="147"></figure><p>The command displayed the output from the 15th line in the file, but how do you verify that? </p><p>Well, all you need to do is use the <code>-N</code> flag to show the line number as explained earlier:</p><pre><code>less -N +15 Haruki.txt</code></pre><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card"><img src="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/01/linenumber.svg" class="kg-image" alt="Less Command Examples" loading="lazy" width="840" height="147"></figure><h3 id="4-view-multiple-files-at-once">4. View multiple files at once </h3><p>Yes, you can open multiple files at once for better productivity. </p><p>To view open multiple files at once, all you have to do is append the multiple file names to the less command as shown here:</p><pre><code>less File1 File2 File 3</code></pre><p>Once you open two or more files, you can use the following keys to switch between them:</p><ul><li><code>:n</code>: go to the next file</li><li><code>:p</code>: go to the previous file </li></ul><p>For example, here, I&apos;ve opened two files <code>Haruki.txt</code> and <code>sample.txt</code>:</p><pre><code>less Haruki.txt sample.txt</code></pre><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card"><img src="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/01/two-files.svg" class="kg-image" alt="Less Command Examples" loading="lazy" width="840" height="212"></figure><p><strong>Suggested Read &#x1F4D6;</strong></p><figure class="kg-card kg-bookmark-card"><a class="kg-bookmark-container" href="https://itsfoss.com/tag/commands/"><div class="kg-bookmark-content"><div class="kg-bookmark-title">Linux Commands - It&#x2019;s FOSS</div><div class="kg-bookmark-description">Learn Linux commands with examples. Here, you&#x2019;ll find various useful Linux commands explained with their most popular usage.</div><div class="kg-bookmark-metadata"><img class="kg-bookmark-icon" src="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/size/w256h256/2022/12/android-chrome-192x192.png" alt="Less Command Examples"><span class="kg-bookmark-author">It&apos;s FOSS</span></div></div><div class="kg-bookmark-thumbnail"><img src="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2023/06/commands.png" alt="Less Command Examples"></div></a></figure><h3 id="5-search-for-a-specific-string">5. Search for a specific string </h3><p>To search for a specific string, open the file using the less command and then press the <code>/</code> key (forward slash) and type the string you want to search.</p><p>Once you enter the string you would like to search, you can use the following keys to navigate between search results:</p><ul><li><code>n</code>: go to the next search result </li><li><code>N</code>: go to the previous search result </li></ul><p>For example, here, I searched for the string <code>knowledge</code> and then switched back and forth between the search results:</p><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card"><img src="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/01/search.svg" class="kg-image" alt="Less Command Examples" loading="lazy" width="840" height="212"></figure><p>But if you would rather not traverse between search results and want to only print lines that contain the specific string, then you can use an ampersand symbol (&amp;) before typing the sting:</p><pre><code>&amp;string</code></pre><p>For example, if I only want to print lines containing the term <code>knowledge</code>, then, this is how I&apos;d do it:</p><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card"><img src="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/01/mystring__.svg" class="kg-image" alt="Less Command Examples" loading="lazy" width="1970" height="407"></figure><p>I used the <code>-N</code> flag to know which lines have the string <code>knowledge</code>. </p><p>The other thing I want to bring light to be, by default, <strong>whatever you search for is case-sensitive.</strong></p><p>If you would like to pass through the case-sensitive search, then you can use the <code>-I</code> flash as shown here:</p><pre><code>less -I Filename</code></pre><p>To demonstrate this, I will search for <code>KNOWLEDGE</code> and still, it will show all the results irrespective of being case-sensitive by default:</p><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card"><img src="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/01/casesen.svg" class="kg-image" alt="Less Command Examples" loading="lazy" width="840" height="212"></figure><p><strong>Suggested Read &#x1F4D6;</strong></p><figure class="kg-card kg-bookmark-card"><a class="kg-bookmark-container" href="https://linuxhandbook.com/search-less-command/?ref=itsfoss.com"><div class="kg-bookmark-content"><div class="kg-bookmark-title">How to Search in Less Command</div><div class="kg-bookmark-description">The less command is excellent for reading large text files. It also allows you to search for text in it. Here&#x2019;s what you need to know about searching in less.</div><div class="kg-bookmark-metadata"><img class="kg-bookmark-icon" src="https://linuxhandbook.com/content/images/size/w256h256/2021/08/Linux-Handbook-New-Logo.png" alt="Less Command Examples"><span class="kg-bookmark-author">Linux Handbook</span><span class="kg-bookmark-publisher">Abhishek Prakash</span></div></div><div class="kg-bookmark-thumbnail"><img src="https://linuxhandbook.com/content/images/2022/09/search-in-less-command.png" alt="Less Command Examples"></div></a></figure><h3 id="6-mark-lines">6. Mark lines </h3><p>There are times when you find something interesting while reading and want to mark that line so you can continue reading the file and come back to that line when your heart desires. </p><p>To mark the line, you have to press the <code>m</code> key and then type one character, which will work as an identifier for the marked position:</p><pre><code>m&lt;character&gt;</code></pre><p>To find the marked line, you have to press the <code>&apos;</code> key and then press the character you used to mark the line.</p><p>For example, I will mark one line from the <code>sample.txt</code> file and then will show you how I came back to the marked line multiple times:</p><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card"><img src="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/01/mark.svg" class="kg-image" alt="Less Command Examples" loading="lazy" width="1110" height="212"></figure><p>As you can see, I marked the sixth line, and regardless of where I was, once I pressed the <code>&apos;</code> key and then press the <code>a</code> (the character I used to mark the line), I jumped to the 6th line.</p><h3 id="7-monitor-file-changes-in-real-time">7. Monitor file changes in real-time</h3><p>By far, this is my favorite feature of the less command, where you can monitor the file changes using the <code>+F</code> flag:</p><pre><code>less +F Filename</code></pre><p>To demonstrate this, I used two terminal windows (will explain in a moment):</p><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card"><img src="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/01/real-time-monitoring-of-file-using-the-less-command.gif" class="kg-image" alt="Less Command Examples" loading="lazy" width="1533" height="318" srcset="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/size/w600/2024/01/real-time-monitoring-of-file-using-the-less-command.gif 600w, https://itsfoss.com/content/images/size/w1000/2024/01/real-time-monitoring-of-file-using-the-less-command.gif 1000w, https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2024/01/real-time-monitoring-of-file-using-the-less-command.gif 1533w" sizes="(min-width: 720px) 720px"></figure><p>In the above example, I did two things:</p><ul><li>Used <code>less +F sample.txt</code> to monitor changes actively on the left window.</li><li>Used the nano editor to write new lines in the <code>sample.txt</code> so I can show you how the less behaves when there are any changes made to the file.</li></ul><h2 id="practice-questions-%F0%9F%93%94">Practice questions &#x1F4D4;</h2><p>After learning anything, you must practice getting the most out of it. This is why I  share some practice questions to help you get comfortable with the commands:</p><ul><li>How can you search for the string while executing the less command itself?</li><li>Quit the less command once you reach the end of the file.</li><li>Show numbers for each line and redirect the output to a new file.</li><li>How to show the filename and line number at the bottom of the line utility?</li></ul><p>If you discover any difficulty solving the above questions, you can reach out to us through the comments section, or you can post your query in <a href="https://itsfoss.community/?ref=itsfoss.com" rel="noreferrer">our community forum.</a></p><h2 id="wrapping-up">Wrapping Up</h2><p>In this tutorial, I went through the basic syntax, practical examples, and some practice questions so you can get better at using the less command.</p><p>If you are just starting out with commands, and stumbled upon this article, I recommend you to check out our resource for beginners:</p><figure class="kg-card kg-bookmark-card"><a class="kg-bookmark-container" href="https://itsfoss.com/tag/terminal-basics/"><div class="kg-bookmark-content"><div class="kg-bookmark-title">Linux Command Tutorials for Absolute Beginners</div><div class="kg-bookmark-description">Never used Linux commands before? No worries. This tutorial series is for absolute beginners to the Linux terminal.</div><div class="kg-bookmark-metadata"><img class="kg-bookmark-icon" src="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/size/w256h256/2022/12/android-chrome-192x192.png" alt="Less Command Examples"><span class="kg-bookmark-author">It&apos;s FOSS</span></div></div><div class="kg-bookmark-thumbnail"><img src="https://itsfoss.com/content/images/2023/03/terminal-basics-series-tag.png" alt="Less Command Examples"></div></a></figure><p><em>&#x1F4AC; I would love to know your suggestions on commands articles such as this, and what should I cover next?</em></p>]]></content:encoded></item></channel></rss>

If you would like to create a banner that links to this page (i.e. this validation result), do the following:

  1. Download the "valid RSS" banner.

  2. Upload the image to your own server. (This step is important. Please do not link directly to the image on this server.)

  3. Add this HTML to your page (change the image src attribute if necessary):

If you would like to create a text link instead, here is the URL you can use:

http://www.feedvalidator.org/check.cgi?url=https%3A//itsfoss.com/feed/

Copyright © 2002-9 Sam Ruby, Mark Pilgrim, Joseph Walton, and Phil Ringnalda