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Source: https://freelanceshack.com/blog/how-to-return-an-object-or-null-in-graphql

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  568.              How to parse XML with Python?
  569.            </a></p></div> <div class="d-flex justify-end col-sm-2 col-md-5 col-lg-4 col-xl-3 col-3" data-v-04cff9ac><span draggable="false" class="v-chip v-chip--label theme--light v-size--small info white--text" data-v-04cff9ac><span class="v-chip__content"><i aria-hidden="true" class="v-icon notranslate v-icon--left mdi mdi-chat-processing-outline theme--light" data-v-04cff9ac></i>
  570.            2
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  572.              How to get financial information of stocks in r?
  573.            </a></p></div> <div class="d-flex justify-end col-sm-2 col-md-5 col-lg-4 col-xl-3 col-3" data-v-04cff9ac><span draggable="false" class="v-chip v-chip--label theme--light v-size--small info white--text" data-v-04cff9ac><span class="v-chip__content"><i aria-hidden="true" class="v-icon notranslate v-icon--left mdi mdi-chat-processing-outline theme--light" data-v-04cff9ac></i>
  574.            2
  575.          </span></span></div></div><div class="row thread-row" data-v-04cff9ac><div class="align-items-center d-none d-md-none d-lg-none d-xl-flex d-sm-flex col col-1" data-v-04cff9ac><i aria-hidden="true" class="v-icon notranslate mdi mdi-message-text-outline theme--light" data-v-04cff9ac></i></div> <div class="col-sm-9 col-md-7 col-lg-8 col-xl-8 col-8" data-v-04cff9ac><p data-v-04cff9ac><a href="https://devhubby.com/thread/how-to-use-different-icon-size-on-delphi" target="_blank" title="How to use different icon size on delphi?" data-v-04cff9ac>
  576.              How to use different icon size on delphi?
  577.            </a></p></div> <div class="d-flex justify-end col-sm-2 col-md-5 col-lg-4 col-xl-3 col-3" data-v-04cff9ac><span draggable="false" class="v-chip v-chip--label theme--light v-size--small info white--text" data-v-04cff9ac><span class="v-chip__content"><i aria-hidden="true" class="v-icon notranslate v-icon--left mdi mdi-chat-processing-outline theme--light" data-v-04cff9ac></i>
  578.            2
  579.          </span></span></div></div><div class="row thread-row" data-v-04cff9ac><div class="align-items-center d-none d-md-none d-lg-none d-xl-flex d-sm-flex col col-1" data-v-04cff9ac><i aria-hidden="true" class="v-icon notranslate mdi mdi-message-text-outline theme--light" data-v-04cff9ac></i></div> <div class="col-sm-9 col-md-7 col-lg-8 col-xl-8 col-8" data-v-04cff9ac><p data-v-04cff9ac><a href="https://devhubby.com/thread/how-to-extend-entity-class-in-spring-boot-with" target="_blank" title="How to extend entity class in spring boot with kotlin?" data-v-04cff9ac>
  580.              How to extend entity class in spring boot with kotlin?
  581.            </a></p></div> <div class="d-flex justify-end col-sm-2 col-md-5 col-lg-4 col-xl-3 col-3" data-v-04cff9ac><span draggable="false" class="v-chip v-chip--label theme--light v-size--small info white--text" data-v-04cff9ac><span class="v-chip__content"><i aria-hidden="true" class="v-icon notranslate v-icon--left mdi mdi-chat-processing-outline theme--light" data-v-04cff9ac></i>
  582.            0
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  584.              How to exclude subtotal price from total price in woocommerce?
  585.            </a></p></div> <div class="d-flex justify-end col-sm-2 col-md-5 col-lg-4 col-xl-3 col-3" data-v-04cff9ac><span draggable="false" class="v-chip v-chip--label theme--light v-size--small info white--text" data-v-04cff9ac><span class="v-chip__content"><i aria-hidden="true" class="v-icon notranslate v-icon--left mdi mdi-chat-processing-outline theme--light" data-v-04cff9ac></i>
  586.            1
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  588.              How to Return an Object Or Null In GraphQL?
  589.            </h1></div> <div class="d-flex justify-end align-start col-md-12 col-lg-3 col-12"><div><span class="d-flex caption"><i aria-hidden="true" class="v-icon notranslate mdi mdi-clock-outline theme--light"></i> <time datetime="2024-01-01T00:00:00Z">
  590.                  January 1, 2024 12:00 AM</time> <meta content="2023-12-16T13:05:04Z" itemprop="datePublished"> <meta content="2024-01-01T00:00:00Z" itemprop="dateModified"></span> <span class="d-flex caption justify-end">
  591.                9 minutes read
  592.              </span></div></div></div></div> <div class="col col-12"><!----></div> <div class="v-card__text post-text ql-viewer"><div class="row"><div itemprop="image" itemscope="itemscope" class="text-center col col-12"><div aria-label="How to Return an Object Or Null In GraphQL?" role="img" itemprop="url contentUrl" itemtype="https://schema.org/ImageObject" class="v-image v-responsive theme--light" style="max-height:300px;"><div class="v-image__image v-image__image--preload v-image__image--contain" style="background-image:;background-position:center center;"></div><div class="v-responsive__content"></div></div></div></div> <div itemprop="articleBody" class="row"><div class="col"><div class="run-code"><p>In GraphQL, returning either an object or null depends on the schema definition and resolver implementation. Here is an explanation of how to achieve this:</p><ol><li><strong>Schema Definition</strong>:
  593. To return an object or null, you need to define the return type in your GraphQL schema. This can be done using the nullable modifier, which is denoted by a trailing exclamation mark.
  594. Example:
  595. type Query {
  596. getUser(id: ID!): User
  597. }
  598. type User {
  599. id: ID!
  600. name: String
  601. age: Int
  602. }
  603. In the above example, the getUser query returns a <a href="https://ubuntuask.com/blog/how-to-check-the-null-string-type-with-go" target="_blank">User object or null</a>. The User object has a non-null id field and nullable name and age fields.
  604. </li><li><strong>Resolver Implementation</strong>:
  605. Resolvers are responsible for fetching the data for each field defined in the schema. To return an object or <a href="https://freelanceshack.com/blog/how-to-perform-null-safety-checks-in-kotlin">null</a>, the resolver function should handle the logic accordingly.
  606. Example:
  607. const resolvers = {
  608. Query: {
  609. getUser: (parent, { id }, context) =&gt; {
  610. // Logic to fetch user data based on the provided id
  611. const user = getUserById(id);
  612. // If the user is found, return the user object. Else, return null.
  613. return user ? user : null;
  614. }
  615. }
  616. };
  617. In the above resolver implementation, the getUser resolver checks if the user exists based on the provided id. If the user is found, it returns the user object. Otherwise, it returns null.
  618. Note that it&#39;s not mandatory to explicitly return null if the object is not found. By default, returning undefined or not returning any value will result in null being returned.
  619. </li></ol><p><br/></p><p>By defining the schema type as nullable and handling the logic in the resolver function, you can easily return either an object or null in GraphQL.</p>
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  838.                                </div>
  839.                            </div>
  840.                        </div>
  841.                    </div>
  842.                </div>
  843.            
  844.        </div>
  845.    </div>
  846. <p><br/></p><h2>What is the difference between returning null and an empty object in GraphQL?</h2><p>In GraphQL, there is a significant difference between returning null and an empty object.</p><ol><li><strong>Returning null</strong>: When a field in a GraphQL query resolves to null, it means that there is no data available for that field. It indicates that the field exists but has no value to return. Null is used to represent that the field could not be resolved due to some error or missing data.
  847. </li><li><strong>Returning an empty object</strong>: Returning an empty object implies that the field exists and has a value, but that value is an empty set or an empty object. It indicates that the field was resolved successfully, but there is no data to populate it. This is useful when a field represents a complex object with multiple sub-fields, and those sub-fields could be optional or not applicable in certain cases.
  848. </li></ol><p><br/></p><p>To summarize, returning null means that the field itself does not exist or has no value, while returning an empty object means the field exists but is empty. The choice between null and an empty object should be based on the intended meaning and requirements of the GraphQL schema and the specific use case.</p><p><br/></p><h2>What is the impact of returning null on GraphQL caching with Apollo Server?</h2><p>Returning null values in GraphQL queries can have an impact on caching, especially when used with Apollo Server.</p><script async="" src="https://pagead2.googlesyndication.com/pagead/js/adsbygoogle.js"></script>
  849. <ins class="adsbygoogle" style="display:block" data-ad-format="fluid" data-ad-layout-key="-ef+6k-30-ac+ty" data-ad-client="ca-pub-4833888168110763" data-ad-slot="1024354517"></ins>
  850. <script>
  851.     (adsbygoogle = window.adsbygoogle || []).push({});
  852. </script><ol><li><strong>Cache Hit</strong>: When a GraphQL query is executed with a cache hit, Apollo Server can directly return the previously cached result without executing the associated resolver functions. If a value is returned as null from a resolver, the cache still maintains the null value for that field. So, subsequent queries for the same field will also receive the null value from the cache, without re-executing the resolver. This can lead to stale null values being returned even if the underlying data has been updated.
  853. </li><li><strong>Cache Miss</strong>: If the initial GraphQL query is performed with a cache miss, Apollo Server has to execute the associated resolver functions to fetch the data. If a resolver returns a null value, Apollo Server will not cache the null value for that field. So, subsequent queries for the same field will again result in cache misses, causing the resolvers to be executed repeatedly, even for the same data, leading to decreased performance.
  854. </li></ol><p><br/></p><p>By default, Apollo Server&#39;s caching mechanism treats null as a valid value and caches it if it is returned by a resolver. However, Apollo Server provides options to customize caching behavior, like <a href="https://freelanceshack.com/blog/how-to-add-a-custom-value-in-grafana-legend">setting a custom</a> cache key or specifying a cache policy. These can be used to handle and control the behavior of null values in caching, such as treating null values as cache misses or evicting null values from the cache.</p><p><br/></p><p>It is important to handle null values carefully in GraphQL resolvers to avoid caching inconsistencies and ensure that the cache reflects the most up-to-date data.</p><p><br/></p><h2>What is the recommended approach for returning null or an object in GraphQL?</h2><p>In GraphQL, returning <code>null</code> or an object is handled by the field resolvers. The recommended approach for returning null or an object depends on the specific use case and the desired behavior.</p><ol><li><strong>Returning null</strong>: If a field resolver encounters a null value, it can simply return null to indicate that the requested field is not available or has no value. This can be useful in cases where a field is optional or may not have a value.
  855. </li><li><strong>Returning an object</strong>: If a field resolver encounters an object, it should return an object representing the requested field. The field resolver can either construct a new object or fetch the object from a data source, such as a database. This is commonly used when the requested field is mandatory and there is a valid value to return.
  856. </li></ol><p><br/></p><p>It&#39;s important to note that GraphQL has a nullable type system by default, which means that all fields are nullable unless explicitly marked as non-null. This allows clients to expect null values from fields and handle them accordingly.</p><p><br/></p><script async="" src="https://pagead2.googlesyndication.com/pagead/js/adsbygoogle.js"></script>
  857. <ins class="adsbygoogle" style="display:block" data-ad-format="fluid" data-ad-layout-key="-ef+6k-30-ac+ty" data-ad-client="ca-pub-4833888168110763" data-ad-slot="1024354517"></ins>
  858. <script>
  859.     (adsbygoogle = window.adsbygoogle || []).push({});
  860. </script><p>In the schema definition, nullability can be specified for fields using <code>!</code> to indicate non-null or omitting it to allow nullable values. It is recommended to accurately define the nullability of fields in the schema to provide a clear contract to clients.</p><p><br/></p><h2>How to default a nullable field to null in GraphQL?</h2><p>In GraphQL, nullable fields are declared by using a trailing question mark (?) after the type name. By default, nullable fields are set to null if no value is provided. However, if you want to explicitly default a nullable field to null, you can simply omit it from the input when creating or updating an object.</p><p><br/></p><p>For example, let&#39;s say you have a <code>User</code> type with a nullable <code>bio</code> field:</p><div style="color:#f8f8f2;background-color:#272822;">
  861. <table style="border-spacing:0;padding:0;margin:0;border:0;"><tbody><tr><td style="vertical-align:top;padding:0;margin:0;border:0;">
  862. <pre tabindex="0" style="color:#f8f8f2;background-color:#272822;"><span style="white-space:pre;user-select:none;margin-right:0.4em;padding:0 0.4em 0 0.4em;color:#7f7f7f">1
  863. </span><span style="white-space:pre;user-select:none;margin-right:0.4em;padding:0 0.4em 0 0.4em;color:#7f7f7f">2
  864. </span><span style="white-space:pre;user-select:none;margin-right:0.4em;padding:0 0.4em 0 0.4em;color:#7f7f7f">3
  865. </span><span style="white-space:pre;user-select:none;margin-right:0.4em;padding:0 0.4em 0 0.4em;color:#7f7f7f">4
  866. </span><span style="white-space:pre;user-select:none;margin-right:0.4em;padding:0 0.4em 0 0.4em;color:#7f7f7f">5
  867. </span></pre></td>
  868. <td style="vertical-align:top;padding:0;margin:0;border:0;;width:100%">
  869. <pre tabindex="0" style="color:#f8f8f2;background-color:#272822;"><span style="display:flex;"><span>type User {
  870. </span></span><span style="display:flex;"><span>  id: ID!
  871. </span></span><span style="display:flex;"><span>  name: String!
  872. </span></span><span style="display:flex;"><span>  bio: String
  873. </span></span><span style="display:flex;"><span>}
  874. </span></span></pre></td></tr></tbody></table>
  875. </div>
  876. <p><br/></p><p>When creating a new user, you can omit the <code>bio</code> field to default it to null:</p><div style="color:#f8f8f2;background-color:#272822;">
  877. <table style="border-spacing:0;padding:0;margin:0;border:0;"><tbody><tr><td style="vertical-align:top;padding:0;margin:0;border:0;">
  878. <pre tabindex="0" style="color:#f8f8f2;background-color:#272822;"><span style="white-space:pre;user-select:none;margin-right:0.4em;padding:0 0.4em 0 0.4em;color:#7f7f7f">1
  879. </span><span style="white-space:pre;user-select:none;margin-right:0.4em;padding:0 0.4em 0 0.4em;color:#7f7f7f">2
  880. </span><span style="white-space:pre;user-select:none;margin-right:0.4em;padding:0 0.4em 0 0.4em;color:#7f7f7f">3
  881. </span><span style="white-space:pre;user-select:none;margin-right:0.4em;padding:0 0.4em 0 0.4em;color:#7f7f7f">4
  882. </span><span style="white-space:pre;user-select:none;margin-right:0.4em;padding:0 0.4em 0 0.4em;color:#7f7f7f">5
  883. </span><span style="white-space:pre;user-select:none;margin-right:0.4em;padding:0 0.4em 0 0.4em;color:#7f7f7f">6
  884. </span><span style="white-space:pre;user-select:none;margin-right:0.4em;padding:0 0.4em 0 0.4em;color:#7f7f7f">7
  885. </span></pre></td>
  886. <td style="vertical-align:top;padding:0;margin:0;border:0;;width:100%">
  887. <pre tabindex="0" style="color:#f8f8f2;background-color:#272822;"><span style="display:flex;"><span>mutation {
  888. </span></span><span style="display:flex;"><span>  createUser(input: { name: &#34;John Doe&#34; }) {
  889. </span></span><span style="display:flex;"><span>    id
  890. </span></span><span style="display:flex;"><span>    name
  891. </span></span><span style="display:flex;"><span>    bio # Returns null
  892. </span></span><span style="display:flex;"><span>  }
  893. </span></span><span style="display:flex;"><span>}
  894. </span></span></pre></td></tr></tbody></table>
  895. </div>
  896. <p><br/></p><p>Similarly, when updating a user, you can omit the <code>bio</code> field in the update payload to keep it as null:</p><script async="" src="https://pagead2.googlesyndication.com/pagead/js/adsbygoogle.js"></script>
  897. <ins class="adsbygoogle" style="display:block" data-ad-format="fluid" data-ad-layout-key="-ef+6k-30-ac+ty" data-ad-client="ca-pub-4833888168110763" data-ad-slot="1024354517"></ins>
  898. <script>
  899.     (adsbygoogle = window.adsbygoogle || []).push({});
  900. </script><div style="color:#f8f8f2;background-color:#272822;">
  901. <table style="border-spacing:0;padding:0;margin:0;border:0;"><tbody><tr><td style="vertical-align:top;padding:0;margin:0;border:0;">
  902. <pre tabindex="0" style="color:#f8f8f2;background-color:#272822;"><span style="white-space:pre;user-select:none;margin-right:0.4em;padding:0 0.4em 0 0.4em;color:#7f7f7f">1
  903. </span><span style="white-space:pre;user-select:none;margin-right:0.4em;padding:0 0.4em 0 0.4em;color:#7f7f7f">2
  904. </span><span style="white-space:pre;user-select:none;margin-right:0.4em;padding:0 0.4em 0 0.4em;color:#7f7f7f">3
  905. </span><span style="white-space:pre;user-select:none;margin-right:0.4em;padding:0 0.4em 0 0.4em;color:#7f7f7f">4
  906. </span><span style="white-space:pre;user-select:none;margin-right:0.4em;padding:0 0.4em 0 0.4em;color:#7f7f7f">5
  907. </span><span style="white-space:pre;user-select:none;margin-right:0.4em;padding:0 0.4em 0 0.4em;color:#7f7f7f">6
  908. </span><span style="white-space:pre;user-select:none;margin-right:0.4em;padding:0 0.4em 0 0.4em;color:#7f7f7f">7
  909. </span></pre></td>
  910. <td style="vertical-align:top;padding:0;margin:0;border:0;;width:100%">
  911. <pre tabindex="0" style="color:#f8f8f2;background-color:#272822;"><span style="display:flex;"><span>mutation {
  912. </span></span><span style="display:flex;"><span>  updateUser(id: &#34;123&#34;, input: { name: &#34;John Smith&#34; }) {
  913. </span></span><span style="display:flex;"><span>    id
  914. </span></span><span style="display:flex;"><span>    name
  915. </span></span><span style="display:flex;"><span>    bio # Returns null
  916. </span></span><span style="display:flex;"><span>  }
  917. </span></span><span style="display:flex;"><span>}
  918. </span></span></pre></td></tr></tbody></table>
  919. </div>
  920. <p><br/></p><p>By not providing a value for the nullable field, GraphQL will automatically treat it as null.</p></div></div></div></div> <!----> <div class="text-center col"></div> <div class="justify-center icons d-flex col col-12" data-v-80f69840 data-v-80f69840><!----> <!----> <!----> <a href="https://twitter.com/intent/tweet?url=https%3A%2F%2Ffreelanceshack.com%2Fblog%2Fhow-to-return-an-object-or-null-in-graphql&amp;text=How%20to%20Return%20an%20Object%20Or%20Null%20In%20GraphQL%3F&amp;hashtags=blogweb" rel="nofollow noopener" target="_blank" title="Twitter" data-v-80f69840><img src="https://blogweb-static.fra1.cdn.digitaloceanspaces.com/assets/images/icons/32/twitter.png" width="32" height="32" alt="Twitter" data-v-80f69840></a> <a href="https://www.linkedin.com/sharing/share-offsite/?url=https%3A%2F%2Ffreelanceshack.com%2Fblog%2Fhow-to-return-an-object-or-null-in-graphql" rel="nofollow noopener" target="_blank" title="LinkedIn" data-v-80f69840><img src="https://blogweb-static.fra1.cdn.digitaloceanspaces.com/assets/images/icons/32/linkedin.png" width="32" height="32" alt="LinkedIn" data-v-80f69840></a> <a href="https://telegram.me/share/url?url=https%3A%2F%2Ffreelanceshack.com%2Fblog%2Fhow-to-return-an-object-or-null-in-graphql" rel="nofollow noopener" target="_blank" title="Telegram" data-v-80f69840><img src="https://blogweb-static.fra1.cdn.digitaloceanspaces.com/assets/images/icons/32/telegram.png" width="32" height="32" alt="Telegram" data-v-80f69840></a> <a href="https://api.whatsapp.com/send?text=https%3A%2F%2Ffreelanceshack.com%2Fblog%2Fhow-to-return-an-object-or-null-in-graphql" rel="nofollow noopener" target="_blank" title="Whatsapp" data-v-80f69840><img src="https://blogweb-static.fra1.cdn.digitaloceanspaces.com/assets/images/icons/32/whatsapp.png" width="32" height="32" alt="Whatsapp" data-v-80f69840></a> <!----></div></div> <!----> <!----> <div class="row mt-2"><div class="col col-12"><h2 class="display-1">Related Posts:</h2></div> <div class="col-sm-12 col-md-6 col-lg-4 col-12"><div class="mx-auto v-card v-sheet theme--light" style="max-width:400px;"><div class="v-image v-responsive align-end theme--light" style="height:200px;"><div class="v-image__image v-image__image--preload v-image__image--cover" style="background-image:;background-position:center center;"></div><div class="v-responsive__content"></div></div> <div class="v-card__title"><a href="/blog/how-to-perform-null-safety-checks-in-kotlin" itemprop="mainEntityOfPage url">
  921.          How to Perform Null Safety Checks In Kotlin?
  922.        </a></div> <div class="v-card__text text--primary">
  923.        In Kotlin, null safety is an essential feature that helps prevent null pointer exceptions. To perform null safety checks, you can use the safe call operator (?.), the not-null assertion operator (!!), or the safe cast operator (as?).Safe Call Operator (?.):
  924. Th...
  925.      </div></div></div><div class="col-sm-12 col-md-6 col-lg-4 col-12"><div class="mx-auto v-card v-sheet theme--light" style="max-width:400px;"><div class="v-image v-responsive align-end theme--light" style="height:200px;"><div class="v-image__image v-image__image--preload v-image__image--cover" style="background-image:;background-position:center center;"></div><div class="v-responsive__content"></div></div> <div class="v-card__title"><a href="/blog/how-to-print-a-custom-message-in-graphql" itemprop="mainEntityOfPage url">
  926.          How to Print A Custom Message In GraphQL?
  927.        </a></div> <div class="v-card__text text--primary">
  928.        To print a custom message in GraphQL, you can use the printError function provided by the graphql module. Here&amp;#39;s how you can do it:Import the required modules:
  929. const { graphql, printError } = require(&amp;#39;graphql&amp;#39;);
  930. Prepare your GraphQL schema and quer...
  931.      </div></div></div><div class="col-sm-12 col-md-6 col-lg-4 col-12"><div class="mx-auto v-card v-sheet theme--light" style="max-width:400px;"><div class="v-image v-responsive align-end theme--light" style="height:200px;"><div class="v-image__image v-image__image--preload v-image__image--cover" style="background-image:;background-position:center center;"></div><div class="v-responsive__content"></div></div> <div class="v-card__title"><a href="/blog/how-to-implement-custom-directives-in-graphql" itemprop="mainEntityOfPage url">
  932.          How to Implement Custom Directives In GraphQL?
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  934.        In GraphQL, directives are used to annotate and modify the execution and validation of the GraphQL queries and schema. They allow developers to add custom logic and functionality to the GraphQL API. To implement custom directives in GraphQL, you need to follow...
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Please read the following information carefully to understand our practices regarding your personal data and how we will process data.\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cstrong\u003EPurposes of Processing\u003C\u002Fstrong\u003E\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cstrong\u003EWhat is personal data?\u003C\u002Fstrong\u003E\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\u003Cp\u003EWe collect information about you in a range of forms, including personal data. As used in this Policy, “personal data” is as defined in the General Data Protection Regulation, this includes any information which, either alone or in combination with other information we process about you, identifies you as an individual, including, for example, your name, postal address, email address and telephone number.\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cstrong\u003EWhy do we need your personal data?\u003C\u002Fstrong\u003E\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\u003Cp\u003EWe will only process your personal data in accordance with applicable data protection and privacy laws. We need certain personal data in order to provide you with access to the website. If you registered with us, you will have been asked to tick to agree to provide this information in order to access our services, purchase our products, or view our content. This consent provides us with the legal basis we require under applicable law to process your data. You maintain the right to withdraw such consent at any time. If you do not agree to our use of your personal data in line with this Policy, please do not use our website.\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cstrong\u003ECollecting Your Personal Data\u003C\u002Fstrong\u003E\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\u003Cp\u003EWe collect information about you in the following ways:\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cstrong\u003EInformation You Give Us.\u003C\u002Fstrong\u003E&nbsp;This includes:\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\u003Cul\u003E\u003Cli\u003Ethe personal data you provide when you register to use our website, including your name, postal address, email address, telephone number, username, password and demographic information (such as your gender);\u003C\u002Fli\u003E\u003Cli\u003Ethe personal data that may be contained in any video, comment or other submission you upload or post to the website;\u003C\u002Fli\u003E\u003Cli\u003Ethe personal data you provide in connection with our rewards program and other promotions we run on the website;\u003C\u002Fli\u003E\u003Cli\u003Ethe personal data you provide when you report a problem with our website or when we provide you with customer support;\u003C\u002Fli\u003E\u003Cli\u003Ethe personal data you provide when you make a purchase thorough our website; and\u003C\u002Fli\u003E\u003Cli\u003Ethe personal data you provide when you correspond with us by phone, email or otherwise.\u003C\u002Fli\u003E\u003C\u002Ful\u003E\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cstrong\u003EInformation from Social Networking Websites.\u003C\u002Fstrong\u003E\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\u003Cp\u003EOur website includes interfaces that allow you to connect with social networking sites (each a “SNS”). If you connect to a SNS through our website, you authorize us to access, use and store the information that you agreed the SNS could provide to us based on your settings on that SNS. We will access, use and store that information in accordance with this Policy. You can revoke our access to the information you provide in this way at any time by amending the appropriate settings from within your account settings on the applicable SNS.\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cstrong\u003EInformation Automatically Collected.\u003C\u002Fstrong\u003E\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\u003Cp\u003EWe automatically log information about you and your computer or mobile device when you access our website. For example, when visiting our website, we log your computer or mobile device operating system name and version, manufacturer and model, browser type, browser language, screen resolution, the website you visited before browsing to our website, pages you viewed, how long you spent on a page, access times and information about your use of and actions on our website. We collect this information about you using cookies.\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cstrong\u003EAutomated Decision Making and Profiling.\u003C\u002Fstrong\u003E\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\u003Cp\u003EWe do not use your personal data for the purposes of automated decision-making. However, we may do so in order to fulfill obligations imposed by law, in which case we will inform you of any such processing and provide you with an opportunity to object.\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cstrong\u003ECookies\u003C\u002Fstrong\u003E\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cstrong\u003EWhat are cookies?\u003C\u002Fstrong\u003E\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\u003Cp\u003EWe may collect information using “cookies.” Cookies are small data files stored on the hard drive of your computer or mobile device by a website. We may use both session cookies (which expire once you close your web browser) and persistent cookies (which stay on your computer or mobile device until you delete them) to provide you with a more personal and interactive experience on our website.\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\u003Cp\u003EWe use two broad categories of cookies: (1) first party cookies, served directly by us to your computer or mobile device, which are used only by us to recognize your computer or mobile device when it revisits our website; and (2) third party cookies, which are served by service providers on our website, and can be used by such service providers to recognize your computer or mobile device when it visits other websites.\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cbr\u003E\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cstrong\u003ECookies we use\u003C\u002Fstrong\u003E\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\u003Cp\u003EOur website uses the following types of cookies for the purposes set out below:\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cstrong\u003EType of cookie\u003C\u002Fstrong\u003E\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cstrong\u003EPurpose\u003C\u002Fstrong\u003E\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cem\u003EEssential Cookies\u003C\u002Fem\u003E\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\u003Cp\u003EThese cookies are essential to provide you with services available through our website and to enable you to use some of its features. For example, they allow you to log in to secure areas of our website and help the content of the pages you request load quickly.\u003Cstrong\u003E&nbsp;\u003C\u002Fstrong\u003EWithout these cookies, the services that you have asked for cannot be provided, and we only use these cookies to provide you with those services.\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cem\u003EFunctionality Cookies\u003C\u002Fem\u003E\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\u003Cp\u003EThese cookies allow our website to remember choices you make when you use our website, such as remembering your language preferences, remembering your login details and remembering the changes you make to other parts of our website which you can customize. The purpose of these cookies is to provide you with a more personal experience and to avoid you having to re-enter your preferences every time you visit our website.\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cem\u003EAnalytics and Performance Cookies\u003C\u002Fem\u003E\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\u003Cp\u003EThese cookies are used to collect information about traffic to our website and how users use our website. The information gathered does not identify any individual visitor. It includes the number of visitors to our website, the websites that referred them to our website, the pages they visited on our website, what time of day they visited our website, whether they have visited our website before, and other similar information. We use this information to help operate our website more efficiently, to gather broad demographic information and to monitor the level of activity on our website.\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\u003Cp\u003EWe use Google Analytics for this purpose. Google Analytics uses its own cookies. It is only used to improve how our website works. You can find out more information about Google Analytics cookies here:&nbsp;\u003Ca href=\"https:\u002F\u002Fdevelopers.google.com\u002Fanalytics\u002Fresources\u002Fconcepts\u002FgaConceptsCookies\" rel=\"noopener noreferrer\" target=\"_blank\" style=\"color: rgb(0, 0, 255);\"\u003E\u003Cu\u003Ehttps:\u002F\u002Fdevelopers.google.com\u002Fanalytics\u002Fresources\u002Fconcepts\u002FgaConceptsCookies\u003C\u002Fu\u003E\u003C\u002Fa\u003E\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\u003Cp\u003EYou can find out more about how Google protects your data here:&nbsp;\u003Ca href=\"https:\u002F\u002Fpolicies.google.com\u002Fprivacy\" rel=\"noopener noreferrer\" target=\"_blank\" style=\"color: rgb(0, 0, 255);\"\u003E\u003Cu\u003Ehttps:\u002F\u002Fpolicies.google.com\u002Fprivacy\u003C\u002Fu\u003E\u003C\u002Fa\u003E.\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\u003Cp\u003EYou can prevent the use of Google Analytics relating to your use of our website by downloading and installing the browser plugin available via this link:&nbsp;\u003Ca href=\"http:\u002F\u002Ftools.google.com\u002Fdlpage\u002Fgaoptout?hl=en-GB\" rel=\"noopener noreferrer\" target=\"_blank\" style=\"color: rgb(0, 0, 255);\"\u003E\u003Cu\u003Ehttp:\u002F\u002Ftools.google.com\u002Fdlpage\u002Fgaoptout?hl=en-GB\u003C\u002Fu\u003E\u003C\u002Fa\u003E\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cem\u003ETargeted and advertising cookies\u003C\u002Fem\u003E\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\u003Cp\u003EThese cookies track your browsing habits to enable us to show advertising which is more likely to be of interest to you. These cookies use information about your browsing history to group you with other users who have similar interests. Based on that information, and with our permission, third party advertisers can place cookies to enable them to show adverts which we think will be relevant to your interests while you are on third party websites.\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\u003Cp\u003EYou can disable cookies which remember your browsing habits and target advertising at you by visiting&nbsp;\u003Ca href=\"http:\u002F\u002Fwww.youronlinechoices.com\u002Fuk\u002Fyour-ad-choices\" rel=\"noopener noreferrer\" target=\"_blank\" style=\"color: rgb(0, 0, 255);\"\u003E\u003Cu\u003Ehttp:\u002F\u002Fwww.youronlinechoices.com\u002Fuk\u002Fyour-ad-choices\u003C\u002Fu\u003E\u003C\u002Fa\u003E. If you choose to remove targeted or advertising cookies, you will still see adverts but they may not be relevant to you. Even if you do choose to remove cookies by the companies listed at the above link, not all companies that serve online behavioral advertising are included in this list, and so you may still receive some cookies and tailored adverts from companies that are not listed.\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cem\u003ESocial Media Cookies\u003C\u002Fem\u003E\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\u003Cp\u003EThese cookies are used when you share information using a social media sharing button or “like” button on our website or you link your account or engage with our content on or through a social networking website such as Facebook, Twitter or Google+. The social network will record that you have done this.\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cstrong\u003EDisabling cookies\u003C\u002Fstrong\u003E\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\u003Cp\u003EYou can typically remove or reject cookies via your browser settings. In order to do this, follow the instructions provided by your browser (usually located within the “settings,” “help” “tools” or “edit” facility). Many browsers are set to accept cookies until you change your settings.\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\u003Cp\u003EIf you do not accept our cookies, you may experience some inconvenience in your use of our website. For example, we may not be able to recognize your computer or mobile device and you may need to log in every time you visit our website.\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cstrong\u003EAdvertising\u003C\u002Fstrong\u003E\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\u003Cp\u003EWe may use other companies to serve third-party advertisements when you visit and use the website. These companies may collect and use click stream information, browser type, time and date, subject of advertisements clicked or scrolled over during your visits to the website and other websites in order to provide advertisements about goods and services likely to be of interest to you. These companies typically use tracking technologies to collect this information. Other companies' use of their tracking technologies is subject to their own privacy policies.\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\u003Cul\u003E\u003Cli\u003E\u003Cstrong\u003EUsing Your Personal Data\u003C\u002Fstrong\u003E\u003C\u002Fli\u003E\u003C\u002Ful\u003E\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cbr\u003E\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\u003Cp\u003EWe may use your personal data as follows:\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\u003Cul\u003E\u003Cli\u003Eto operate, maintain, and improve our website, products, and services;\u003C\u002Fli\u003E\u003Cli\u003Eto manage your account, including to communicate with you regarding your account, if you have an account on our website;\u003C\u002Fli\u003E\u003Cli\u003Eto operate and administer our rewards program and other promotions you participate in on our website;\u003C\u002Fli\u003E\u003Cli\u003Eto respond to your comments and questions and to provide customer service;\u003C\u002Fli\u003E\u003Cli\u003Eto send information including technical notices, updates, security alerts, and support and administrative messages;\u003C\u002Fli\u003E\u003Cli\u003Ewith your consent, to send you marketing e-mails about upcoming promotions, and other news, including information about products and services offered by us and our affiliates. You may opt-out of receiving such information at any time: such marketing emails tell you how to “opt-out.” Please note, even if you opt out of receiving marketing emails, we may still send you non-marketing emails. Non-marketing emails include emails about your account with us (if you have one) and our business dealings with you;\u003C\u002Fli\u003E\u003Cli\u003Eto process payments you make via our website;\u003C\u002Fli\u003E\u003Cli\u003Eas we believe necessary or appropriate (a) to comply with applicable laws; (b) to comply with lawful requests and legal process, including to respond to requests from public and government authorities; (c) to enforce our Policy; and (d) to protect our rights, privacy, safety or property, and\u002For that of you or others;\u003C\u002Fli\u003E\u003Cli\u003Efor analysis and study services; and\u003C\u002Fli\u003E\u003Cli\u003Eas described in the “Sharing of your Personal Data” section below.\u003C\u002Fli\u003E\u003C\u002Ful\u003E\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cstrong\u003ESharing Your Personal Data\u003C\u002Fstrong\u003E\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\u003Cp\u003EWe may share your personal data as follows:\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\u003Cul\u003E\u003Cli\u003E\u003Cstrong\u003EThird Parties Designated by You.\u003C\u002Fstrong\u003E&nbsp;We may share your personal data with third parties where you have provided your consent to do so.\u003C\u002Fli\u003E\u003Cli\u003E\u003Cstrong\u003EOur\u003C\u002Fstrong\u003E&nbsp;\u003Cstrong\u003EThird Party Service Providers\u003C\u002Fstrong\u003E. We may share your personal data with our third party service providers who provide services such as data analysis, payment processing, information technology and related infrastructure provision, customer service, email delivery, auditing and other similar services.\u003C\u002Fli\u003E\u003Cli\u003E\u003Cstrong\u003EThird Party Sites\u003C\u002Fstrong\u003E\u003C\u002Fli\u003E\u003C\u002Ful\u003E\u003Cp\u003EOur website may contain links to third party websites and features.\u003Cstrong\u003E&nbsp;\u003C\u002Fstrong\u003EThis Policy does not cover the privacy practices of such third parties.\u003Cstrong\u003E&nbsp;\u003C\u002Fstrong\u003EThese third parties have their own privacy policies and we do not accept any responsibility or liability for their websites, features or policies. Please read their privacy policies before you submit any data to them.\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cstrong\u003EUser Generated Content\u003C\u002Fstrong\u003E\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\u003Cp\u003EYou may share personal data with us when you submit user generated content to our website, including via our rewards program, forums, message boards and blogs on our website. Please note that any information you post or disclose on our website will become public information, and will be available to other users of our website and to the general public. We urge you to be very careful when deciding to disclose your personal data, or any other information, on our website. Such personal data and other information will not be private or confidential once it is published on our website.\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\u003Cp\u003EIf you provide feedback to us, we may use and disclose such feedback on our website, provided we do not associate such feedback with your personal data. If you have provided your consent to do so, we may post your first and last name along with your feedback on our website. We will collect any information contained in such feedback and will treat the personal data in it in accordance with this Policy.\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cstrong\u003EInternational Data Transfer\u003C\u002Fstrong\u003E\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\u003Cp\u003EYour information, including personal data that we collect from you, may be transferred to, stored at and processed by us outside the country in which you reside, where data protection and privacy regulations may not offer the same level of protection as in other parts of the world. By accepting this Policy, you agree to this transfer, storing or processing. We will take all steps reasonably necessary to ensure that your data is treated securely and in accordance with this Policy.\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cstrong\u003ESecurity\u003C\u002Fstrong\u003E\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\u003Cp\u003EWe seek to use reasonable organizational, technical and administrative measures to protect personal data within our organization. Unfortunately, no transmission or storage system can be guaranteed to be completely secure, and transmission of information via the Internet is not completely secure. If you have reason to believe that your interaction with us is no longer secure (for example, if you feel that the security of any account you might have with us has been compromised), please immediately notify us of the problem by contacting us.\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cstrong\u003ERetention\u003C\u002Fstrong\u003E\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\u003Cp\u003EWe will only retain your personal data as long reasonably required for you to use the website until you close your account\u002Fcancel your subscription unless a longer retention period is required or permitted by law (for example for regulatory purposes).\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cstrong\u003EOur Policy on Children\u003C\u002Fstrong\u003E\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\u003Cp\u003EOur website is\u002Fare not directed to children under 16.\u003Cstrong\u003E&nbsp;\u003C\u002Fstrong\u003EIf a parent or guardian becomes aware that his or her child has provided us with information without their consent, he or she should contact us. We will delete such information from our files as soon as reasonably practicable.\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cstrong\u003EYour Rights\u003C\u002Fstrong\u003E\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cbr\u003E\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\u003Cul\u003E\u003Cli\u003E\u003Cstrong\u003EOpt-out.&nbsp;\u003C\u002Fstrong\u003EYou may contact us anytime to opt-out of: (i) direct marketing communications; (ii) automated decision-making and\u002For profiling; (iii) our collection of sensitive personal data; (iv) any new processing of your personal data that we may carry out beyond the original purpose; or (v) the transfer of your personal data outside the EEA. Please note that your use of some of the website may be ineffective upon opt-out.\u003C\u002Fli\u003E\u003Cli\u003E\u003Cstrong\u003EAccess.&nbsp;\u003C\u002Fstrong\u003EYou may access the information we hold about you at any time via your profile\u002Faccount or by contacting us directly.\u003C\u002Fli\u003E\u003Cli\u003E\u003Cstrong\u003EAmend.&nbsp;\u003C\u002Fstrong\u003EYou can also contact us to update or correct any inaccuracies in your personal data.\u003C\u002Fli\u003E\u003Cli\u003E\u003Cstrong\u003EMove.&nbsp;\u003C\u002Fstrong\u003EYour personal data is portable – i.e. you to have the flexibility to move your data to other service providers as you wish.\u003C\u002Fli\u003E\u003Cli\u003E\u003Cstrong\u003EErase and forget.&nbsp;\u003C\u002Fstrong\u003EIn certain situations, for example when the information we hold about you is no longer relevant or is incorrect, you can request that we erase your data.\u003C\u002Fli\u003E\u003C\u002Ful\u003E\u003Cp\u003EIf you wish to exercise any of these rights, please contact us. In your request, please make clear: (i)&nbsp;\u003Cstrong\u003Ewhat\u003C\u002Fstrong\u003E&nbsp;personal data is concerned; and (ii)&nbsp;\u003Cstrong\u003Ewhich of the above rights\u003C\u002Fstrong\u003E&nbsp;you would like to enforce. For your protection, we may only implement requests with respect to the personal data associated with the particular email address that you use to send us your request, and we may need to verify your identity before implementing your request. We will try to comply with your request as soon as reasonably practicable and in any event, within one month of your request. Please note that we may need to retain certain information for recordkeeping purposes and\u002For to complete any transactions that you began prior to requesting such change or deletion.\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cstrong\u003EComplaints\u003C\u002Fstrong\u003E\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\u003Cp\u003EWe are committed to resolve any complaints about our collection or use of your personal data. If you would like to make a complaint regarding this Policy or our practices in relation to your personal data, please contact us through the information listed on our website. We will reply to your complaint as soon as we can and in any event, within 30 days. We hope to resolve any complaint brought to our attention, however if you feel that your complaint has not been adequately resolved, you reserve the right to contact your local data protection supervisory authority\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cstrong\u003EContact Information\u003C\u002Fstrong\u003E\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\u003Cp\u003EWe welcome your comments or questions about this Policy. You may contact us in writing or through our website.\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cbr\u003E\u003C\u002Fp\u003E",Terms:"\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cstrong\u003ETerms of Use\u003C\u002Fstrong\u003E\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\u003Cp\u003EEffective as of May 9, 2020.\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\u003Cp\u003EWelcome to the Self-employment (the \"Service\"). The following Terms of Use apply when you view or use the Service located at: https:\u002F\u002Fblogweb.me. Please review the following terms carefully. By accessing or using the Service, you signify your agreement to these Terms of Use. If you do not agree to these Terms of Use, you may not access or use the Service.\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cstrong\u003EPRIVACY POLICY\u003C\u002Fstrong\u003E\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\u003Cp\u003EThe company respects the privacy of its Service users. Please refer to the Company's Privacy Policy which explains how we collect, use, and disclose information that pertains to your privacy. When you access or use the Service, you signify your agreement to this Privacy Policy.\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cstrong\u003EREGISTRATION; RULES FOR USER CONDUCT AND USE OF THE SERVICE\u003C\u002Fstrong\u003E\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\u003Cp\u003EYou need to be at least 16 years old to register for and use the Service.\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\u003Cp\u003EIf you are a user who signs up for the Service, the company will create a personalized account, which includes a unique username and a password to access the Service and allow you to receive messages from the Company. You agree to notify us immediately of any unauthorized use of your password and\u002For account. The Company will not be responsible for any liabilities, losses, or damages arising out of the unauthorized use of your member name, password and\u002For account.\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cstrong\u003EUSE RESTRICTIONS.\u003C\u002Fstrong\u003E\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\u003Cp\u003EYour permission to use the Site is conditioned upon the following Use Restrictions and Conduct Restrictions: You agree that you will not under any circumstances:\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\u003Cul\u003E\u003Cli\u003Epost any information that is abusive, threatening, obscene, defamatory, libelous, or racially, sexually, religiously, or otherwise objectionable and offensive;\u003C\u002Fli\u003E\u003Cli\u003Euse the service for any unlawful purpose or for the promotion of illegal activities;\u003C\u002Fli\u003E\u003Cli\u003Eattempt to, or harass, abuse or harm another person or group;\u003C\u002Fli\u003E\u003Cli\u003Euse another user's account without permission;\u003C\u002Fli\u003E\u003Cli\u003Eprovide false or inaccurate information when registering an account;\u003C\u002Fli\u003E\u003Cli\u003Einterfere or attempt to interfere with the proper functioning of the Service;\u003C\u002Fli\u003E\u003Cli\u003Emake any automated use of the system, or take any action that we deem to impose or to potentially impose an unreasonable or disproportionately large load on our servers or network infrastructure;\u003C\u002Fli\u003E\u003Cli\u003Ebypass any robot exclusion headers or other measures we take to restrict access to the Service or use any software, technology, or device to scrape, spider, or crawl the Service or harvest or manipulate data; or\u003C\u002Fli\u003E\u003Cli\u003Epublish or link to malicious content intended to damage or disrupt another user's browser or computer.\u003C\u002Fli\u003E\u003C\u002Ful\u003E\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cstrong\u003EPOSTING AND CONDUCT RESTRICTIONS.\u003C\u002Fstrong\u003E\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\u003Cp\u003EWhen you create your own personalized account, you may be able to provide (\"User Content\"). You are solely responsible for the User Content that you post, upload, link to or otherwise make available via the Service. You agree that we are only acting as a passive conduit for your online distribution and publication of your User Content. The Company, however, reserves the right to remove any User Content from the Service at its discretion.\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\u003Cp\u003EThe following rules pertain to User Content. By transmitting and submitting any User Content while using the Service, you agree as follows:\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\u003Cul\u003E\u003Cli\u003EYou are solely responsible for your account and the activity that occurs while signed in to or while using your account;\u003C\u002Fli\u003E\u003Cli\u003EYou will not post information that is malicious, false or inaccurate;\u003C\u002Fli\u003E\u003Cli\u003EYou will not submit content that is copyrighted or subject to third party proprietary rights, including privacy, publicity, trade secret, etc., unless you are the owner of such rights or have the appropriate permission from their rightful owner to specifically submit such content; and\u003C\u002Fli\u003E\u003Cli\u003EYou hereby affirm we have the right to determine whether any of your User Content submissions are appropriate and comply with these Terms of Service, remove any and\u002For all of your submissions, and terminate your account with or without prior notice.\u003C\u002Fli\u003E\u003C\u002Ful\u003E\u003Cp\u003EYou understand and agree that any liability, loss or damage that occurs as a result of the use of any User Content that you make available or access through your use of the Service is solely your responsibility. The Company is not responsible for any public display or misuse of your User Content. The Company does not, and cannot, pre-screen or monitor all User Content. However, at our discretion, we, or the technology we employ, may monitor and\u002For record your interactions with the Service.\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cstrong\u003EONLINE CONTENT DISCLAIMER\u003C\u002Fstrong\u003E\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\u003Cp\u003EOpinions, advice, statements, offers, or other information or content made available through the Service, but not directly by the Company, are those of their respective authors, and should not necessarily be relied upon. Such authors are solely responsible for such content. The Company does not guarantee the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information on the Service and neither does the Company adopt nor endorse, nor is the Company responsible for the accuracy or reliability of any opinion, advice, or statement made by parties other than the Company. The Company takes no responsibility and assumes no liability for any User Content that you or any other user or third party posts or sends over the Service. Under no circumstances will the Company be responsible for any loss or damage resulting from anyone's reliance on information or other content posted on the Service, or transmitted to users.\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\u003Cp\u003EThough the Company strives to enforce these Terms of Use, you may be exposed to User Content that is inaccurate or objectionable. The Company reserves the right, but has no obligation, to monitor the materials posted in the public areas of the service or to limit or deny a user's access to the Service or take other appropriate action if a user violates these Terms of Use or engages in any activity that violates the rights of any person or entity or which we deem unlawful, offensive, abusive, harmful or malicious. The Company shall have the right to remove any such material that in its sole opinion violates, or is alleged to violate, the law or this agreement or which might be offensive, or that might violate the rights, harm, or threaten the safety of users or others. Unauthorized use may result in criminal and\u002For civil prosecution under the law. If you become aware of misuse of our Service, please contact us at https:\u002F\u002Fblogweb.me.\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cstrong\u003ELINKS TO OTHER SITES AND\u002FOR MATERIALS\u003C\u002Fstrong\u003E\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\u003Cp\u003EAs part of the Service, the Company may provide you with convenient links to third party web site(s) (\"Third Party Sites\") as well as content or items belonging to or originating from third parties (the\"Third Party Applications, Software or Content\"). These links are provided as a courtesy to Service subscribers. The Company has no control over Third Party Sites and Third Party Applications, Software or Content or the promotions, materials, information, goods or services available on these Third Party Sites or Third Party Applications, Software or Content. Such Third Party Sites and Third Party Applications, Software or Content are not investigated, monitored or checked for accuracy, appropriateness, or completeness by the Company, and the Company is not responsible for any Third Party Sites accessed through the Site or any Third Party Applications, Software or Content posted on, available through or installed from the Site, including the content, accuracy, offensiveness, opinions, reliability, privacy practices or other policies of or contained in the Third Party Sites or the Third Party Applications, Software or Content. Inclusion of, linking to or permitting the use or installation of any Third Party Site or any Third Party Applications, Software or Content does not imply approval or endorsement thereof by the Company. If you decide to leave the Site and access the Third Party Sites or to use or install any Third Party Applications, Software or Content, you do so at your own risk and you should be aware that our terms and policies no longer govern. You should review the applicable terms and policies, including privacy and data gathering practices, of any site to which you navigate from the Site or relating to any applications you use or install from the site.\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cstrong\u003ECOPYRIGHT COMPLAINTS AND COPYRIGHT AGENT\u003C\u002Fstrong\u003E\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\u003Cp\u003E(a) Termination of Repeat Infringe Accounts. The Company respects the intellectual property rights of others and requests that the users do the same. The Company has adopted and implemented a policy that provides for the termination in appropriate circumstances of users of the Service who are repeat infringers The Company may terminate access for participants or users who are found repeatedly to provide or post protected third party content without necessary rights and permissions.\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\u003Cp\u003E(b) Take-Down Notices. If you are a copyright owner or an agent thereof and believe, in good faith, that any materials provided on the Service infringe upon your copyrights, you may submit a notification pursuant by sending the following information in writing to the Company's designated copyright agent at Self-employment:\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\u003Col\u003E\u003Cli\u003EThe date of your notification;\u003C\u002Fli\u003E\u003Cli\u003EA Physical or electronic signature of a person authorized to act on behalf of the owner of an exclusive right that is allegedly infringed;\u003C\u002Fli\u003E\u003Cli\u003EA description of the copyrighted work claimed to have been infringed, or, if multiple copyrighted works at a single online site are recovered by a single notification, a representative list of such works at that site;\u003C\u002Fli\u003E\u003Cli\u003EA description of the material that is claimed to be infringing or to be the subject of infringing activity and information sufficient to enable us to locate such work;\u003C\u002Fli\u003E\u003Cli\u003EInformation reasonably sufficient to permit the service provider to contact you, such as an address, telephone number, and\u002For email address;\u003C\u002Fli\u003E\u003Cli\u003EA statement that you have a good faith belief that use of the material in the manner complained of is not authorized by the copyright owner, its agent, or the law; and\u003C\u002Fli\u003E\u003Cli\u003EA statement that the information in the notification is accurate, and under penalty of perjury, that you are authorized to act on behalf of the owner of an exclusive right that is allegedly infringed.\u003C\u002Fli\u003E\u003C\u002Fol\u003E\u003Cp\u003E(c) Counter-Notices. If you believe that your User Content that has been removed from the Site is not infringing, or that you have the authorization from the copyright owner, the copyright owner's agent, or pursuant to the law, to post and use the content in your User Content, you may send a counter-notice containing the following information to our copyright agent using the contact information set forth above:\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\u003Col\u003E\u003Cli\u003EYour physical or electronic signature;\u003C\u002Fli\u003E\u003Cli\u003EA description of the content that has been removed and the location at which the content appeared before it was removed;\u003C\u002Fli\u003E\u003Cli\u003EA statement that you have a good faith belief that the content was removed as a result of mistake or a misidentification of the content; and\u003C\u002Fli\u003E\u003Cli\u003EYour name, address, telephone number, and email address, a statement that you consent to the laws of California and a statement that you will accept service of process from the person who provided notification of the alleged infringement.\u003C\u002Fli\u003E\u003C\u002Fol\u003E\u003Cp\u003EIf a counter-notice is received by the Company copyright agent, the Company may send a copy of the counter-notice to the original complaining party informing such person that it may reinstate the removed content in 10 business days. Unless the copyright owner files an action seeking a court order against the content provider, member or user, the removed content may (in the Company's discretion) be reinstated on the Site in 10 to 14 business days or more after receipt of the counter-notice.\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cstrong\u003ELICENSE GRANT\u003C\u002Fstrong\u003E\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\u003Cp\u003EBy posting any User Content via the Service, you expressly grant, and you represent and warrant that you have a right to grant, to the Company a royalty-free, sub licensable, transferable, perpetual, irrevocable, non-exclusive, worldwide license to use, reproduce, modify, publish, list information regarding, edit, translate, distribute, publicly perform, publicly display, and make derivative works of all such User Content and your name, voice, and\u002For likeness as contained in your User Content, if applicable, in whole or impart, and in any form, media or technology, whether now known or hereafter developed, for use in connection with the Service.\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cstrong\u003EINTELLECTUAL PROPERTY\u003C\u002Fstrong\u003E\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\u003Cp\u003EYou acknowledge and agree that we and our licensors retain ownership of all intellectual property rights of any kind related to the Service, including applicable copyrights, trademarks and other proprietary rights. 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SOME JURISDICTIONS LIMIT OR DO NOT PERMIT DISCLAIMERS OF WARRANTY, SO THIS PROVISION MAY NOT APPLY TO YOU.\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cstrong\u003ELIMITATION OF DAMAGES; RELEASE\u003C\u002Fstrong\u003E\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\u003Cp\u003ETO THE EXTENT PERMITTED BY APPLICABLE LAW, IN NO EVENT SHALL THE COMPANY, ITS AFFILIATES, DIRECTORS, OR EMPLOYEES, OR ITS LICENSORS OR PARTNERS, BE LIABLE TO YOU FOR ANY LOSS OF PROFITS, USE, OR DATA, OR FOR ANY INCIDENTAL, INDIRECT, SPECIAL, CONSEQUENTIAL OR EXEMPLARY DAMAGES, HOWEVER ARISING, THAT RESULT FROM (A) THE USE, DISCLOSURE, OR DISPLAY OF YOUR USER CONTENT; (B) YOUR USE OR INABILITY TO USE THE SERVICE; (C) THE SERVICE GENERALLY OR THE SOFTWARE OR SYSTEMS THAT MAKE THE SERVICE AVAILABLE; OR (D) ANY OTHER INTERACTIONS WITH THE COMPANY OR ANY OTHER USER OF THE SERVICE, WHETHER BASED ON WARRANTY, CONTRACT, TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE) OR ANY OTHER LEGAL THEORY, AND WHETHER OR NOT THE COMPANY HAS BEEN INFORMED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE, AND EVEN IF A REMEDY SET FORTH HEREIN IS FOUND TO HAVE FAILED OF ITS ESSENTIAL PURPOSE. SOME JURISDICTIONS LIMIT OR DO NOT PERMIT DISCLAIMERS OF LIABILITY, SO THIS PROVISION MAY NOT APPLY TO YOU.\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\u003Cp\u003EIf you have a dispute with one or more users or a merchant of a product or service that you review using the Service, you release us (and our officers, directors, agents, subsidiaries, joint ventures and employees) from claims, demands and damages (actual and consequential) of every kind and nature, known and unknown, arising out of or in any way connected with such disputes.\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cstrong\u003EMODIFICATION OF TERMS OF USE\u003C\u002Fstrong\u003E\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\u003Cp\u003EWe can amend these Terms of Use at any time and will update these Terms of Use in the event of any such amendments. It is your sole responsibility to check the Site from time to time to view any such changes in the Agreement. If you continue to use the Site, you signify your agreement to our revisions to these Terms of Use. However, we will notify you of material changes to the terms by posting a notice on our homepage and\u002For sending an email to the email address you provided to us upon registration. For this additional reason, you should keep your contact and profile information current. Any changes to these Terms or waiver of the Company's rights hereunder shall not be valid or effective except in a written agreement bearing the physical signature of an officer of the Company. No purported waiver or modification of this Agreement by the Company via telephonic or email communications shall be valid.\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cstrong\u003EGENERAL TERMS\u003C\u002Fstrong\u003E\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\u003Cp\u003EIf any part of this Agreement is held invalid or unenforceable, that portion of the Agreement will be construed consistent with applicable law. The remaining portions will remain in full force and effect. Any failure on the part of the Company to enforce any provision of this Agreement will not be considered a waiver of our right to enforce such provision. Our rights under this Agreement will survive any termination of this Agreement.\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\u003Cp\u003EYou agree that any cause of action related to or arising out of your relationship with the Company must commence within ONE year after the cause of action accrues. Otherwise, such cause of action is permanently barred.\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\u003Cp\u003EThese Terms of Use and your use of the Site are governed by the laws of California, without regard to conflict of law provisions.\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\u003Cp\u003EThe Company may assign or delegate these Terms of Service and\u002For the Company's Privacy Policy, in whole or in part, to any person or entity at any time with or without your consent. You may not assign or delegate any rights or obligations under the Terms of Service or Privacy Policy without the Company's prior written consent, and any unauthorized assignment and delegation by you is void.\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\u003Cp\u003EYOU ACKNOWLEDGE THAT YOU HAVE READ THESE TERMS OF USE, UNDERSTAND THE TERMS OF USE, AND WILL BE BOUND BY THESE TERMS AND CONDITIONS. YOU FURTHER ACKNOWLEDGE THAT THESE TERMS OF USE TOGETHER WITH THE PRIVACY POLICY AT https:\u002F\u002Fblogweb.me REPRESENT THE COMPLETE AND EXCLUSIVE STATEMENT OF THE AGREEMENT BETWEEN US AND THAT IT SUPERSEDES ANY PROPOSAL OR PRIOR AGREEMENT ORAL OR WRITTEN, AND ANY OTHER COMMUNICATIONS BETWEEN US RELATING TO THE SUBJECT MATTER OF THIS AGREEMENT.\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\u003Cp class=\"ql-align-right\"\u003E\u003Cbr\u003E\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cbr\u003E\u003C\u002Fp\u003E",Domain:aL,Plan:g,PlanExpired:"2100-01-01T00:00:00Z",Port:aM,Active:g,Rating:b,CountVoted:b,Trusted:c,CreatedIp:a,Subject:{Id:45,Name:a,Slug:a,Icon:a,MetaTitle:a,MetaDescription:a,Locale:f,Site:f,Created:e,Updated:e},Settings:{Id:h,Title:j,Logo:aN,Locale:aO,RobotsTxt:aP,FooterCode:aQ,Description:y,Activation:aR,ScrollablePagination:b,AddWatermark:b,AddWatermarkPosition:b,LayoutSettings:{Id:h,Name:a,IsDark:b,BackgroundFull:b,PageTransition:a,CodeTheme:a,Background:a,BackgroundColor:a,TextColor:a,TextFontFamily:a,PrimaryColor:a,SecondaryColor:a,AccentColor:a,InfoColor:a,SuccessColor:a,ErrorColor:a,WarningColor:a,Created:e,Updated:e},ForumSettings:f,BlogSettings:{Id:h,Toc:b,TocCollapse:b,AddSource:b,AddSourceText:a,IsRelatedPost:b,RelatedPost:b,Created:e,Updated:e},MailSettings:{Id:46,Host:a,Email:a,FromName:a,User:a,Password:a,Encryption:a,Port:b,Created:e,Updated:e},SocialSettings:f,SecuritySettings:{Id:h,ThreadLimit:b,ThreadLimitType:b,RegisterLimit:b,RegisterLimitType:b,PostLimit:b,CommentLimitType:b,CommentLimit:b,PostLimitType:b,MessagesBeforeAutoApproved:b,MarkUncertainMessages:c,SecurityQuestions:f,Created:e,Updated:e},Created:aS,Updated:"2021-05-21T18:35:55Z"},User:{Id:614,Username:a,FirstName:a,Avatar:a,LastName:a,Company:a,Email:a,ConfirmationToken:a,CreatedIp:a,RestoreToken:a,PasswordRequestedAt:e,Password:a,Active:b,Trusted:c,Banned:b,Notifications:b,Role:f,Site:f,LastLogin:e,Created:e,Updated:e},Category:f,Created:aS,Updated:"2022-08-15T17:41:47Z"},title:Y,summary:"In GraphQL, returning either an object or null depends on the schema definition and resolver implementation. Here is an explanation of how to achieve this:Schema Definition:\nTo return an object or null, you need to define the return type in your GraphQL schema. This can be done using the nullable modifier, which is denoted by a trailing exclamation mark.\nExample:\ntype Query {\ngetUser(id: ID!): User\n}\ntype User {\nid: ID.",content:"\u003Cp\u003EIn GraphQL, returning either an object or null depends on the schema definition and resolver implementation. Here is an explanation of how to achieve this:\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\u003Col\u003E\u003Cli\u003E\u003Cstrong\u003ESchema Definition\u003C\u002Fstrong\u003E:\nTo return an object or null, you need to define the return type in your GraphQL schema. This can be done using the nullable modifier, which is denoted by a trailing exclamation mark.\nExample:\ntype Query {\ngetUser(id: ID!): User\n}\ntype User {\nid: ID!\nname: String\nage: Int\n}\nIn the above example, the getUser query returns a \u003Ca href=\"https:\u002F\u002Fubuntuask.com\u002Fblog\u002Fhow-to-check-the-null-string-type-with-go\" class=\"auto-link\" target=\"_blank\"\u003EUser object or null\u003C\u002Fa\u003E. The User object has a non-null id field and nullable name and age fields.\n\u003C\u002Fli\u003E\u003Cli\u003E\u003Cstrong\u003EResolver Implementation\u003C\u002Fstrong\u003E:\nResolvers are responsible for fetching the data for each field defined in the schema. To return an object or \u003Ca class=\"auto-link\" href=\"https:\u002F\u002Ffreelanceshack.com\u002Fblog\u002Fhow-to-perform-null-safety-checks-in-kotlin\"\u003Enull\u003C\u002Fa\u003E, the resolver function should handle the logic accordingly.\nExample:\nconst resolvers = {\nQuery: {\ngetUser: (parent, { id }, context) =&gt; {\n\u002F\u002F Logic to fetch user data based on the provided id\nconst user = getUserById(id);\n\u002F\u002F If the user is found, return the user object. Else, return null.\nreturn user ? user : null;\n}\n}\n};\nIn the above resolver implementation, the getUser resolver checks if the user exists based on the provided id. If the user is found, it returns the user object. Otherwise, it returns null.\nNote that it&#39;s not mandatory to explicitly return null if the object is not found. By default, returning undefined or not returning any value will result in null being returned.\n\u003C\u002Fli\u003E\u003C\u002Fol\u003E\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cbr\u002F\u003E\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\u003Cp\u003EBy defining the schema type as nullable and handling the logic in the resolver function, you can easily return either an object or null in GraphQL.\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\n    \u003Cdiv class=\"rating\"\u003E\n        \u003Ch2\u003EBest GraphQL Books to Read in 2024\u003C\u002Fh2\u003E\n        \u003Cdiv class=\"row mt-2\"\u003E\n            \n                \u003Cdiv class=\"col-12\"\u003E\n                    \u003Cdiv class=\"v-card elevation-6\"\u003E\n                        \u003Cdiv class=\"v-card__text rating-text\"\u003E\n                            \u003Cdiv class=\"rating-counter\"\u003E\n                                 \u003Cspan class=\"v-badge\"\u003E\n                                  \u003Cspan class=\"v-badge__wrapper\"\u003E\n                                      \u003Cspan aria-atomic=\"true\" aria-label=\"Позиция\" class=\"v-badge__badge primary\"\u003E\n                                          1\n                                      \u003C\u002Fspan\u003E\n                                  \u003C\u002Fspan\u003E\n                                \u003C\u002Fspan\u003E\n                            \u003C\u002Fdiv\u003E\n                            \u003Cdiv class=\"row\"\u003E\n                                \u003Cdiv class=\"col-lg-3 col-md-4 col-sm-6 col-12 d-flex justify-center align-center\"\u003E\n                                    \u003Cdiv\u003E\n                                        \u003Cimg src=\"https:\u002F\u002Fblogweb-static.fra1.cdn.digitaloceanspaces.com\u002Fimages\u002Fdd5f352e-9f56-413f-99cd-ffdea954bcc4\u002Frating\u002F31mms6yribs-sl160.jpg\" alt=\"The Road to GraphQL: Your journey to master pragmatic GraphQL in JavaScript with React.js and Node.js\" \u002F\u003E\n                                        \u003Cp class=\"text-center font-weight-bold text-h6\"\u003ERating is 5 out of 5\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\n                                        \u003Cdiv class=\"stars\" style=\"--rating: 5;\" aria-label=\"Rating is 5 out of 5\" \u003E\u003C\u002Fdiv\u003E\n                                    \u003C\u002Fdiv\u003E\n                                \u003C\u002Fdiv\u003E\n                                \u003Cdiv class=\"col-lg-6 col-md-8 col-sm-6 col-12\"\u003E\n                                    \u003Cp class=\"font-weight-bold rating-name\"\u003EThe Road to GraphQL: Your journey to master pragmatic GraphQL in JavaScript with React.js and Node.js\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\n                                    \n                                    \n\n                                    \n                                    \n                                \u003C\u002Fdiv\u003E\n\n                                \u003Cdiv class=\"col-lg-3 col-md-12 col-12 d-flex align-center justify-lg-end justify-center\"\u003E\n                                    \u003Cdiv class=\"text-center d-flex flex-column\"\u003E\n                                        \n                                            \u003Ca href=\"https:\u002F\u002Fgosrc.cc\u002Fgo\u002FRcsO7lDSR\" target=\"_blank\" rel=\"nofollow noopener\" class=\"v-btn v-btn--rounded elevation-5 v-size--large success mb-2\"\u003E\n                                                \u003Cspan class=\"v-btn__content\"\u003EGet Book Now\u003C\u002Fspan\u003E\n                                            \u003C\u002Fa\u003E\n                                        \n                                        \n                                    \u003C\u002Fdiv\u003E\n                                \u003C\u002Fdiv\u003E\n                            \u003C\u002Fdiv\u003E\n                        \u003C\u002Fdiv\u003E\n                    \u003C\u002Fdiv\u003E\n                \u003C\u002Fdiv\u003E\n            \n                \u003Cdiv class=\"col-12\"\u003E\n                    \u003Cdiv class=\"v-card elevation-6\"\u003E\n                        \u003Cdiv class=\"v-card__text rating-text\"\u003E\n                            \u003Cdiv class=\"rating-counter\"\u003E\n                                 \u003Cspan class=\"v-badge\"\u003E\n                                  \u003Cspan class=\"v-badge__wrapper\"\u003E\n                                      \u003Cspan aria-atomic=\"true\" aria-label=\"Позиция\" class=\"v-badge__badge primary\"\u003E\n                                          2\n                                      \u003C\u002Fspan\u003E\n                                  \u003C\u002Fspan\u003E\n                                \u003C\u002Fspan\u003E\n                            \u003C\u002Fdiv\u003E\n                            \u003Cdiv class=\"row\"\u003E\n                                \u003Cdiv class=\"col-lg-3 col-md-4 col-sm-6 col-12 d-flex justify-center align-center\"\u003E\n                                    \u003Cdiv\u003E\n                                        \u003Cimg src=\"https:\u002F\u002Fblogweb-static.fra1.cdn.digitaloceanspaces.com\u002Fimages\u002Fdd5f352e-9f56-413f-99cd-ffdea954bcc4\u002Frating\u002F412oehwtarl-sl160.jpg\" alt=\"Full Stack GraphQL Applications: With React, Node.js, and Neo4j\" \u002F\u003E\n                                        \u003Cp class=\"text-center font-weight-bold text-h6\"\u003ERating is 4.9 out of 5\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\n                                        \u003Cdiv class=\"stars\" style=\"--rating: 4.9;\" aria-label=\"Rating is 4.9 out of 5\" \u003E\u003C\u002Fdiv\u003E\n                                    \u003C\u002Fdiv\u003E\n                                \u003C\u002Fdiv\u003E\n                                \u003Cdiv class=\"col-lg-6 col-md-8 col-sm-6 col-12\"\u003E\n                                    \u003Cp class=\"font-weight-bold rating-name\"\u003EFull Stack GraphQL Applications: With React, Node.js, and Neo4j\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\n                                    \n                                    \n\n                                    \n                                    \n                                \u003C\u002Fdiv\u003E\n\n                                \u003Cdiv class=\"col-lg-3 col-md-12 col-12 d-flex align-center justify-lg-end justify-center\"\u003E\n                                    \u003Cdiv class=\"text-center d-flex flex-column\"\u003E\n                                        \n                                            \u003Ca href=\"https:\u002F\u002Fgosrc.cc\u002Fgo\u002FJcsOn_vSg\" target=\"_blank\" rel=\"nofollow noopener\" class=\"v-btn v-btn--rounded elevation-5 v-size--large success mb-2\"\u003E\n                                                \u003Cspan class=\"v-btn__content\"\u003EGet Book Now\u003C\u002Fspan\u003E\n                                            \u003C\u002Fa\u003E\n                                        \n                                        \n                                    \u003C\u002Fdiv\u003E\n                                \u003C\u002Fdiv\u003E\n                            \u003C\u002Fdiv\u003E\n                        \u003C\u002Fdiv\u003E\n                    \u003C\u002Fdiv\u003E\n                \u003C\u002Fdiv\u003E\n            \n                \u003Cdiv class=\"col-12\"\u003E\n                    \u003Cdiv class=\"v-card elevation-6\"\u003E\n                        \u003Cdiv class=\"v-card__text rating-text\"\u003E\n                            \u003Cdiv class=\"rating-counter\"\u003E\n                                 \u003Cspan class=\"v-badge\"\u003E\n                                  \u003Cspan class=\"v-badge__wrapper\"\u003E\n                                      \u003Cspan aria-atomic=\"true\" aria-label=\"Позиция\" class=\"v-badge__badge primary\"\u003E\n                                          3\n                                      \u003C\u002Fspan\u003E\n                                  \u003C\u002Fspan\u003E\n                                \u003C\u002Fspan\u003E\n                            \u003C\u002Fdiv\u003E\n                            \u003Cdiv class=\"row\"\u003E\n                                \u003Cdiv class=\"col-lg-3 col-md-4 col-sm-6 col-12 d-flex justify-center align-center\"\u003E\n                                    \u003Cdiv\u003E\n                                        \u003Cimg src=\"https:\u002F\u002Fblogweb-static.fra1.cdn.digitaloceanspaces.com\u002Fimages\u002Fdd5f352e-9f56-413f-99cd-ffdea954bcc4\u002Frating\u002F41roh8j-74l-sl160.jpg\" alt=\"GraphQL in Action\" \u002F\u003E\n                                        \u003Cp class=\"text-center font-weight-bold text-h6\"\u003ERating is 4.8 out of 5\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\n                                        \u003Cdiv class=\"stars\" style=\"--rating: 4.8;\" aria-label=\"Rating is 4.8 out of 5\" \u003E\u003C\u002Fdiv\u003E\n                                    \u003C\u002Fdiv\u003E\n                                \u003C\u002Fdiv\u003E\n                                \u003Cdiv class=\"col-lg-6 col-md-8 col-sm-6 col-12\"\u003E\n                                    \u003Cp class=\"font-weight-bold rating-name\"\u003EGraphQL in Action\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\n                                    \n                                    \n\n                                    \n                                    \n                                \u003C\u002Fdiv\u003E\n\n                                \u003Cdiv class=\"col-lg-3 col-md-12 col-12 d-flex align-center justify-lg-end justify-center\"\u003E\n                                    \u003Cdiv class=\"text-center d-flex flex-column\"\u003E\n                                        \n                                            \u003Ca href=\"https:\u002F\u002Fgosrc.cc\u002Fgo\u002F5cyOn_vIR\" target=\"_blank\" rel=\"nofollow noopener\" class=\"v-btn v-btn--rounded elevation-5 v-size--large success mb-2\"\u003E\n                                                \u003Cspan class=\"v-btn__content\"\u003EGet Book Now\u003C\u002Fspan\u003E\n                                            \u003C\u002Fa\u003E\n                                        \n                                        \n                                    \u003C\u002Fdiv\u003E\n                                \u003C\u002Fdiv\u003E\n                            \u003C\u002Fdiv\u003E\n                        \u003C\u002Fdiv\u003E\n                    \u003C\u002Fdiv\u003E\n                \u003C\u002Fdiv\u003E\n            \n                \u003Cdiv class=\"col-12\"\u003E\n                    \u003Cdiv class=\"v-card elevation-6\"\u003E\n                        \u003Cdiv class=\"v-card__text rating-text\"\u003E\n                            \u003Cdiv class=\"rating-counter\"\u003E\n                                 \u003Cspan class=\"v-badge\"\u003E\n                                  \u003Cspan class=\"v-badge__wrapper\"\u003E\n                                      \u003Cspan aria-atomic=\"true\" aria-label=\"Позиция\" class=\"v-badge__badge primary\"\u003E\n                                          4\n                                      \u003C\u002Fspan\u003E\n                                  \u003C\u002Fspan\u003E\n                                \u003C\u002Fspan\u003E\n                            \u003C\u002Fdiv\u003E\n                            \u003Cdiv class=\"row\"\u003E\n                                \u003Cdiv class=\"col-lg-3 col-md-4 col-sm-6 col-12 d-flex justify-center align-center\"\u003E\n                                    \u003Cdiv\u003E\n                                        \u003Cimg src=\"https:\u002F\u002Fblogweb-static.fra1.cdn.digitaloceanspaces.com\u002Fimages\u002Fdd5f352e-9f56-413f-99cd-ffdea954bcc4\u002Frating\u002F51upgne6t9l-sl160.jpg\" alt=\"Hands-On Full-Stack Web Development with GraphQL and React: Build scalable full-stack applications while learning to solve complex problems with GraphQL\" \u002F\u003E\n                                        \u003Cp class=\"text-center font-weight-bold text-h6\"\u003ERating is 4.7 out of 5\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\n                                        \u003Cdiv class=\"stars\" style=\"--rating: 4.7;\" aria-label=\"Rating is 4.7 out of 5\" \u003E\u003C\u002Fdiv\u003E\n                                    \u003C\u002Fdiv\u003E\n                                \u003C\u002Fdiv\u003E\n                                \u003Cdiv class=\"col-lg-6 col-md-8 col-sm-6 col-12\"\u003E\n                                    \u003Cp class=\"font-weight-bold rating-name\"\u003EHands-On Full-Stack Web Development with GraphQL and React: Build scalable full-stack applications while learning to solve complex problems with GraphQL\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\n                                    \n                                    \n\n                                    \n                                    \n                                \u003C\u002Fdiv\u003E\n\n                                \u003Cdiv class=\"col-lg-3 col-md-12 col-12 d-flex align-center justify-lg-end justify-center\"\u003E\n                                    \u003Cdiv class=\"text-center d-flex flex-column\"\u003E\n                                        \n                                            \u003Ca href=\"https:\u002F\u002Fgosrc.cc\u002Fgo\u002FXKsOnlvIR\" target=\"_blank\" rel=\"nofollow noopener\" class=\"v-btn v-btn--rounded elevation-5 v-size--large success mb-2\"\u003E\n                                                \u003Cspan class=\"v-btn__content\"\u003EGet Book Now\u003C\u002Fspan\u003E\n                                            \u003C\u002Fa\u003E\n                                        \n                                        \n                                    \u003C\u002Fdiv\u003E\n                                \u003C\u002Fdiv\u003E\n                            \u003C\u002Fdiv\u003E\n                        \u003C\u002Fdiv\u003E\n                    \u003C\u002Fdiv\u003E\n                \u003C\u002Fdiv\u003E\n            \n                \u003Cdiv class=\"col-12\"\u003E\n                    \u003Cdiv class=\"v-card elevation-6\"\u003E\n                        \u003Cdiv class=\"v-card__text rating-text\"\u003E\n                            \u003Cdiv class=\"rating-counter\"\u003E\n                                 \u003Cspan class=\"v-badge\"\u003E\n                                  \u003Cspan class=\"v-badge__wrapper\"\u003E\n                                      \u003Cspan aria-atomic=\"true\" aria-label=\"Позиция\" class=\"v-badge__badge primary\"\u003E\n                                          5\n                                      \u003C\u002Fspan\u003E\n                                  \u003C\u002Fspan\u003E\n                                \u003C\u002Fspan\u003E\n                            \u003C\u002Fdiv\u003E\n                            \u003Cdiv class=\"row\"\u003E\n                                \u003Cdiv class=\"col-lg-3 col-md-4 col-sm-6 col-12 d-flex justify-center align-center\"\u003E\n                                    \u003Cdiv\u003E\n                                        \u003Cimg src=\"https:\u002F\u002Fblogweb-static.fra1.cdn.digitaloceanspaces.com\u002Fimages\u002Fdd5f352e-9f56-413f-99cd-ffdea954bcc4\u002Frating\u002F51gkl1qtm2l-sl160.jpg\" alt=\"Learning GraphQL: Declarative Data Fetching for Modern Web Apps\" \u002F\u003E\n                                        \u003Cp class=\"text-center font-weight-bold text-h6\"\u003ERating is 4.6 out of 5\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\n                                        \u003Cdiv class=\"stars\" style=\"--rating: 4.6;\" aria-label=\"Rating is 4.6 out of 5\" \u003E\u003C\u002Fdiv\u003E\n                                    \u003C\u002Fdiv\u003E\n                                \u003C\u002Fdiv\u003E\n                                \u003Cdiv class=\"col-lg-6 col-md-8 col-sm-6 col-12\"\u003E\n                                    \u003Cp class=\"font-weight-bold rating-name\"\u003ELearning GraphQL: Declarative Data Fetching for Modern Web Apps\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\n                                    \n                                    \n\n                                    \n                                    \n                                \u003C\u002Fdiv\u003E\n\n                                \u003Cdiv class=\"col-lg-3 col-md-12 col-12 d-flex align-center justify-lg-end justify-center\"\u003E\n                                    \u003Cdiv class=\"text-center d-flex flex-column\"\u003E\n                                        \n                                            \u003Ca href=\"https:\u002F\u002Fgosrc.cc\u002Fgo\u002FBKsd7lDSg\" target=\"_blank\" rel=\"nofollow noopener\" class=\"v-btn v-btn--rounded elevation-5 v-size--large success mb-2\"\u003E\n                                                \u003Cspan class=\"v-btn__content\"\u003EGet Book Now\u003C\u002Fspan\u003E\n                                            \u003C\u002Fa\u003E\n                                        \n                                        \n                                    \u003C\u002Fdiv\u003E\n                                \u003C\u002Fdiv\u003E\n                            \u003C\u002Fdiv\u003E\n                        \u003C\u002Fdiv\u003E\n                    \u003C\u002Fdiv\u003E\n                \u003C\u002Fdiv\u003E\n            \n        \u003C\u002Fdiv\u003E\n    \u003C\u002Fdiv\u003E\n\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cbr\u002F\u003E\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\u003Ch2\u003EWhat is the difference between returning null and an empty object in GraphQL?\u003C\u002Fh2\u003E\u003Cp\u003EIn GraphQL, there is a significant difference between returning null and an empty object.\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\u003Col\u003E\u003Cli\u003E\u003Cstrong\u003EReturning null\u003C\u002Fstrong\u003E: When a field in a GraphQL query resolves to null, it means that there is no data available for that field. It indicates that the field exists but has no value to return. Null is used to represent that the field could not be resolved due to some error or missing data.\n\u003C\u002Fli\u003E\u003Cli\u003E\u003Cstrong\u003EReturning an empty object\u003C\u002Fstrong\u003E: Returning an empty object implies that the field exists and has a value, but that value is an empty set or an empty object. It indicates that the field was resolved successfully, but there is no data to populate it. This is useful when a field represents a complex object with multiple sub-fields, and those sub-fields could be optional or not applicable in certain cases.\n\u003C\u002Fli\u003E\u003C\u002Fol\u003E\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cbr\u002F\u003E\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\u003Cp\u003ETo summarize, returning null means that the field itself does not exist or has no value, while returning an empty object means the field exists but is empty. The choice between null and an empty object should be based on the intended meaning and requirements of the GraphQL schema and the specific use case.\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cbr\u002F\u003E\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\u003Ch2\u003EWhat is the impact of returning null on GraphQL caching with Apollo Server?\u003C\u002Fh2\u003E\u003Cp\u003EReturning null values in GraphQL queries can have an impact on caching, especially when used with Apollo Server.\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\u003Col\u003E\u003Cli\u003E\u003Cstrong\u003ECache Hit\u003C\u002Fstrong\u003E: When a GraphQL query is executed with a cache hit, Apollo Server can directly return the previously cached result without executing the associated resolver functions. If a value is returned as null from a resolver, the cache still maintains the null value for that field. So, subsequent queries for the same field will also receive the null value from the cache, without re-executing the resolver. This can lead to stale null values being returned even if the underlying data has been updated.\n\u003C\u002Fli\u003E\u003Cli\u003E\u003Cstrong\u003ECache Miss\u003C\u002Fstrong\u003E: If the initial GraphQL query is performed with a cache miss, Apollo Server has to execute the associated resolver functions to fetch the data. If a resolver returns a null value, Apollo Server will not cache the null value for that field. So, subsequent queries for the same field will again result in cache misses, causing the resolvers to be executed repeatedly, even for the same data, leading to decreased performance.\n\u003C\u002Fli\u003E\u003C\u002Fol\u003E\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cbr\u002F\u003E\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\u003Cp\u003EBy default, Apollo Server&#39;s caching mechanism treats null as a valid value and caches it if it is returned by a resolver. However, Apollo Server provides options to customize caching behavior, like \u003Ca class=\"auto-link\" href=\"https:\u002F\u002Ffreelanceshack.com\u002Fblog\u002Fhow-to-add-a-custom-value-in-grafana-legend\"\u003Esetting a custom\u003C\u002Fa\u003E cache key or specifying a cache policy. These can be used to handle and control the behavior of null values in caching, such as treating null values as cache misses or evicting null values from the cache.\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cbr\u002F\u003E\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\u003Cp\u003EIt is important to handle null values carefully in GraphQL resolvers to avoid caching inconsistencies and ensure that the cache reflects the most up-to-date data.\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cbr\u002F\u003E\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\u003Ch2\u003EWhat is the recommended approach for returning null or an object in GraphQL?\u003C\u002Fh2\u003E\u003Cp\u003EIn GraphQL, returning \u003Ccode\u003Enull\u003C\u002Fcode\u003E or an object is handled by the field resolvers. The recommended approach for returning null or an object depends on the specific use case and the desired behavior.\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\u003Col\u003E\u003Cli\u003E\u003Cstrong\u003EReturning null\u003C\u002Fstrong\u003E: If a field resolver encounters a null value, it can simply return null to indicate that the requested field is not available or has no value. This can be useful in cases where a field is optional or may not have a value.\n\u003C\u002Fli\u003E\u003Cli\u003E\u003Cstrong\u003EReturning an object\u003C\u002Fstrong\u003E: If a field resolver encounters an object, it should return an object representing the requested field. The field resolver can either construct a new object or fetch the object from a data source, such as a database. This is commonly used when the requested field is mandatory and there is a valid value to return.\n\u003C\u002Fli\u003E\u003C\u002Fol\u003E\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cbr\u002F\u003E\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\u003Cp\u003EIt&#39;s important to note that GraphQL has a nullable type system by default, which means that all fields are nullable unless explicitly marked as non-null. This allows clients to expect null values from fields and handle them accordingly.\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cbr\u002F\u003E\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\u003Cp\u003EIn the schema definition, nullability can be specified for fields using \u003Ccode\u003E!\u003C\u002Fcode\u003E to indicate non-null or omitting it to allow nullable values. It is recommended to accurately define the nullability of fields in the schema to provide a clear contract to clients.\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cbr\u002F\u003E\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\u003Ch2\u003EHow to default a nullable field to null in GraphQL?\u003C\u002Fh2\u003E\u003Cp\u003EIn GraphQL, nullable fields are declared by using a trailing question mark (?) after the type name. By default, nullable fields are set to null if no value is provided. However, if you want to explicitly default a nullable field to null, you can simply omit it from the input when creating or updating an object.\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cbr\u002F\u003E\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\u003Cp\u003EFor example, let&#39;s say you have a \u003Ccode\u003EUser\u003C\u002Fcode\u003E type with a nullable \u003Ccode\u003Ebio\u003C\u002Fcode\u003E field:\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\u003Cpre class=\"code-block ql-syntax\" id=\"code-liyg3pw\"\u003Etype User {\n  id: ID!\n  name: String!\n  bio: String\n}\n\u003C\u002Fpre\u003E\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cbr\u002F\u003E\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\u003Cp\u003EWhen creating a new user, you can omit the \u003Ccode\u003Ebio\u003C\u002Fcode\u003E field to default it to null:\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\u003Cpre class=\"code-block ql-syntax\" id=\"code-rniqr85\"\u003Emutation {\n  createUser(input: { name: &#34;John Doe&#34; }) {\n    id\n    name\n    bio # Returns null\n  }\n}\n\u003C\u002Fpre\u003E\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cbr\u002F\u003E\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\u003Cp\u003ESimilarly, when updating a user, you can omit the \u003Ccode\u003Ebio\u003C\u002Fcode\u003E field in the update payload to keep it as null:\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\u003Cpre class=\"code-block ql-syntax\" id=\"code-9xlgiru\"\u003Emutation {\n  updateUser(id: &#34;123&#34;, input: { name: &#34;John Smith&#34; }) {\n    id\n    name\n    bio # Returns null\n  }\n}\n\u003C\u002Fpre\u003E\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cbr\u002F\u003E\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\u003Cp\u003EBy not providing a value for the nullable field, GraphQL will automatically treat it as null.\u003C\u002Fp\u003E",content_ad:"\u003Cp\u003EIn GraphQL, returning either an object or null depends on the schema definition and resolver implementation. Here is an explanation of how to achieve this:\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\u003Col\u003E\u003Cli\u003E\u003Cstrong\u003ESchema Definition\u003C\u002Fstrong\u003E:\nTo return an object or null, you need to define the return type in your GraphQL schema. This can be done using the nullable modifier, which is denoted by a trailing exclamation mark.\nExample:\ntype Query {\ngetUser(id: ID!): User\n}\ntype User {\nid: ID!\nname: String\nage: Int\n}\nIn the above example, the getUser query returns a \u003Ca href=\"https:\u002F\u002Fubuntuask.com\u002Fblog\u002Fhow-to-check-the-null-string-type-with-go\" class=\"auto-link\" target=\"_blank\"\u003EUser object or null\u003C\u002Fa\u003E. The User object has a non-null id field and nullable name and age fields.\n\u003C\u002Fli\u003E\u003Cli\u003E\u003Cstrong\u003EResolver Implementation\u003C\u002Fstrong\u003E:\nResolvers are responsible for fetching the data for each field defined in the schema. To return an object or \u003Ca class=\"auto-link\" href=\"https:\u002F\u002Ffreelanceshack.com\u002Fblog\u002Fhow-to-perform-null-safety-checks-in-kotlin\"\u003Enull\u003C\u002Fa\u003E, the resolver function should handle the logic accordingly.\nExample:\nconst resolvers = {\nQuery: {\ngetUser: (parent, { id }, context) =&gt; {\n\u002F\u002F Logic to fetch user data based on the provided id\nconst user = getUserById(id);\n\u002F\u002F If the user is found, return the user object. Else, return null.\nreturn user ? user : null;\n}\n}\n};\nIn the above resolver implementation, the getUser resolver checks if the user exists based on the provided id. If the user is found, it returns the user object. Otherwise, it returns null.\nNote that it&#39;s not mandatory to explicitly return null if the object is not found. By default, returning undefined or not returning any value will result in null being returned.\n\u003C\u002Fli\u003E\u003C\u002Fol\u003E\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cbr\u002F\u003E\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\u003Cp\u003EBy defining the schema type as nullable and handling the logic in the resolver function, you can easily return either an object or null in GraphQL.\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\n    \u003Cdiv class=\"rating\"\u003E\n        \u003Ch2\u003EBest GraphQL Books to Read in 2024\u003C\u002Fh2\u003E\n        \u003Cdiv class=\"row mt-2\"\u003E\n            \n                \u003Cdiv class=\"col-12\"\u003E\n                    \u003Cdiv class=\"v-card elevation-6\"\u003E\n                        \u003Cdiv class=\"v-card__text rating-text\"\u003E\n                            \u003Cdiv class=\"rating-counter\"\u003E\n                                 \u003Cspan class=\"v-badge\"\u003E\n                                  \u003Cspan class=\"v-badge__wrapper\"\u003E\n                                      \u003Cspan aria-atomic=\"true\" aria-label=\"Позиция\" class=\"v-badge__badge primary\"\u003E\n                                          1\n                                      \u003C\u002Fspan\u003E\n                                  \u003C\u002Fspan\u003E\n                                \u003C\u002Fspan\u003E\n                            \u003C\u002Fdiv\u003E\n                            \u003Cdiv class=\"row\"\u003E\n                                \u003Cdiv class=\"col-lg-3 col-md-4 col-sm-6 col-12 d-flex justify-center align-center\"\u003E\n                                    \u003Cdiv\u003E\n                                        \u003Cimg src=\"https:\u002F\u002Fblogweb-static.fra1.cdn.digitaloceanspaces.com\u002Fimages\u002Fdd5f352e-9f56-413f-99cd-ffdea954bcc4\u002Frating\u002F31mms6yribs-sl160.jpg\" alt=\"The Road to GraphQL: Your journey to master pragmatic GraphQL in JavaScript with React.js and Node.js\" \u002F\u003E\n                                        \u003Cp class=\"text-center font-weight-bold text-h6\"\u003ERating is 5 out of 5\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\n                                        \u003Cdiv class=\"stars\" style=\"--rating: 5;\" aria-label=\"Rating is 5 out of 5\" \u003E\u003C\u002Fdiv\u003E\n                                    \u003C\u002Fdiv\u003E\n                                \u003C\u002Fdiv\u003E\n                                \u003Cdiv class=\"col-lg-6 col-md-8 col-sm-6 col-12\"\u003E\n                                    \u003Cp class=\"font-weight-bold rating-name\"\u003EThe Road to GraphQL: Your journey to master pragmatic GraphQL in JavaScript with React.js and Node.js\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\n                                    \n                                    \n\n                                    \n                                    \n                                \u003C\u002Fdiv\u003E\n\n                                \u003Cdiv class=\"col-lg-3 col-md-12 col-12 d-flex align-center justify-lg-end justify-center\"\u003E\n                                    \u003Cdiv class=\"text-center d-flex flex-column\"\u003E\n                                        \n                                            \u003Ca href=\"https:\u002F\u002Fgosrc.cc\u002Fgo\u002FRcsO7lDSR\" target=\"_blank\" rel=\"nofollow noopener\" class=\"v-btn v-btn--rounded elevation-5 v-size--large success mb-2\"\u003E\n                                                \u003Cspan class=\"v-btn__content\"\u003EGet Book Now\u003C\u002Fspan\u003E\n                                            \u003C\u002Fa\u003E\n                                        \n                                        \n                                    \u003C\u002Fdiv\u003E\n                                \u003C\u002Fdiv\u003E\n                            \u003C\u002Fdiv\u003E\n                        \u003C\u002Fdiv\u003E\n                    \u003C\u002Fdiv\u003E\n                \u003C\u002Fdiv\u003E\n            \n                \u003Cdiv class=\"col-12\"\u003E\n                    \u003Cdiv class=\"v-card elevation-6\"\u003E\n                        \u003Cdiv class=\"v-card__text rating-text\"\u003E\n                            \u003Cdiv class=\"rating-counter\"\u003E\n                                 \u003Cspan class=\"v-badge\"\u003E\n                                  \u003Cspan class=\"v-badge__wrapper\"\u003E\n                                      \u003Cspan aria-atomic=\"true\" aria-label=\"Позиция\" class=\"v-badge__badge primary\"\u003E\n                                          2\n                                      \u003C\u002Fspan\u003E\n                                  \u003C\u002Fspan\u003E\n                                \u003C\u002Fspan\u003E\n                            \u003C\u002Fdiv\u003E\n                            \u003Cdiv class=\"row\"\u003E\n                                \u003Cdiv class=\"col-lg-3 col-md-4 col-sm-6 col-12 d-flex justify-center align-center\"\u003E\n                                    \u003Cdiv\u003E\n                                        \u003Cimg src=\"https:\u002F\u002Fblogweb-static.fra1.cdn.digitaloceanspaces.com\u002Fimages\u002Fdd5f352e-9f56-413f-99cd-ffdea954bcc4\u002Frating\u002F412oehwtarl-sl160.jpg\" alt=\"Full Stack GraphQL Applications: With React, Node.js, and Neo4j\" \u002F\u003E\n                                        \u003Cp class=\"text-center font-weight-bold text-h6\"\u003ERating is 4.9 out of 5\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\n                                        \u003Cdiv class=\"stars\" style=\"--rating: 4.9;\" aria-label=\"Rating is 4.9 out of 5\" \u003E\u003C\u002Fdiv\u003E\n                                    \u003C\u002Fdiv\u003E\n                                \u003C\u002Fdiv\u003E\n                                \u003Cdiv class=\"col-lg-6 col-md-8 col-sm-6 col-12\"\u003E\n                                    \u003Cp class=\"font-weight-bold rating-name\"\u003EFull Stack GraphQL Applications: With React, Node.js, and Neo4j\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\n                                    \n                                    \n\n                                    \n                                    \n                                \u003C\u002Fdiv\u003E\n\n                                \u003Cdiv class=\"col-lg-3 col-md-12 col-12 d-flex align-center justify-lg-end justify-center\"\u003E\n                                    \u003Cdiv class=\"text-center d-flex flex-column\"\u003E\n                                        \n                                            \u003Ca href=\"https:\u002F\u002Fgosrc.cc\u002Fgo\u002FJcsOn_vSg\" target=\"_blank\" rel=\"nofollow noopener\" class=\"v-btn v-btn--rounded elevation-5 v-size--large success mb-2\"\u003E\n                                                \u003Cspan class=\"v-btn__content\"\u003EGet Book Now\u003C\u002Fspan\u003E\n                                            \u003C\u002Fa\u003E\n                                        \n                                        \n                                    \u003C\u002Fdiv\u003E\n                                \u003C\u002Fdiv\u003E\n                            \u003C\u002Fdiv\u003E\n                        \u003C\u002Fdiv\u003E\n                    \u003C\u002Fdiv\u003E\n                \u003C\u002Fdiv\u003E\n            \n                \u003Cdiv class=\"col-12\"\u003E\n                    \u003Cdiv class=\"v-card elevation-6\"\u003E\n                        \u003Cdiv class=\"v-card__text rating-text\"\u003E\n                            \u003Cdiv class=\"rating-counter\"\u003E\n                                 \u003Cspan class=\"v-badge\"\u003E\n                                  \u003Cspan class=\"v-badge__wrapper\"\u003E\n                                      \u003Cspan aria-atomic=\"true\" aria-label=\"Позиция\" class=\"v-badge__badge primary\"\u003E\n                                          3\n                                      \u003C\u002Fspan\u003E\n                                  \u003C\u002Fspan\u003E\n                                \u003C\u002Fspan\u003E\n                            \u003C\u002Fdiv\u003E\n                            \u003Cdiv class=\"row\"\u003E\n                                \u003Cdiv class=\"col-lg-3 col-md-4 col-sm-6 col-12 d-flex justify-center align-center\"\u003E\n                                    \u003Cdiv\u003E\n                                        \u003Cimg src=\"https:\u002F\u002Fblogweb-static.fra1.cdn.digitaloceanspaces.com\u002Fimages\u002Fdd5f352e-9f56-413f-99cd-ffdea954bcc4\u002Frating\u002F41roh8j-74l-sl160.jpg\" alt=\"GraphQL in Action\" \u002F\u003E\n                                        \u003Cp class=\"text-center font-weight-bold text-h6\"\u003ERating is 4.8 out of 5\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\n                                        \u003Cdiv class=\"stars\" style=\"--rating: 4.8;\" aria-label=\"Rating is 4.8 out of 5\" \u003E\u003C\u002Fdiv\u003E\n                                    \u003C\u002Fdiv\u003E\n                                \u003C\u002Fdiv\u003E\n                                \u003Cdiv class=\"col-lg-6 col-md-8 col-sm-6 col-12\"\u003E\n                                    \u003Cp class=\"font-weight-bold rating-name\"\u003EGraphQL in Action\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\n                                    \n                                    \n\n                                    \n                                    \n                                \u003C\u002Fdiv\u003E\n\n                                \u003Cdiv class=\"col-lg-3 col-md-12 col-12 d-flex align-center justify-lg-end justify-center\"\u003E\n                                    \u003Cdiv class=\"text-center d-flex flex-column\"\u003E\n                                        \n                                            \u003Ca href=\"https:\u002F\u002Fgosrc.cc\u002Fgo\u002F5cyOn_vIR\" target=\"_blank\" rel=\"nofollow noopener\" class=\"v-btn v-btn--rounded elevation-5 v-size--large success mb-2\"\u003E\n                                                \u003Cspan class=\"v-btn__content\"\u003EGet Book Now\u003C\u002Fspan\u003E\n                                            \u003C\u002Fa\u003E\n                                        \n                                        \n                                    \u003C\u002Fdiv\u003E\n                                \u003C\u002Fdiv\u003E\n                            \u003C\u002Fdiv\u003E\n                        \u003C\u002Fdiv\u003E\n                    \u003C\u002Fdiv\u003E\n                \u003C\u002Fdiv\u003E\n            \n                \u003Cdiv class=\"col-12\"\u003E\n                    \u003Cdiv class=\"v-card elevation-6\"\u003E\n                        \u003Cdiv class=\"v-card__text rating-text\"\u003E\n                            \u003Cdiv class=\"rating-counter\"\u003E\n                                 \u003Cspan class=\"v-badge\"\u003E\n                                  \u003Cspan class=\"v-badge__wrapper\"\u003E\n                                      \u003Cspan aria-atomic=\"true\" aria-label=\"Позиция\" class=\"v-badge__badge primary\"\u003E\n                                          4\n                                      \u003C\u002Fspan\u003E\n                                  \u003C\u002Fspan\u003E\n                                \u003C\u002Fspan\u003E\n                            \u003C\u002Fdiv\u003E\n                            \u003Cdiv class=\"row\"\u003E\n                                \u003Cdiv class=\"col-lg-3 col-md-4 col-sm-6 col-12 d-flex justify-center align-center\"\u003E\n                                    \u003Cdiv\u003E\n                                        \u003Cimg src=\"https:\u002F\u002Fblogweb-static.fra1.cdn.digitaloceanspaces.com\u002Fimages\u002Fdd5f352e-9f56-413f-99cd-ffdea954bcc4\u002Frating\u002F51upgne6t9l-sl160.jpg\" alt=\"Hands-On Full-Stack Web Development with GraphQL and React: Build scalable full-stack applications while learning to solve complex problems with GraphQL\" \u002F\u003E\n                                        \u003Cp class=\"text-center font-weight-bold text-h6\"\u003ERating is 4.7 out of 5\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\n                                        \u003Cdiv class=\"stars\" style=\"--rating: 4.7;\" aria-label=\"Rating is 4.7 out of 5\" \u003E\u003C\u002Fdiv\u003E\n                                    \u003C\u002Fdiv\u003E\n                                \u003C\u002Fdiv\u003E\n                                \u003Cdiv class=\"col-lg-6 col-md-8 col-sm-6 col-12\"\u003E\n                                    \u003Cp class=\"font-weight-bold rating-name\"\u003EHands-On Full-Stack Web Development with GraphQL and React: Build scalable full-stack applications while learning to solve complex problems with GraphQL\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\n                                    \n                                    \n\n                                    \n                                    \n                                \u003C\u002Fdiv\u003E\n\n                                \u003Cdiv class=\"col-lg-3 col-md-12 col-12 d-flex align-center justify-lg-end justify-center\"\u003E\n                                    \u003Cdiv class=\"text-center d-flex flex-column\"\u003E\n                                        \n                                            \u003Ca href=\"https:\u002F\u002Fgosrc.cc\u002Fgo\u002FXKsOnlvIR\" target=\"_blank\" rel=\"nofollow noopener\" class=\"v-btn v-btn--rounded elevation-5 v-size--large success mb-2\"\u003E\n                                                \u003Cspan class=\"v-btn__content\"\u003EGet Book Now\u003C\u002Fspan\u003E\n                                            \u003C\u002Fa\u003E\n                                        \n                                        \n                                    \u003C\u002Fdiv\u003E\n                                \u003C\u002Fdiv\u003E\n                            \u003C\u002Fdiv\u003E\n                        \u003C\u002Fdiv\u003E\n                    \u003C\u002Fdiv\u003E\n                \u003C\u002Fdiv\u003E\n            \n                \u003Cdiv class=\"col-12\"\u003E\n                    \u003Cdiv class=\"v-card elevation-6\"\u003E\n                        \u003Cdiv class=\"v-card__text rating-text\"\u003E\n                            \u003Cdiv class=\"rating-counter\"\u003E\n                                 \u003Cspan class=\"v-badge\"\u003E\n                                  \u003Cspan class=\"v-badge__wrapper\"\u003E\n                                      \u003Cspan aria-atomic=\"true\" aria-label=\"Позиция\" class=\"v-badge__badge primary\"\u003E\n                                          5\n                                      \u003C\u002Fspan\u003E\n                                  \u003C\u002Fspan\u003E\n                                \u003C\u002Fspan\u003E\n                            \u003C\u002Fdiv\u003E\n                            \u003Cdiv class=\"row\"\u003E\n                                \u003Cdiv class=\"col-lg-3 col-md-4 col-sm-6 col-12 d-flex justify-center align-center\"\u003E\n                                    \u003Cdiv\u003E\n                                        \u003Cimg src=\"https:\u002F\u002Fblogweb-static.fra1.cdn.digitaloceanspaces.com\u002Fimages\u002Fdd5f352e-9f56-413f-99cd-ffdea954bcc4\u002Frating\u002F51gkl1qtm2l-sl160.jpg\" alt=\"Learning GraphQL: Declarative Data Fetching for Modern Web Apps\" \u002F\u003E\n                                        \u003Cp class=\"text-center font-weight-bold text-h6\"\u003ERating is 4.6 out of 5\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\n                                        \u003Cdiv class=\"stars\" style=\"--rating: 4.6;\" aria-label=\"Rating is 4.6 out of 5\" \u003E\u003C\u002Fdiv\u003E\n                                    \u003C\u002Fdiv\u003E\n                                \u003C\u002Fdiv\u003E\n                                \u003Cdiv class=\"col-lg-6 col-md-8 col-sm-6 col-12\"\u003E\n                                    \u003Cp class=\"font-weight-bold rating-name\"\u003ELearning GraphQL: Declarative Data Fetching for Modern Web Apps\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\n                                    \n                                    \n\n                                    \n                                    \n                                \u003C\u002Fdiv\u003E\n\n                                \u003Cdiv class=\"col-lg-3 col-md-12 col-12 d-flex align-center justify-lg-end justify-center\"\u003E\n                                    \u003Cdiv class=\"text-center d-flex flex-column\"\u003E\n                                        \n                                            \u003Ca href=\"https:\u002F\u002Fgosrc.cc\u002Fgo\u002FBKsd7lDSg\" target=\"_blank\" rel=\"nofollow noopener\" class=\"v-btn v-btn--rounded elevation-5 v-size--large success mb-2\"\u003E\n                                                \u003Cspan class=\"v-btn__content\"\u003EGet Book Now\u003C\u002Fspan\u003E\n                                            \u003C\u002Fa\u003E\n                                        \n                                        \n                                    \u003C\u002Fdiv\u003E\n                                \u003C\u002Fdiv\u003E\n                            \u003C\u002Fdiv\u003E\n                        \u003C\u002Fdiv\u003E\n                    \u003C\u002Fdiv\u003E\n                \u003C\u002Fdiv\u003E\n            \n        \u003C\u002Fdiv\u003E\n    \u003C\u002Fdiv\u003E\n\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cbr\u002F\u003E\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\u003Ch2\u003EWhat is the difference between returning null and an empty object in GraphQL?\u003C\u002Fh2\u003E\u003Cp\u003EIn GraphQL, there is a significant difference between returning null and an empty object.\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\u003Col\u003E\u003Cli\u003E\u003Cstrong\u003EReturning null\u003C\u002Fstrong\u003E: When a field in a GraphQL query resolves to null, it means that there is no data available for that field. It indicates that the field exists but has no value to return. Null is used to represent that the field could not be resolved due to some error or missing data.\n\u003C\u002Fli\u003E\u003Cli\u003E\u003Cstrong\u003EReturning an empty object\u003C\u002Fstrong\u003E: Returning an empty object implies that the field exists and has a value, but that value is an empty set or an empty object. It indicates that the field was resolved successfully, but there is no data to populate it. This is useful when a field represents a complex object with multiple sub-fields, and those sub-fields could be optional or not applicable in certain cases.\n\u003C\u002Fli\u003E\u003C\u002Fol\u003E\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cbr\u002F\u003E\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\u003Cp\u003ETo summarize, returning null means that the field itself does not exist or has no value, while returning an empty object means the field exists but is empty. The choice between null and an empty object should be based on the intended meaning and requirements of the GraphQL schema and the specific use case.\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cbr\u002F\u003E\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\u003Ch2\u003EWhat is the impact of returning null on GraphQL caching with Apollo Server?\u003C\u002Fh2\u003E\u003Cp\u003EReturning null values in GraphQL queries can have an impact on caching, especially when used with Apollo Server.\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\u003Cscript async=\"\" src=\"https:\u002F\u002Fpagead2.googlesyndication.com\u002Fpagead\u002Fjs\u002Fadsbygoogle.js\"\u003E\u003C\u002Fscript\u003E\n\u003Cins class=\"adsbygoogle\" style=\"display:block\" data-ad-format=\"fluid\" data-ad-layout-key=\"-ef+6k-30-ac+ty\" data-ad-client=\"ca-pub-4833888168110763\" data-ad-slot=\"1024354517\"\u003E\u003C\u002Fins\u003E\n\u003Cscript\u003E\n     (adsbygoogle = window.adsbygoogle || []).push({});\n\u003C\u002Fscript\u003E\u003Col\u003E\u003Cli\u003E\u003Cstrong\u003ECache Hit\u003C\u002Fstrong\u003E: When a GraphQL query is executed with a cache hit, Apollo Server can directly return the previously cached result without executing the associated resolver functions. If a value is returned as null from a resolver, the cache still maintains the null value for that field. So, subsequent queries for the same field will also receive the null value from the cache, without re-executing the resolver. This can lead to stale null values being returned even if the underlying data has been updated.\n\u003C\u002Fli\u003E\u003Cli\u003E\u003Cstrong\u003ECache Miss\u003C\u002Fstrong\u003E: If the initial GraphQL query is performed with a cache miss, Apollo Server has to execute the associated resolver functions to fetch the data. If a resolver returns a null value, Apollo Server will not cache the null value for that field. So, subsequent queries for the same field will again result in cache misses, causing the resolvers to be executed repeatedly, even for the same data, leading to decreased performance.\n\u003C\u002Fli\u003E\u003C\u002Fol\u003E\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cbr\u002F\u003E\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\u003Cp\u003EBy default, Apollo Server&#39;s caching mechanism treats null as a valid value and caches it if it is returned by a resolver. However, Apollo Server provides options to customize caching behavior, like \u003Ca class=\"auto-link\" href=\"https:\u002F\u002Ffreelanceshack.com\u002Fblog\u002Fhow-to-add-a-custom-value-in-grafana-legend\"\u003Esetting a custom\u003C\u002Fa\u003E cache key or specifying a cache policy. These can be used to handle and control the behavior of null values in caching, such as treating null values as cache misses or evicting null values from the cache.\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cbr\u002F\u003E\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\u003Cp\u003EIt is important to handle null values carefully in GraphQL resolvers to avoid caching inconsistencies and ensure that the cache reflects the most up-to-date data.\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cbr\u002F\u003E\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\u003Ch2\u003EWhat is the recommended approach for returning null or an object in GraphQL?\u003C\u002Fh2\u003E\u003Cp\u003EIn GraphQL, returning \u003Ccode\u003Enull\u003C\u002Fcode\u003E or an object is handled by the field resolvers. The recommended approach for returning null or an object depends on the specific use case and the desired behavior.\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\u003Col\u003E\u003Cli\u003E\u003Cstrong\u003EReturning null\u003C\u002Fstrong\u003E: If a field resolver encounters a null value, it can simply return null to indicate that the requested field is not available or has no value. This can be useful in cases where a field is optional or may not have a value.\n\u003C\u002Fli\u003E\u003Cli\u003E\u003Cstrong\u003EReturning an object\u003C\u002Fstrong\u003E: If a field resolver encounters an object, it should return an object representing the requested field. The field resolver can either construct a new object or fetch the object from a data source, such as a database. This is commonly used when the requested field is mandatory and there is a valid value to return.\n\u003C\u002Fli\u003E\u003C\u002Fol\u003E\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cbr\u002F\u003E\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\u003Cp\u003EIt&#39;s important to note that GraphQL has a nullable type system by default, which means that all fields are nullable unless explicitly marked as non-null. This allows clients to expect null values from fields and handle them accordingly.\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cbr\u002F\u003E\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\u003Cscript async=\"\" src=\"https:\u002F\u002Fpagead2.googlesyndication.com\u002Fpagead\u002Fjs\u002Fadsbygoogle.js\"\u003E\u003C\u002Fscript\u003E\n\u003Cins class=\"adsbygoogle\" style=\"display:block\" data-ad-format=\"fluid\" data-ad-layout-key=\"-ef+6k-30-ac+ty\" data-ad-client=\"ca-pub-4833888168110763\" data-ad-slot=\"1024354517\"\u003E\u003C\u002Fins\u003E\n\u003Cscript\u003E\n     (adsbygoogle = window.adsbygoogle || []).push({});\n\u003C\u002Fscript\u003E\u003Cp\u003EIn the schema definition, nullability can be specified for fields using \u003Ccode\u003E!\u003C\u002Fcode\u003E to indicate non-null or omitting it to allow nullable values. It is recommended to accurately define the nullability of fields in the schema to provide a clear contract to clients.\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cbr\u002F\u003E\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\u003Ch2\u003EHow to default a nullable field to null in GraphQL?\u003C\u002Fh2\u003E\u003Cp\u003EIn GraphQL, nullable fields are declared by using a trailing question mark (?) after the type name. By default, nullable fields are set to null if no value is provided. However, if you want to explicitly default a nullable field to null, you can simply omit it from the input when creating or updating an object.\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cbr\u002F\u003E\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\u003Cp\u003EFor example, let&#39;s say you have a \u003Ccode\u003EUser\u003C\u002Fcode\u003E type with a nullable \u003Ccode\u003Ebio\u003C\u002Fcode\u003E field:\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\u003Cpre class=\"code-block ql-syntax\" id=\"code-liyg3pw\"\u003Etype User {\n  id: ID!\n  name: String!\n  bio: String\n}\n\u003C\u002Fpre\u003E\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cbr\u002F\u003E\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\u003Cp\u003EWhen creating a new user, you can omit the \u003Ccode\u003Ebio\u003C\u002Fcode\u003E field to default it to null:\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\u003Cpre class=\"code-block ql-syntax\" id=\"code-rniqr85\"\u003Emutation {\n  createUser(input: { name: &#34;John Doe&#34; }) {\n    id\n    name\n    bio # Returns null\n  }\n}\n\u003C\u002Fpre\u003E\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cbr\u002F\u003E\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\u003Cp\u003ESimilarly, when updating a user, you can omit the \u003Ccode\u003Ebio\u003C\u002Fcode\u003E field in the update payload to keep it as null:\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\u003Cscript async=\"\" src=\"https:\u002F\u002Fpagead2.googlesyndication.com\u002Fpagead\u002Fjs\u002Fadsbygoogle.js\"\u003E\u003C\u002Fscript\u003E\n\u003Cins class=\"adsbygoogle\" style=\"display:block\" data-ad-format=\"fluid\" data-ad-layout-key=\"-ef+6k-30-ac+ty\" data-ad-client=\"ca-pub-4833888168110763\" data-ad-slot=\"1024354517\"\u003E\u003C\u002Fins\u003E\n\u003Cscript\u003E\n     (adsbygoogle = window.adsbygoogle || []).push({});\n\u003C\u002Fscript\u003E\u003Cpre class=\"code-block ql-syntax\" id=\"code-9xlgiru\"\u003Emutation {\n  updateUser(id: &#34;123&#34;, input: { name: &#34;John Smith&#34; }) {\n    id\n    name\n    bio # Returns null\n  }\n}\n\u003C\u002Fpre\u003E\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cbr\u002F\u003E\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\u003Cp\u003EBy not providing a value for the nullable field, GraphQL will automatically treat it as null.\u003C\u002Fp\u003E",formatted_content:"\u003Cp\u003EIn GraphQL, returning either an object or null depends on the schema definition and resolver implementation. Here is an explanation of how to achieve this:\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\u003Col\u003E\u003Cli\u003E\u003Cstrong\u003ESchema Definition\u003C\u002Fstrong\u003E:\nTo return an object or null, you need to define the return type in your GraphQL schema. This can be done using the nullable modifier, which is denoted by a trailing exclamation mark.\nExample:\ntype Query {\ngetUser(id: ID!): User\n}\ntype User {\nid: ID!\nname: String\nage: Int\n}\nIn the above example, the getUser query returns a \u003Ca href=\"https:\u002F\u002Fubuntuask.com\u002Fblog\u002Fhow-to-check-the-null-string-type-with-go\" target=\"_blank\"\u003EUser object or null\u003C\u002Fa\u003E. The User object has a non-null id field and nullable name and age fields.\n\u003C\u002Fli\u003E\u003Cli\u003E\u003Cstrong\u003EResolver Implementation\u003C\u002Fstrong\u003E:\nResolvers are responsible for fetching the data for each field defined in the schema. To return an object or \u003Ca href=\"https:\u002F\u002Ffreelanceshack.com\u002Fblog\u002Fhow-to-perform-null-safety-checks-in-kotlin\"\u003Enull\u003C\u002Fa\u003E, the resolver function should handle the logic accordingly.\nExample:\nconst resolvers = {\nQuery: {\ngetUser: (parent, { id }, context) =&gt; {\n\u002F\u002F Logic to fetch user data based on the provided id\nconst user = getUserById(id);\n\u002F\u002F If the user is found, return the user object. Else, return null.\nreturn user ? user : null;\n}\n}\n};\nIn the above resolver implementation, the getUser resolver checks if the user exists based on the provided id. If the user is found, it returns the user object. Otherwise, it returns null.\nNote that it&#39;s not mandatory to explicitly return null if the object is not found. By default, returning undefined or not returning any value will result in null being returned.\n\u003C\u002Fli\u003E\u003C\u002Fol\u003E\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cbr\u002F\u003E\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\u003Cp\u003EBy defining the schema type as nullable and handling the logic in the resolver function, you can easily return either an object or null in GraphQL.\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\n    \u003Cdiv class=\"rating\"\u003E\n        \u003Ch2\u003EBest GraphQL Books to Read in 2024\u003C\u002Fh2\u003E\n        \u003Cdiv class=\"row mt-2\"\u003E\n            \n                \u003Cdiv class=\"col-12\"\u003E\n                    \u003Cdiv class=\"v-card elevation-6\"\u003E\n                        \u003Cdiv class=\"v-card__text rating-text\"\u003E\n                            \u003Cdiv class=\"rating-counter\"\u003E\n                                 \u003Cspan class=\"v-badge\"\u003E\n                                  \u003Cspan class=\"v-badge__wrapper\"\u003E\n                                      \u003Cspan aria-atomic=\"true\" aria-label=\"Позиция\" class=\"v-badge__badge primary\"\u003E\n                                          1\n                                      \u003C\u002Fspan\u003E\n                                  \u003C\u002Fspan\u003E\n                                \u003C\u002Fspan\u003E\n                            \u003C\u002Fdiv\u003E\n                            \u003Cdiv class=\"row\"\u003E\n                                \u003Cdiv class=\"col-lg-3 col-md-4 col-sm-6 col-12 d-flex justify-center align-center\"\u003E\n                                    \u003Cdiv\u003E\n                                        \u003Cimg src=\"https:\u002F\u002Fblogweb-static.fra1.cdn.digitaloceanspaces.com\u002Fimages\u002Fdd5f352e-9f56-413f-99cd-ffdea954bcc4\u002Frating\u002F31mms6yribs-sl160.jpg\" alt=\"The Road to GraphQL: Your journey to master pragmatic GraphQL in JavaScript with React.js and Node.js\" \u002F\u003E\n                                        \u003Cp class=\"text-center font-weight-bold text-h6\"\u003ERating is 5 out of 5\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\n                                        \u003Cdiv class=\"stars\" style=\"--rating: 5;\" aria-label=\"Rating is 5 out of 5\" \u003E\u003C\u002Fdiv\u003E\n                                    \u003C\u002Fdiv\u003E\n                                \u003C\u002Fdiv\u003E\n                                \u003Cdiv class=\"col-lg-6 col-md-8 col-sm-6 col-12\"\u003E\n                                    \u003Cp class=\"font-weight-bold rating-name\"\u003EThe Road to GraphQL: Your journey to master pragmatic GraphQL in JavaScript with React.js and Node.js\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\n                                    \n                                    \n\n                                    \n                                    \n                                \u003C\u002Fdiv\u003E\n\n                                \u003Cdiv class=\"col-lg-3 col-md-12 col-12 d-flex align-center justify-lg-end justify-center\"\u003E\n                                    \u003Cdiv class=\"text-center d-flex flex-column\"\u003E\n                                        \n                                            \u003Ca href=\"https:\u002F\u002Fgosrc.cc\u002Fgo\u002FRcsO7lDSR\" target=\"_blank\" rel=\"nofollow noopener\" class=\"v-btn v-btn--rounded elevation-5 v-size--large success mb-2\"\u003E\n                                                \u003Cspan class=\"v-btn__content\"\u003EGet Book Now\u003C\u002Fspan\u003E\n                                            \u003C\u002Fa\u003E\n                                        \n                                        \n                                    \u003C\u002Fdiv\u003E\n                                \u003C\u002Fdiv\u003E\n                            \u003C\u002Fdiv\u003E\n                        \u003C\u002Fdiv\u003E\n                    \u003C\u002Fdiv\u003E\n                \u003C\u002Fdiv\u003E\n            \n                \u003Cdiv class=\"col-12\"\u003E\n                    \u003Cdiv class=\"v-card elevation-6\"\u003E\n                        \u003Cdiv class=\"v-card__text rating-text\"\u003E\n                            \u003Cdiv class=\"rating-counter\"\u003E\n                                 \u003Cspan class=\"v-badge\"\u003E\n                                  \u003Cspan class=\"v-badge__wrapper\"\u003E\n                                      \u003Cspan aria-atomic=\"true\" aria-label=\"Позиция\" class=\"v-badge__badge primary\"\u003E\n                                          2\n                                      \u003C\u002Fspan\u003E\n                                  \u003C\u002Fspan\u003E\n                                \u003C\u002Fspan\u003E\n                            \u003C\u002Fdiv\u003E\n                            \u003Cdiv class=\"row\"\u003E\n                                \u003Cdiv class=\"col-lg-3 col-md-4 col-sm-6 col-12 d-flex justify-center align-center\"\u003E\n                                    \u003Cdiv\u003E\n                                        \u003Cimg src=\"https:\u002F\u002Fblogweb-static.fra1.cdn.digitaloceanspaces.com\u002Fimages\u002Fdd5f352e-9f56-413f-99cd-ffdea954bcc4\u002Frating\u002F412oehwtarl-sl160.jpg\" alt=\"Full Stack GraphQL Applications: With React, Node.js, and Neo4j\" \u002F\u003E\n                                        \u003Cp class=\"text-center font-weight-bold text-h6\"\u003ERating is 4.9 out of 5\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\n                                        \u003Cdiv class=\"stars\" style=\"--rating: 4.9;\" aria-label=\"Rating is 4.9 out of 5\" \u003E\u003C\u002Fdiv\u003E\n                                    \u003C\u002Fdiv\u003E\n                                \u003C\u002Fdiv\u003E\n                                \u003Cdiv class=\"col-lg-6 col-md-8 col-sm-6 col-12\"\u003E\n                                    \u003Cp class=\"font-weight-bold rating-name\"\u003EFull Stack GraphQL Applications: With React, Node.js, and Neo4j\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\n                                    \n                                    \n\n                                    \n                                    \n                                \u003C\u002Fdiv\u003E\n\n                                \u003Cdiv class=\"col-lg-3 col-md-12 col-12 d-flex align-center justify-lg-end justify-center\"\u003E\n                                    \u003Cdiv class=\"text-center d-flex flex-column\"\u003E\n                                        \n                                            \u003Ca href=\"https:\u002F\u002Fgosrc.cc\u002Fgo\u002FJcsOn_vSg\" target=\"_blank\" rel=\"nofollow noopener\" class=\"v-btn v-btn--rounded elevation-5 v-size--large success mb-2\"\u003E\n                                                \u003Cspan class=\"v-btn__content\"\u003EGet Book Now\u003C\u002Fspan\u003E\n                                            \u003C\u002Fa\u003E\n                                        \n                                        \n                                    \u003C\u002Fdiv\u003E\n                                \u003C\u002Fdiv\u003E\n                            \u003C\u002Fdiv\u003E\n                        \u003C\u002Fdiv\u003E\n                    \u003C\u002Fdiv\u003E\n                \u003C\u002Fdiv\u003E\n            \n                \u003Cdiv class=\"col-12\"\u003E\n                    \u003Cdiv class=\"v-card elevation-6\"\u003E\n                        \u003Cdiv class=\"v-card__text rating-text\"\u003E\n                            \u003Cdiv class=\"rating-counter\"\u003E\n                                 \u003Cspan class=\"v-badge\"\u003E\n                                  \u003Cspan class=\"v-badge__wrapper\"\u003E\n                                      \u003Cspan aria-atomic=\"true\" aria-label=\"Позиция\" class=\"v-badge__badge primary\"\u003E\n                                          3\n                                      \u003C\u002Fspan\u003E\n                                  \u003C\u002Fspan\u003E\n                                \u003C\u002Fspan\u003E\n                            \u003C\u002Fdiv\u003E\n                            \u003Cdiv class=\"row\"\u003E\n                                \u003Cdiv class=\"col-lg-3 col-md-4 col-sm-6 col-12 d-flex justify-center align-center\"\u003E\n                                    \u003Cdiv\u003E\n                                        \u003Cimg src=\"https:\u002F\u002Fblogweb-static.fra1.cdn.digitaloceanspaces.com\u002Fimages\u002Fdd5f352e-9f56-413f-99cd-ffdea954bcc4\u002Frating\u002F41roh8j-74l-sl160.jpg\" alt=\"GraphQL in Action\" \u002F\u003E\n                                        \u003Cp class=\"text-center font-weight-bold text-h6\"\u003ERating is 4.8 out of 5\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\n                                        \u003Cdiv class=\"stars\" style=\"--rating: 4.8;\" aria-label=\"Rating is 4.8 out of 5\" \u003E\u003C\u002Fdiv\u003E\n                                    \u003C\u002Fdiv\u003E\n                                \u003C\u002Fdiv\u003E\n                                \u003Cdiv class=\"col-lg-6 col-md-8 col-sm-6 col-12\"\u003E\n                                    \u003Cp class=\"font-weight-bold rating-name\"\u003EGraphQL in Action\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\n                                    \n                                    \n\n                                    \n                                    \n                                \u003C\u002Fdiv\u003E\n\n                                \u003Cdiv class=\"col-lg-3 col-md-12 col-12 d-flex align-center justify-lg-end justify-center\"\u003E\n                                    \u003Cdiv class=\"text-center d-flex flex-column\"\u003E\n                                        \n                                            \u003Ca href=\"https:\u002F\u002Fgosrc.cc\u002Fgo\u002F5cyOn_vIR\" target=\"_blank\" rel=\"nofollow noopener\" class=\"v-btn v-btn--rounded elevation-5 v-size--large success mb-2\"\u003E\n                                                \u003Cspan class=\"v-btn__content\"\u003EGet Book Now\u003C\u002Fspan\u003E\n                                            \u003C\u002Fa\u003E\n                                        \n                                        \n                                    \u003C\u002Fdiv\u003E\n                                \u003C\u002Fdiv\u003E\n                            \u003C\u002Fdiv\u003E\n                        \u003C\u002Fdiv\u003E\n                    \u003C\u002Fdiv\u003E\n                \u003C\u002Fdiv\u003E\n            \n                \u003Cdiv class=\"col-12\"\u003E\n                    \u003Cdiv class=\"v-card elevation-6\"\u003E\n                        \u003Cdiv class=\"v-card__text rating-text\"\u003E\n                            \u003Cdiv class=\"rating-counter\"\u003E\n                                 \u003Cspan class=\"v-badge\"\u003E\n                                  \u003Cspan class=\"v-badge__wrapper\"\u003E\n                                      \u003Cspan aria-atomic=\"true\" aria-label=\"Позиция\" class=\"v-badge__badge primary\"\u003E\n                                          4\n                                      \u003C\u002Fspan\u003E\n                                  \u003C\u002Fspan\u003E\n                                \u003C\u002Fspan\u003E\n                            \u003C\u002Fdiv\u003E\n                            \u003Cdiv class=\"row\"\u003E\n                                \u003Cdiv class=\"col-lg-3 col-md-4 col-sm-6 col-12 d-flex justify-center align-center\"\u003E\n                                    \u003Cdiv\u003E\n                                        \u003Cimg src=\"https:\u002F\u002Fblogweb-static.fra1.cdn.digitaloceanspaces.com\u002Fimages\u002Fdd5f352e-9f56-413f-99cd-ffdea954bcc4\u002Frating\u002F51upgne6t9l-sl160.jpg\" alt=\"Hands-On Full-Stack Web Development with GraphQL and React: Build scalable full-stack applications while learning to solve complex problems with GraphQL\" \u002F\u003E\n                                        \u003Cp class=\"text-center font-weight-bold text-h6\"\u003ERating is 4.7 out of 5\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\n                                        \u003Cdiv class=\"stars\" style=\"--rating: 4.7;\" aria-label=\"Rating is 4.7 out of 5\" \u003E\u003C\u002Fdiv\u003E\n                                    \u003C\u002Fdiv\u003E\n                                \u003C\u002Fdiv\u003E\n                                \u003Cdiv class=\"col-lg-6 col-md-8 col-sm-6 col-12\"\u003E\n                                    \u003Cp class=\"font-weight-bold rating-name\"\u003EHands-On Full-Stack Web Development with GraphQL and React: Build scalable full-stack applications while learning to solve complex problems with GraphQL\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\n                                    \n                                    \n\n                                    \n                                    \n                                \u003C\u002Fdiv\u003E\n\n                                \u003Cdiv class=\"col-lg-3 col-md-12 col-12 d-flex align-center justify-lg-end justify-center\"\u003E\n                                    \u003Cdiv class=\"text-center d-flex flex-column\"\u003E\n                                        \n                                            \u003Ca href=\"https:\u002F\u002Fgosrc.cc\u002Fgo\u002FXKsOnlvIR\" target=\"_blank\" rel=\"nofollow noopener\" class=\"v-btn v-btn--rounded elevation-5 v-size--large success mb-2\"\u003E\n                                                \u003Cspan class=\"v-btn__content\"\u003EGet Book Now\u003C\u002Fspan\u003E\n                                            \u003C\u002Fa\u003E\n                                        \n                                        \n                                    \u003C\u002Fdiv\u003E\n                                \u003C\u002Fdiv\u003E\n                            \u003C\u002Fdiv\u003E\n                        \u003C\u002Fdiv\u003E\n                    \u003C\u002Fdiv\u003E\n                \u003C\u002Fdiv\u003E\n            \n                \u003Cdiv class=\"col-12\"\u003E\n                    \u003Cdiv class=\"v-card elevation-6\"\u003E\n                        \u003Cdiv class=\"v-card__text rating-text\"\u003E\n                            \u003Cdiv class=\"rating-counter\"\u003E\n                                 \u003Cspan class=\"v-badge\"\u003E\n                                  \u003Cspan class=\"v-badge__wrapper\"\u003E\n                                      \u003Cspan aria-atomic=\"true\" aria-label=\"Позиция\" class=\"v-badge__badge primary\"\u003E\n                                          5\n                                      \u003C\u002Fspan\u003E\n                                  \u003C\u002Fspan\u003E\n                                \u003C\u002Fspan\u003E\n                            \u003C\u002Fdiv\u003E\n                            \u003Cdiv class=\"row\"\u003E\n                                \u003Cdiv class=\"col-lg-3 col-md-4 col-sm-6 col-12 d-flex justify-center align-center\"\u003E\n                                    \u003Cdiv\u003E\n                                        \u003Cimg src=\"https:\u002F\u002Fblogweb-static.fra1.cdn.digitaloceanspaces.com\u002Fimages\u002Fdd5f352e-9f56-413f-99cd-ffdea954bcc4\u002Frating\u002F51gkl1qtm2l-sl160.jpg\" alt=\"Learning GraphQL: Declarative Data Fetching for Modern Web Apps\" \u002F\u003E\n                                        \u003Cp class=\"text-center font-weight-bold text-h6\"\u003ERating is 4.6 out of 5\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\n                                        \u003Cdiv class=\"stars\" style=\"--rating: 4.6;\" aria-label=\"Rating is 4.6 out of 5\" \u003E\u003C\u002Fdiv\u003E\n                                    \u003C\u002Fdiv\u003E\n                                \u003C\u002Fdiv\u003E\n                                \u003Cdiv class=\"col-lg-6 col-md-8 col-sm-6 col-12\"\u003E\n                                    \u003Cp class=\"font-weight-bold rating-name\"\u003ELearning GraphQL: Declarative Data Fetching for Modern Web Apps\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\n                                    \n                                    \n\n                                    \n                                    \n                                \u003C\u002Fdiv\u003E\n\n                                \u003Cdiv class=\"col-lg-3 col-md-12 col-12 d-flex align-center justify-lg-end justify-center\"\u003E\n                                    \u003Cdiv class=\"text-center d-flex flex-column\"\u003E\n                                        \n                                            \u003Ca href=\"https:\u002F\u002Fgosrc.cc\u002Fgo\u002FBKsd7lDSg\" target=\"_blank\" rel=\"nofollow noopener\" class=\"v-btn v-btn--rounded elevation-5 v-size--large success mb-2\"\u003E\n                                                \u003Cspan class=\"v-btn__content\"\u003EGet Book Now\u003C\u002Fspan\u003E\n                                            \u003C\u002Fa\u003E\n                                        \n                                        \n                                    \u003C\u002Fdiv\u003E\n                                \u003C\u002Fdiv\u003E\n                            \u003C\u002Fdiv\u003E\n                        \u003C\u002Fdiv\u003E\n                    \u003C\u002Fdiv\u003E\n                \u003C\u002Fdiv\u003E\n            \n        \u003C\u002Fdiv\u003E\n    \u003C\u002Fdiv\u003E\n\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cbr\u002F\u003E\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\u003Ch2\u003EWhat is the difference between returning null and an empty object in GraphQL?\u003C\u002Fh2\u003E\u003Cp\u003EIn GraphQL, there is a significant difference between returning null and an empty object.\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\u003Col\u003E\u003Cli\u003E\u003Cstrong\u003EReturning null\u003C\u002Fstrong\u003E: When a field in a GraphQL query resolves to null, it means that there is no data available for that field. It indicates that the field exists but has no value to return. Null is used to represent that the field could not be resolved due to some error or missing data.\n\u003C\u002Fli\u003E\u003Cli\u003E\u003Cstrong\u003EReturning an empty object\u003C\u002Fstrong\u003E: Returning an empty object implies that the field exists and has a value, but that value is an empty set or an empty object. It indicates that the field was resolved successfully, but there is no data to populate it. This is useful when a field represents a complex object with multiple sub-fields, and those sub-fields could be optional or not applicable in certain cases.\n\u003C\u002Fli\u003E\u003C\u002Fol\u003E\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cbr\u002F\u003E\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\u003Cp\u003ETo summarize, returning null means that the field itself does not exist or has no value, while returning an empty object means the field exists but is empty. The choice between null and an empty object should be based on the intended meaning and requirements of the GraphQL schema and the specific use case.\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cbr\u002F\u003E\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\u003Ch2\u003EWhat is the impact of returning null on GraphQL caching with Apollo Server?\u003C\u002Fh2\u003E\u003Cp\u003EReturning null values in GraphQL queries can have an impact on caching, especially when used with Apollo Server.\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\u003Col\u003E\u003Cli\u003E\u003Cstrong\u003ECache Hit\u003C\u002Fstrong\u003E: When a GraphQL query is executed with a cache hit, Apollo Server can directly return the previously cached result without executing the associated resolver functions. If a value is returned as null from a resolver, the cache still maintains the null value for that field. So, subsequent queries for the same field will also receive the null value from the cache, without re-executing the resolver. This can lead to stale null values being returned even if the underlying data has been updated.\n\u003C\u002Fli\u003E\u003Cli\u003E\u003Cstrong\u003ECache Miss\u003C\u002Fstrong\u003E: If the initial GraphQL query is performed with a cache miss, Apollo Server has to execute the associated resolver functions to fetch the data. If a resolver returns a null value, Apollo Server will not cache the null value for that field. So, subsequent queries for the same field will again result in cache misses, causing the resolvers to be executed repeatedly, even for the same data, leading to decreased performance.\n\u003C\u002Fli\u003E\u003C\u002Fol\u003E\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cbr\u002F\u003E\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\u003Cp\u003EBy default, Apollo Server&#39;s caching mechanism treats null as a valid value and caches it if it is returned by a resolver. However, Apollo Server provides options to customize caching behavior, like \u003Ca href=\"https:\u002F\u002Ffreelanceshack.com\u002Fblog\u002Fhow-to-add-a-custom-value-in-grafana-legend\"\u003Esetting a custom\u003C\u002Fa\u003E cache key or specifying a cache policy. These can be used to handle and control the behavior of null values in caching, such as treating null values as cache misses or evicting null values from the cache.\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cbr\u002F\u003E\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\u003Cp\u003EIt is important to handle null values carefully in GraphQL resolvers to avoid caching inconsistencies and ensure that the cache reflects the most up-to-date data.\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cbr\u002F\u003E\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\u003Ch2\u003EWhat is the recommended approach for returning null or an object in GraphQL?\u003C\u002Fh2\u003E\u003Cp\u003EIn GraphQL, returning \u003Ccode\u003Enull\u003C\u002Fcode\u003E or an object is handled by the field resolvers. The recommended approach for returning null or an object depends on the specific use case and the desired behavior.\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\u003Col\u003E\u003Cli\u003E\u003Cstrong\u003EReturning null\u003C\u002Fstrong\u003E: If a field resolver encounters a null value, it can simply return null to indicate that the requested field is not available or has no value. This can be useful in cases where a field is optional or may not have a value.\n\u003C\u002Fli\u003E\u003Cli\u003E\u003Cstrong\u003EReturning an object\u003C\u002Fstrong\u003E: If a field resolver encounters an object, it should return an object representing the requested field. The field resolver can either construct a new object or fetch the object from a data source, such as a database. This is commonly used when the requested field is mandatory and there is a valid value to return.\n\u003C\u002Fli\u003E\u003C\u002Fol\u003E\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cbr\u002F\u003E\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\u003Cp\u003EIt&#39;s important to note that GraphQL has a nullable type system by default, which means that all fields are nullable unless explicitly marked as non-null. This allows clients to expect null values from fields and handle them accordingly.\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cbr\u002F\u003E\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\u003Cp\u003EIn the schema definition, nullability can be specified for fields using \u003Ccode\u003E!\u003C\u002Fcode\u003E to indicate non-null or omitting it to allow nullable values. It is recommended to accurately define the nullability of fields in the schema to provide a clear contract to clients.\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cbr\u002F\u003E\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\u003Ch2\u003EHow to default a nullable field to null in GraphQL?\u003C\u002Fh2\u003E\u003Cp\u003EIn GraphQL, nullable fields are declared by using a trailing question mark (?) after the type name. By default, nullable fields are set to null if no value is provided. However, if you want to explicitly default a nullable field to null, you can simply omit it from the input when creating or updating an object.\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cbr\u002F\u003E\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\u003Cp\u003EFor example, let&#39;s say you have a \u003Ccode\u003EUser\u003C\u002Fcode\u003E type with a nullable \u003Ccode\u003Ebio\u003C\u002Fcode\u003E field:\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\u003Cdiv style=\"color:#f8f8f2;background-color:#272822;\"\u003E\n\u003Ctable style=\"border-spacing:0;padding:0;margin:0;border:0;\"\u003E\u003Ctbody\u003E\u003Ctr\u003E\u003Ctd style=\"vertical-align:top;padding:0;margin:0;border:0;\"\u003E\n\u003Cpre tabindex=\"0\" style=\"color:#f8f8f2;background-color:#272822;\"\u003E\u003Cspan style=\"white-space:pre;user-select:none;margin-right:0.4em;padding:0 0.4em 0 0.4em;color:#7f7f7f\"\u003E1\n\u003C\u002Fspan\u003E\u003Cspan style=\"white-space:pre;user-select:none;margin-right:0.4em;padding:0 0.4em 0 0.4em;color:#7f7f7f\"\u003E2\n\u003C\u002Fspan\u003E\u003Cspan style=\"white-space:pre;user-select:none;margin-right:0.4em;padding:0 0.4em 0 0.4em;color:#7f7f7f\"\u003E3\n\u003C\u002Fspan\u003E\u003Cspan style=\"white-space:pre;user-select:none;margin-right:0.4em;padding:0 0.4em 0 0.4em;color:#7f7f7f\"\u003E4\n\u003C\u002Fspan\u003E\u003Cspan style=\"white-space:pre;user-select:none;margin-right:0.4em;padding:0 0.4em 0 0.4em;color:#7f7f7f\"\u003E5\n\u003C\u002Fspan\u003E\u003C\u002Fpre\u003E\u003C\u002Ftd\u003E\n\u003Ctd style=\"vertical-align:top;padding:0;margin:0;border:0;;width:100%\"\u003E\n\u003Cpre tabindex=\"0\" style=\"color:#f8f8f2;background-color:#272822;\"\u003E\u003Cspan style=\"display:flex;\"\u003E\u003Cspan\u003Etype User {\n\u003C\u002Fspan\u003E\u003C\u002Fspan\u003E\u003Cspan style=\"display:flex;\"\u003E\u003Cspan\u003E  id: ID!\n\u003C\u002Fspan\u003E\u003C\u002Fspan\u003E\u003Cspan style=\"display:flex;\"\u003E\u003Cspan\u003E  name: String!\n\u003C\u002Fspan\u003E\u003C\u002Fspan\u003E\u003Cspan style=\"display:flex;\"\u003E\u003Cspan\u003E  bio: String\n\u003C\u002Fspan\u003E\u003C\u002Fspan\u003E\u003Cspan style=\"display:flex;\"\u003E\u003Cspan\u003E}\n\u003C\u002Fspan\u003E\u003C\u002Fspan\u003E\u003C\u002Fpre\u003E\u003C\u002Ftd\u003E\u003C\u002Ftr\u003E\u003C\u002Ftbody\u003E\u003C\u002Ftable\u003E\n\u003C\u002Fdiv\u003E\n\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cbr\u002F\u003E\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\u003Cp\u003EWhen creating a new user, you can omit the \u003Ccode\u003Ebio\u003C\u002Fcode\u003E field to default it to null:\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\u003Cdiv style=\"color:#f8f8f2;background-color:#272822;\"\u003E\n\u003Ctable style=\"border-spacing:0;padding:0;margin:0;border:0;\"\u003E\u003Ctbody\u003E\u003Ctr\u003E\u003Ctd style=\"vertical-align:top;padding:0;margin:0;border:0;\"\u003E\n\u003Cpre tabindex=\"0\" style=\"color:#f8f8f2;background-color:#272822;\"\u003E\u003Cspan style=\"white-space:pre;user-select:none;margin-right:0.4em;padding:0 0.4em 0 0.4em;color:#7f7f7f\"\u003E1\n\u003C\u002Fspan\u003E\u003Cspan style=\"white-space:pre;user-select:none;margin-right:0.4em;padding:0 0.4em 0 0.4em;color:#7f7f7f\"\u003E2\n\u003C\u002Fspan\u003E\u003Cspan style=\"white-space:pre;user-select:none;margin-right:0.4em;padding:0 0.4em 0 0.4em;color:#7f7f7f\"\u003E3\n\u003C\u002Fspan\u003E\u003Cspan style=\"white-space:pre;user-select:none;margin-right:0.4em;padding:0 0.4em 0 0.4em;color:#7f7f7f\"\u003E4\n\u003C\u002Fspan\u003E\u003Cspan style=\"white-space:pre;user-select:none;margin-right:0.4em;padding:0 0.4em 0 0.4em;color:#7f7f7f\"\u003E5\n\u003C\u002Fspan\u003E\u003Cspan style=\"white-space:pre;user-select:none;margin-right:0.4em;padding:0 0.4em 0 0.4em;color:#7f7f7f\"\u003E6\n\u003C\u002Fspan\u003E\u003Cspan style=\"white-space:pre;user-select:none;margin-right:0.4em;padding:0 0.4em 0 0.4em;color:#7f7f7f\"\u003E7\n\u003C\u002Fspan\u003E\u003C\u002Fpre\u003E\u003C\u002Ftd\u003E\n\u003Ctd style=\"vertical-align:top;padding:0;margin:0;border:0;;width:100%\"\u003E\n\u003Cpre tabindex=\"0\" style=\"color:#f8f8f2;background-color:#272822;\"\u003E\u003Cspan style=\"display:flex;\"\u003E\u003Cspan\u003Emutation {\n\u003C\u002Fspan\u003E\u003C\u002Fspan\u003E\u003Cspan style=\"display:flex;\"\u003E\u003Cspan\u003E  createUser(input: { name: &#34;John Doe&#34; }) {\n\u003C\u002Fspan\u003E\u003C\u002Fspan\u003E\u003Cspan style=\"display:flex;\"\u003E\u003Cspan\u003E    id\n\u003C\u002Fspan\u003E\u003C\u002Fspan\u003E\u003Cspan style=\"display:flex;\"\u003E\u003Cspan\u003E    name\n\u003C\u002Fspan\u003E\u003C\u002Fspan\u003E\u003Cspan style=\"display:flex;\"\u003E\u003Cspan\u003E    bio # Returns null\n\u003C\u002Fspan\u003E\u003C\u002Fspan\u003E\u003Cspan style=\"display:flex;\"\u003E\u003Cspan\u003E  }\n\u003C\u002Fspan\u003E\u003C\u002Fspan\u003E\u003Cspan style=\"display:flex;\"\u003E\u003Cspan\u003E}\n\u003C\u002Fspan\u003E\u003C\u002Fspan\u003E\u003C\u002Fpre\u003E\u003C\u002Ftd\u003E\u003C\u002Ftr\u003E\u003C\u002Ftbody\u003E\u003C\u002Ftable\u003E\n\u003C\u002Fdiv\u003E\n\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cbr\u002F\u003E\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\u003Cp\u003ESimilarly, when updating a user, you can omit the \u003Ccode\u003Ebio\u003C\u002Fcode\u003E field in the update payload to keep it as null:\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\u003Cdiv style=\"color:#f8f8f2;background-color:#272822;\"\u003E\n\u003Ctable style=\"border-spacing:0;padding:0;margin:0;border:0;\"\u003E\u003Ctbody\u003E\u003Ctr\u003E\u003Ctd style=\"vertical-align:top;padding:0;margin:0;border:0;\"\u003E\n\u003Cpre tabindex=\"0\" style=\"color:#f8f8f2;background-color:#272822;\"\u003E\u003Cspan style=\"white-space:pre;user-select:none;margin-right:0.4em;padding:0 0.4em 0 0.4em;color:#7f7f7f\"\u003E1\n\u003C\u002Fspan\u003E\u003Cspan style=\"white-space:pre;user-select:none;margin-right:0.4em;padding:0 0.4em 0 0.4em;color:#7f7f7f\"\u003E2\n\u003C\u002Fspan\u003E\u003Cspan style=\"white-space:pre;user-select:none;margin-right:0.4em;padding:0 0.4em 0 0.4em;color:#7f7f7f\"\u003E3\n\u003C\u002Fspan\u003E\u003Cspan style=\"white-space:pre;user-select:none;margin-right:0.4em;padding:0 0.4em 0 0.4em;color:#7f7f7f\"\u003E4\n\u003C\u002Fspan\u003E\u003Cspan style=\"white-space:pre;user-select:none;margin-right:0.4em;padding:0 0.4em 0 0.4em;color:#7f7f7f\"\u003E5\n\u003C\u002Fspan\u003E\u003Cspan style=\"white-space:pre;user-select:none;margin-right:0.4em;padding:0 0.4em 0 0.4em;color:#7f7f7f\"\u003E6\n\u003C\u002Fspan\u003E\u003Cspan style=\"white-space:pre;user-select:none;margin-right:0.4em;padding:0 0.4em 0 0.4em;color:#7f7f7f\"\u003E7\n\u003C\u002Fspan\u003E\u003C\u002Fpre\u003E\u003C\u002Ftd\u003E\n\u003Ctd style=\"vertical-align:top;padding:0;margin:0;border:0;;width:100%\"\u003E\n\u003Cpre tabindex=\"0\" style=\"color:#f8f8f2;background-color:#272822;\"\u003E\u003Cspan style=\"display:flex;\"\u003E\u003Cspan\u003Emutation {\n\u003C\u002Fspan\u003E\u003C\u002Fspan\u003E\u003Cspan style=\"display:flex;\"\u003E\u003Cspan\u003E  updateUser(id: &#34;123&#34;, input: { name: &#34;John Smith&#34; }) {\n\u003C\u002Fspan\u003E\u003C\u002Fspan\u003E\u003Cspan style=\"display:flex;\"\u003E\u003Cspan\u003E    id\n\u003C\u002Fspan\u003E\u003C\u002Fspan\u003E\u003Cspan style=\"display:flex;\"\u003E\u003Cspan\u003E    name\n\u003C\u002Fspan\u003E\u003C\u002Fspan\u003E\u003Cspan style=\"display:flex;\"\u003E\u003Cspan\u003E    bio # Returns null\n\u003C\u002Fspan\u003E\u003C\u002Fspan\u003E\u003Cspan style=\"display:flex;\"\u003E\u003Cspan\u003E  }\n\u003C\u002Fspan\u003E\u003C\u002Fspan\u003E\u003Cspan style=\"display:flex;\"\u003E\u003Cspan\u003E}\n\u003C\u002Fspan\u003E\u003C\u002Fspan\u003E\u003C\u002Fpre\u003E\u003C\u002Ftd\u003E\u003C\u002Ftr\u003E\u003C\u002Ftbody\u003E\u003C\u002Ftable\u003E\n\u003C\u002Fdiv\u003E\n\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cbr\u002F\u003E\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\u003Cp\u003EBy not providing a value for the nullable field, GraphQL will automatically treat it as null.\u003C\u002Fp\u003E",formatted_content_ad:"\u003Cp\u003EIn GraphQL, returning either an object or null depends on the schema definition and resolver implementation. Here is an explanation of how to achieve this:\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\u003Col\u003E\u003Cli\u003E\u003Cstrong\u003ESchema Definition\u003C\u002Fstrong\u003E:\nTo return an object or null, you need to define the return type in your GraphQL schema. This can be done using the nullable modifier, which is denoted by a trailing exclamation mark.\nExample:\ntype Query {\ngetUser(id: ID!): User\n}\ntype User {\nid: ID!\nname: String\nage: Int\n}\nIn the above example, the getUser query returns a \u003Ca href=\"https:\u002F\u002Fubuntuask.com\u002Fblog\u002Fhow-to-check-the-null-string-type-with-go\" target=\"_blank\"\u003EUser object or null\u003C\u002Fa\u003E. The User object has a non-null id field and nullable name and age fields.\n\u003C\u002Fli\u003E\u003Cli\u003E\u003Cstrong\u003EResolver Implementation\u003C\u002Fstrong\u003E:\nResolvers are responsible for fetching the data for each field defined in the schema. To return an object or \u003Ca href=\"https:\u002F\u002Ffreelanceshack.com\u002Fblog\u002Fhow-to-perform-null-safety-checks-in-kotlin\"\u003Enull\u003C\u002Fa\u003E, the resolver function should handle the logic accordingly.\nExample:\nconst resolvers = {\nQuery: {\ngetUser: (parent, { id }, context) =&gt; {\n\u002F\u002F Logic to fetch user data based on the provided id\nconst user = getUserById(id);\n\u002F\u002F If the user is found, return the user object. Else, return null.\nreturn user ? user : null;\n}\n}\n};\nIn the above resolver implementation, the getUser resolver checks if the user exists based on the provided id. If the user is found, it returns the user object. Otherwise, it returns null.\nNote that it&#39;s not mandatory to explicitly return null if the object is not found. By default, returning undefined or not returning any value will result in null being returned.\n\u003C\u002Fli\u003E\u003C\u002Fol\u003E\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cbr\u002F\u003E\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\u003Cp\u003EBy defining the schema type as nullable and handling the logic in the resolver function, you can easily return either an object or null in GraphQL.\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\n    \u003Cdiv class=\"rating\"\u003E\n        \u003Ch2\u003EBest GraphQL Books to Read in 2024\u003C\u002Fh2\u003E\n        \u003Cdiv class=\"row mt-2\"\u003E\n            \n                \u003Cdiv class=\"col-12\"\u003E\n                    \u003Cdiv class=\"v-card elevation-6\"\u003E\n                        \u003Cdiv class=\"v-card__text rating-text\"\u003E\n                            \u003Cdiv class=\"rating-counter\"\u003E\n                                 \u003Cspan class=\"v-badge\"\u003E\n                                  \u003Cspan class=\"v-badge__wrapper\"\u003E\n                                      \u003Cspan aria-atomic=\"true\" aria-label=\"Позиция\" class=\"v-badge__badge primary\"\u003E\n                                          1\n                                      \u003C\u002Fspan\u003E\n                                  \u003C\u002Fspan\u003E\n                                \u003C\u002Fspan\u003E\n                            \u003C\u002Fdiv\u003E\n                            \u003Cdiv class=\"row\"\u003E\n                                \u003Cdiv class=\"col-lg-3 col-md-4 col-sm-6 col-12 d-flex justify-center align-center\"\u003E\n                                    \u003Cdiv\u003E\n                                        \u003Cimg src=\"https:\u002F\u002Fblogweb-static.fra1.cdn.digitaloceanspaces.com\u002Fimages\u002Fdd5f352e-9f56-413f-99cd-ffdea954bcc4\u002Frating\u002F31mms6yribs-sl160.jpg\" alt=\"The Road to GraphQL: Your journey to master pragmatic GraphQL in JavaScript with React.js and Node.js\" \u002F\u003E\n                                        \u003Cp class=\"text-center font-weight-bold text-h6\"\u003ERating is 5 out of 5\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\n                                        \u003Cdiv class=\"stars\" style=\"--rating: 5;\" aria-label=\"Rating is 5 out of 5\" \u003E\u003C\u002Fdiv\u003E\n                                    \u003C\u002Fdiv\u003E\n                                \u003C\u002Fdiv\u003E\n                                \u003Cdiv class=\"col-lg-6 col-md-8 col-sm-6 col-12\"\u003E\n                                    \u003Cp class=\"font-weight-bold rating-name\"\u003EThe Road to GraphQL: Your journey to master pragmatic GraphQL in JavaScript with React.js and Node.js\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\n                                    \n                                    \n\n                                    \n                                    \n                                \u003C\u002Fdiv\u003E\n\n                                \u003Cdiv class=\"col-lg-3 col-md-12 col-12 d-flex align-center justify-lg-end justify-center\"\u003E\n                                    \u003Cdiv class=\"text-center d-flex flex-column\"\u003E\n                                        \n                                            \u003Ca href=\"https:\u002F\u002Fgosrc.cc\u002Fgo\u002FRcsO7lDSR\" target=\"_blank\" rel=\"nofollow noopener\" class=\"v-btn v-btn--rounded elevation-5 v-size--large success mb-2\"\u003E\n                                                \u003Cspan class=\"v-btn__content\"\u003EGet Book Now\u003C\u002Fspan\u003E\n                                            \u003C\u002Fa\u003E\n                                        \n                                        \n                                    \u003C\u002Fdiv\u003E\n                                \u003C\u002Fdiv\u003E\n                            \u003C\u002Fdiv\u003E\n                        \u003C\u002Fdiv\u003E\n                    \u003C\u002Fdiv\u003E\n                \u003C\u002Fdiv\u003E\n            \n                \u003Cdiv class=\"col-12\"\u003E\n                    \u003Cdiv class=\"v-card elevation-6\"\u003E\n                        \u003Cdiv class=\"v-card__text rating-text\"\u003E\n                            \u003Cdiv class=\"rating-counter\"\u003E\n                                 \u003Cspan class=\"v-badge\"\u003E\n                                  \u003Cspan class=\"v-badge__wrapper\"\u003E\n                                      \u003Cspan aria-atomic=\"true\" aria-label=\"Позиция\" class=\"v-badge__badge primary\"\u003E\n                                          2\n                                      \u003C\u002Fspan\u003E\n                                  \u003C\u002Fspan\u003E\n                                \u003C\u002Fspan\u003E\n                            \u003C\u002Fdiv\u003E\n                            \u003Cdiv class=\"row\"\u003E\n                                \u003Cdiv class=\"col-lg-3 col-md-4 col-sm-6 col-12 d-flex justify-center align-center\"\u003E\n                                    \u003Cdiv\u003E\n                                        \u003Cimg src=\"https:\u002F\u002Fblogweb-static.fra1.cdn.digitaloceanspaces.com\u002Fimages\u002Fdd5f352e-9f56-413f-99cd-ffdea954bcc4\u002Frating\u002F412oehwtarl-sl160.jpg\" alt=\"Full Stack GraphQL Applications: With React, Node.js, and Neo4j\" \u002F\u003E\n                                        \u003Cp class=\"text-center font-weight-bold text-h6\"\u003ERating is 4.9 out of 5\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\n                                        \u003Cdiv class=\"stars\" style=\"--rating: 4.9;\" aria-label=\"Rating is 4.9 out of 5\" \u003E\u003C\u002Fdiv\u003E\n                                    \u003C\u002Fdiv\u003E\n                                \u003C\u002Fdiv\u003E\n                                \u003Cdiv class=\"col-lg-6 col-md-8 col-sm-6 col-12\"\u003E\n                                    \u003Cp class=\"font-weight-bold rating-name\"\u003EFull Stack GraphQL Applications: With React, Node.js, and Neo4j\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\n                                    \n                                    \n\n                                    \n                                    \n                                \u003C\u002Fdiv\u003E\n\n                                \u003Cdiv class=\"col-lg-3 col-md-12 col-12 d-flex align-center justify-lg-end justify-center\"\u003E\n                                    \u003Cdiv class=\"text-center d-flex flex-column\"\u003E\n                                        \n                                            \u003Ca href=\"https:\u002F\u002Fgosrc.cc\u002Fgo\u002FJcsOn_vSg\" target=\"_blank\" rel=\"nofollow noopener\" class=\"v-btn v-btn--rounded elevation-5 v-size--large success mb-2\"\u003E\n                                                \u003Cspan class=\"v-btn__content\"\u003EGet Book Now\u003C\u002Fspan\u003E\n                                            \u003C\u002Fa\u003E\n                                        \n                                        \n                                    \u003C\u002Fdiv\u003E\n                                \u003C\u002Fdiv\u003E\n                            \u003C\u002Fdiv\u003E\n                        \u003C\u002Fdiv\u003E\n                    \u003C\u002Fdiv\u003E\n                \u003C\u002Fdiv\u003E\n            \n                \u003Cdiv class=\"col-12\"\u003E\n                    \u003Cdiv class=\"v-card elevation-6\"\u003E\n                        \u003Cdiv class=\"v-card__text rating-text\"\u003E\n                            \u003Cdiv class=\"rating-counter\"\u003E\n                                 \u003Cspan class=\"v-badge\"\u003E\n                                  \u003Cspan class=\"v-badge__wrapper\"\u003E\n                                      \u003Cspan aria-atomic=\"true\" aria-label=\"Позиция\" class=\"v-badge__badge primary\"\u003E\n                                          3\n                                      \u003C\u002Fspan\u003E\n                                  \u003C\u002Fspan\u003E\n                                \u003C\u002Fspan\u003E\n                            \u003C\u002Fdiv\u003E\n                            \u003Cdiv class=\"row\"\u003E\n                                \u003Cdiv class=\"col-lg-3 col-md-4 col-sm-6 col-12 d-flex justify-center align-center\"\u003E\n                                    \u003Cdiv\u003E\n                                        \u003Cimg src=\"https:\u002F\u002Fblogweb-static.fra1.cdn.digitaloceanspaces.com\u002Fimages\u002Fdd5f352e-9f56-413f-99cd-ffdea954bcc4\u002Frating\u002F41roh8j-74l-sl160.jpg\" alt=\"GraphQL in Action\" \u002F\u003E\n                                        \u003Cp class=\"text-center font-weight-bold text-h6\"\u003ERating is 4.8 out of 5\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\n                                        \u003Cdiv class=\"stars\" style=\"--rating: 4.8;\" aria-label=\"Rating is 4.8 out of 5\" \u003E\u003C\u002Fdiv\u003E\n                                    \u003C\u002Fdiv\u003E\n                                \u003C\u002Fdiv\u003E\n                                \u003Cdiv class=\"col-lg-6 col-md-8 col-sm-6 col-12\"\u003E\n                                    \u003Cp class=\"font-weight-bold rating-name\"\u003EGraphQL in Action\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\n                                    \n                                    \n\n                                    \n                                    \n                                \u003C\u002Fdiv\u003E\n\n                                \u003Cdiv class=\"col-lg-3 col-md-12 col-12 d-flex align-center justify-lg-end justify-center\"\u003E\n                                    \u003Cdiv class=\"text-center d-flex flex-column\"\u003E\n                                        \n                                            \u003Ca href=\"https:\u002F\u002Fgosrc.cc\u002Fgo\u002F5cyOn_vIR\" target=\"_blank\" rel=\"nofollow noopener\" class=\"v-btn v-btn--rounded elevation-5 v-size--large success mb-2\"\u003E\n                                                \u003Cspan class=\"v-btn__content\"\u003EGet Book Now\u003C\u002Fspan\u003E\n                                            \u003C\u002Fa\u003E\n                                        \n                                        \n                                    \u003C\u002Fdiv\u003E\n                                \u003C\u002Fdiv\u003E\n                            \u003C\u002Fdiv\u003E\n                        \u003C\u002Fdiv\u003E\n                    \u003C\u002Fdiv\u003E\n                \u003C\u002Fdiv\u003E\n            \n                \u003Cdiv class=\"col-12\"\u003E\n                    \u003Cdiv class=\"v-card elevation-6\"\u003E\n                        \u003Cdiv class=\"v-card__text rating-text\"\u003E\n                            \u003Cdiv class=\"rating-counter\"\u003E\n                                 \u003Cspan class=\"v-badge\"\u003E\n                                  \u003Cspan class=\"v-badge__wrapper\"\u003E\n                                      \u003Cspan aria-atomic=\"true\" aria-label=\"Позиция\" class=\"v-badge__badge primary\"\u003E\n                                          4\n                                      \u003C\u002Fspan\u003E\n                                  \u003C\u002Fspan\u003E\n                                \u003C\u002Fspan\u003E\n                            \u003C\u002Fdiv\u003E\n                            \u003Cdiv class=\"row\"\u003E\n                                \u003Cdiv class=\"col-lg-3 col-md-4 col-sm-6 col-12 d-flex justify-center align-center\"\u003E\n                                    \u003Cdiv\u003E\n                                        \u003Cimg src=\"https:\u002F\u002Fblogweb-static.fra1.cdn.digitaloceanspaces.com\u002Fimages\u002Fdd5f352e-9f56-413f-99cd-ffdea954bcc4\u002Frating\u002F51upgne6t9l-sl160.jpg\" alt=\"Hands-On Full-Stack Web Development with GraphQL and React: Build scalable full-stack applications while learning to solve complex problems with GraphQL\" \u002F\u003E\n                                        \u003Cp class=\"text-center font-weight-bold text-h6\"\u003ERating is 4.7 out of 5\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\n                                        \u003Cdiv class=\"stars\" style=\"--rating: 4.7;\" aria-label=\"Rating is 4.7 out of 5\" \u003E\u003C\u002Fdiv\u003E\n                                    \u003C\u002Fdiv\u003E\n                                \u003C\u002Fdiv\u003E\n                                \u003Cdiv class=\"col-lg-6 col-md-8 col-sm-6 col-12\"\u003E\n                                    \u003Cp class=\"font-weight-bold rating-name\"\u003EHands-On Full-Stack Web Development with GraphQL and React: Build scalable full-stack applications while learning to solve complex problems with GraphQL\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\n                                    \n                                    \n\n                                    \n                                    \n                                \u003C\u002Fdiv\u003E\n\n                                \u003Cdiv class=\"col-lg-3 col-md-12 col-12 d-flex align-center justify-lg-end justify-center\"\u003E\n                                    \u003Cdiv class=\"text-center d-flex flex-column\"\u003E\n                                        \n                                            \u003Ca href=\"https:\u002F\u002Fgosrc.cc\u002Fgo\u002FXKsOnlvIR\" target=\"_blank\" rel=\"nofollow noopener\" class=\"v-btn v-btn--rounded elevation-5 v-size--large success mb-2\"\u003E\n                                                \u003Cspan class=\"v-btn__content\"\u003EGet Book Now\u003C\u002Fspan\u003E\n                                            \u003C\u002Fa\u003E\n                                        \n                                        \n                                    \u003C\u002Fdiv\u003E\n                                \u003C\u002Fdiv\u003E\n                            \u003C\u002Fdiv\u003E\n                        \u003C\u002Fdiv\u003E\n                    \u003C\u002Fdiv\u003E\n                \u003C\u002Fdiv\u003E\n            \n                \u003Cdiv class=\"col-12\"\u003E\n                    \u003Cdiv class=\"v-card elevation-6\"\u003E\n                        \u003Cdiv class=\"v-card__text rating-text\"\u003E\n                            \u003Cdiv class=\"rating-counter\"\u003E\n                                 \u003Cspan class=\"v-badge\"\u003E\n                                  \u003Cspan class=\"v-badge__wrapper\"\u003E\n                                      \u003Cspan aria-atomic=\"true\" aria-label=\"Позиция\" class=\"v-badge__badge primary\"\u003E\n                                          5\n                                      \u003C\u002Fspan\u003E\n                                  \u003C\u002Fspan\u003E\n                                \u003C\u002Fspan\u003E\n                            \u003C\u002Fdiv\u003E\n                            \u003Cdiv class=\"row\"\u003E\n                                \u003Cdiv class=\"col-lg-3 col-md-4 col-sm-6 col-12 d-flex justify-center align-center\"\u003E\n                                    \u003Cdiv\u003E\n                                        \u003Cimg src=\"https:\u002F\u002Fblogweb-static.fra1.cdn.digitaloceanspaces.com\u002Fimages\u002Fdd5f352e-9f56-413f-99cd-ffdea954bcc4\u002Frating\u002F51gkl1qtm2l-sl160.jpg\" alt=\"Learning GraphQL: Declarative Data Fetching for Modern Web Apps\" \u002F\u003E\n                                        \u003Cp class=\"text-center font-weight-bold text-h6\"\u003ERating is 4.6 out of 5\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\n                                        \u003Cdiv class=\"stars\" style=\"--rating: 4.6;\" aria-label=\"Rating is 4.6 out of 5\" \u003E\u003C\u002Fdiv\u003E\n                                    \u003C\u002Fdiv\u003E\n                                \u003C\u002Fdiv\u003E\n                                \u003Cdiv class=\"col-lg-6 col-md-8 col-sm-6 col-12\"\u003E\n                                    \u003Cp class=\"font-weight-bold rating-name\"\u003ELearning GraphQL: Declarative Data Fetching for Modern Web Apps\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\n                                    \n                                    \n\n                                    \n                                    \n                                \u003C\u002Fdiv\u003E\n\n                                \u003Cdiv class=\"col-lg-3 col-md-12 col-12 d-flex align-center justify-lg-end justify-center\"\u003E\n                                    \u003Cdiv class=\"text-center d-flex flex-column\"\u003E\n                                        \n                                            \u003Ca href=\"https:\u002F\u002Fgosrc.cc\u002Fgo\u002FBKsd7lDSg\" target=\"_blank\" rel=\"nofollow noopener\" class=\"v-btn v-btn--rounded elevation-5 v-size--large success mb-2\"\u003E\n                                                \u003Cspan class=\"v-btn__content\"\u003EGet Book Now\u003C\u002Fspan\u003E\n                                            \u003C\u002Fa\u003E\n                                        \n                                        \n                                    \u003C\u002Fdiv\u003E\n                                \u003C\u002Fdiv\u003E\n                            \u003C\u002Fdiv\u003E\n                        \u003C\u002Fdiv\u003E\n                    \u003C\u002Fdiv\u003E\n                \u003C\u002Fdiv\u003E\n            \n        \u003C\u002Fdiv\u003E\n    \u003C\u002Fdiv\u003E\n\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cbr\u002F\u003E\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\u003Ch2\u003EWhat is the difference between returning null and an empty object in GraphQL?\u003C\u002Fh2\u003E\u003Cp\u003EIn GraphQL, there is a significant difference between returning null and an empty object.\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\u003Col\u003E\u003Cli\u003E\u003Cstrong\u003EReturning null\u003C\u002Fstrong\u003E: When a field in a GraphQL query resolves to null, it means that there is no data available for that field. It indicates that the field exists but has no value to return. Null is used to represent that the field could not be resolved due to some error or missing data.\n\u003C\u002Fli\u003E\u003Cli\u003E\u003Cstrong\u003EReturning an empty object\u003C\u002Fstrong\u003E: Returning an empty object implies that the field exists and has a value, but that value is an empty set or an empty object. It indicates that the field was resolved successfully, but there is no data to populate it. This is useful when a field represents a complex object with multiple sub-fields, and those sub-fields could be optional or not applicable in certain cases.\n\u003C\u002Fli\u003E\u003C\u002Fol\u003E\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cbr\u002F\u003E\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\u003Cp\u003ETo summarize, returning null means that the field itself does not exist or has no value, while returning an empty object means the field exists but is empty. The choice between null and an empty object should be based on the intended meaning and requirements of the GraphQL schema and the specific use case.\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cbr\u002F\u003E\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\u003Ch2\u003EWhat is the impact of returning null on GraphQL caching with Apollo Server?\u003C\u002Fh2\u003E\u003Cp\u003EReturning null values in GraphQL queries can have an impact on caching, especially when used with Apollo Server.\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\u003Cscript async=\"\" src=\"https:\u002F\u002Fpagead2.googlesyndication.com\u002Fpagead\u002Fjs\u002Fadsbygoogle.js\"\u003E\u003C\u002Fscript\u003E\n\u003Cins class=\"adsbygoogle\" style=\"display:block\" data-ad-format=\"fluid\" data-ad-layout-key=\"-ef+6k-30-ac+ty\" data-ad-client=\"ca-pub-4833888168110763\" data-ad-slot=\"1024354517\"\u003E\u003C\u002Fins\u003E\n\u003Cscript\u003E\n     (adsbygoogle = window.adsbygoogle || []).push({});\n\u003C\u002Fscript\u003E\u003Col\u003E\u003Cli\u003E\u003Cstrong\u003ECache Hit\u003C\u002Fstrong\u003E: When a GraphQL query is executed with a cache hit, Apollo Server can directly return the previously cached result without executing the associated resolver functions. If a value is returned as null from a resolver, the cache still maintains the null value for that field. So, subsequent queries for the same field will also receive the null value from the cache, without re-executing the resolver. This can lead to stale null values being returned even if the underlying data has been updated.\n\u003C\u002Fli\u003E\u003Cli\u003E\u003Cstrong\u003ECache Miss\u003C\u002Fstrong\u003E: If the initial GraphQL query is performed with a cache miss, Apollo Server has to execute the associated resolver functions to fetch the data. If a resolver returns a null value, Apollo Server will not cache the null value for that field. So, subsequent queries for the same field will again result in cache misses, causing the resolvers to be executed repeatedly, even for the same data, leading to decreased performance.\n\u003C\u002Fli\u003E\u003C\u002Fol\u003E\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cbr\u002F\u003E\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\u003Cp\u003EBy default, Apollo Server&#39;s caching mechanism treats null as a valid value and caches it if it is returned by a resolver. However, Apollo Server provides options to customize caching behavior, like \u003Ca href=\"https:\u002F\u002Ffreelanceshack.com\u002Fblog\u002Fhow-to-add-a-custom-value-in-grafana-legend\"\u003Esetting a custom\u003C\u002Fa\u003E cache key or specifying a cache policy. These can be used to handle and control the behavior of null values in caching, such as treating null values as cache misses or evicting null values from the cache.\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cbr\u002F\u003E\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\u003Cp\u003EIt is important to handle null values carefully in GraphQL resolvers to avoid caching inconsistencies and ensure that the cache reflects the most up-to-date data.\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cbr\u002F\u003E\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\u003Ch2\u003EWhat is the recommended approach for returning null or an object in GraphQL?\u003C\u002Fh2\u003E\u003Cp\u003EIn GraphQL, returning \u003Ccode\u003Enull\u003C\u002Fcode\u003E or an object is handled by the field resolvers. The recommended approach for returning null or an object depends on the specific use case and the desired behavior.\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\u003Col\u003E\u003Cli\u003E\u003Cstrong\u003EReturning null\u003C\u002Fstrong\u003E: If a field resolver encounters a null value, it can simply return null to indicate that the requested field is not available or has no value. This can be useful in cases where a field is optional or may not have a value.\n\u003C\u002Fli\u003E\u003Cli\u003E\u003Cstrong\u003EReturning an object\u003C\u002Fstrong\u003E: If a field resolver encounters an object, it should return an object representing the requested field. The field resolver can either construct a new object or fetch the object from a data source, such as a database. This is commonly used when the requested field is mandatory and there is a valid value to return.\n\u003C\u002Fli\u003E\u003C\u002Fol\u003E\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cbr\u002F\u003E\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\u003Cp\u003EIt&#39;s important to note that GraphQL has a nullable type system by default, which means that all fields are nullable unless explicitly marked as non-null. This allows clients to expect null values from fields and handle them accordingly.\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cbr\u002F\u003E\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\u003Cscript async=\"\" src=\"https:\u002F\u002Fpagead2.googlesyndication.com\u002Fpagead\u002Fjs\u002Fadsbygoogle.js\"\u003E\u003C\u002Fscript\u003E\n\u003Cins class=\"adsbygoogle\" style=\"display:block\" data-ad-format=\"fluid\" data-ad-layout-key=\"-ef+6k-30-ac+ty\" data-ad-client=\"ca-pub-4833888168110763\" data-ad-slot=\"1024354517\"\u003E\u003C\u002Fins\u003E\n\u003Cscript\u003E\n     (adsbygoogle = window.adsbygoogle || []).push({});\n\u003C\u002Fscript\u003E\u003Cp\u003EIn the schema definition, nullability can be specified for fields using \u003Ccode\u003E!\u003C\u002Fcode\u003E to indicate non-null or omitting it to allow nullable values. It is recommended to accurately define the nullability of fields in the schema to provide a clear contract to clients.\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cbr\u002F\u003E\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\u003Ch2\u003EHow to default a nullable field to null in GraphQL?\u003C\u002Fh2\u003E\u003Cp\u003EIn GraphQL, nullable fields are declared by using a trailing question mark (?) after the type name. By default, nullable fields are set to null if no value is provided. However, if you want to explicitly default a nullable field to null, you can simply omit it from the input when creating or updating an object.\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cbr\u002F\u003E\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\u003Cp\u003EFor example, let&#39;s say you have a \u003Ccode\u003EUser\u003C\u002Fcode\u003E type with a nullable \u003Ccode\u003Ebio\u003C\u002Fcode\u003E field:\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\u003Cdiv style=\"color:#f8f8f2;background-color:#272822;\"\u003E\n\u003Ctable style=\"border-spacing:0;padding:0;margin:0;border:0;\"\u003E\u003Ctbody\u003E\u003Ctr\u003E\u003Ctd style=\"vertical-align:top;padding:0;margin:0;border:0;\"\u003E\n\u003Cpre tabindex=\"0\" style=\"color:#f8f8f2;background-color:#272822;\"\u003E\u003Cspan style=\"white-space:pre;user-select:none;margin-right:0.4em;padding:0 0.4em 0 0.4em;color:#7f7f7f\"\u003E1\n\u003C\u002Fspan\u003E\u003Cspan style=\"white-space:pre;user-select:none;margin-right:0.4em;padding:0 0.4em 0 0.4em;color:#7f7f7f\"\u003E2\n\u003C\u002Fspan\u003E\u003Cspan style=\"white-space:pre;user-select:none;margin-right:0.4em;padding:0 0.4em 0 0.4em;color:#7f7f7f\"\u003E3\n\u003C\u002Fspan\u003E\u003Cspan style=\"white-space:pre;user-select:none;margin-right:0.4em;padding:0 0.4em 0 0.4em;color:#7f7f7f\"\u003E4\n\u003C\u002Fspan\u003E\u003Cspan style=\"white-space:pre;user-select:none;margin-right:0.4em;padding:0 0.4em 0 0.4em;color:#7f7f7f\"\u003E5\n\u003C\u002Fspan\u003E\u003C\u002Fpre\u003E\u003C\u002Ftd\u003E\n\u003Ctd style=\"vertical-align:top;padding:0;margin:0;border:0;;width:100%\"\u003E\n\u003Cpre tabindex=\"0\" style=\"color:#f8f8f2;background-color:#272822;\"\u003E\u003Cspan style=\"display:flex;\"\u003E\u003Cspan\u003Etype User {\n\u003C\u002Fspan\u003E\u003C\u002Fspan\u003E\u003Cspan style=\"display:flex;\"\u003E\u003Cspan\u003E  id: ID!\n\u003C\u002Fspan\u003E\u003C\u002Fspan\u003E\u003Cspan style=\"display:flex;\"\u003E\u003Cspan\u003E  name: String!\n\u003C\u002Fspan\u003E\u003C\u002Fspan\u003E\u003Cspan style=\"display:flex;\"\u003E\u003Cspan\u003E  bio: String\n\u003C\u002Fspan\u003E\u003C\u002Fspan\u003E\u003Cspan style=\"display:flex;\"\u003E\u003Cspan\u003E}\n\u003C\u002Fspan\u003E\u003C\u002Fspan\u003E\u003C\u002Fpre\u003E\u003C\u002Ftd\u003E\u003C\u002Ftr\u003E\u003C\u002Ftbody\u003E\u003C\u002Ftable\u003E\n\u003C\u002Fdiv\u003E\n\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cbr\u002F\u003E\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\u003Cp\u003EWhen creating a new user, you can omit the \u003Ccode\u003Ebio\u003C\u002Fcode\u003E field to default it to null:\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\u003Cdiv style=\"color:#f8f8f2;background-color:#272822;\"\u003E\n\u003Ctable style=\"border-spacing:0;padding:0;margin:0;border:0;\"\u003E\u003Ctbody\u003E\u003Ctr\u003E\u003Ctd style=\"vertical-align:top;padding:0;margin:0;border:0;\"\u003E\n\u003Cpre tabindex=\"0\" style=\"color:#f8f8f2;background-color:#272822;\"\u003E\u003Cspan style=\"white-space:pre;user-select:none;margin-right:0.4em;padding:0 0.4em 0 0.4em;color:#7f7f7f\"\u003E1\n\u003C\u002Fspan\u003E\u003Cspan style=\"white-space:pre;user-select:none;margin-right:0.4em;padding:0 0.4em 0 0.4em;color:#7f7f7f\"\u003E2\n\u003C\u002Fspan\u003E\u003Cspan style=\"white-space:pre;user-select:none;margin-right:0.4em;padding:0 0.4em 0 0.4em;color:#7f7f7f\"\u003E3\n\u003C\u002Fspan\u003E\u003Cspan style=\"white-space:pre;user-select:none;margin-right:0.4em;padding:0 0.4em 0 0.4em;color:#7f7f7f\"\u003E4\n\u003C\u002Fspan\u003E\u003Cspan style=\"white-space:pre;user-select:none;margin-right:0.4em;padding:0 0.4em 0 0.4em;color:#7f7f7f\"\u003E5\n\u003C\u002Fspan\u003E\u003Cspan style=\"white-space:pre;user-select:none;margin-right:0.4em;padding:0 0.4em 0 0.4em;color:#7f7f7f\"\u003E6\n\u003C\u002Fspan\u003E\u003Cspan style=\"white-space:pre;user-select:none;margin-right:0.4em;padding:0 0.4em 0 0.4em;color:#7f7f7f\"\u003E7\n\u003C\u002Fspan\u003E\u003C\u002Fpre\u003E\u003C\u002Ftd\u003E\n\u003Ctd style=\"vertical-align:top;padding:0;margin:0;border:0;;width:100%\"\u003E\n\u003Cpre tabindex=\"0\" style=\"color:#f8f8f2;background-color:#272822;\"\u003E\u003Cspan style=\"display:flex;\"\u003E\u003Cspan\u003Emutation {\n\u003C\u002Fspan\u003E\u003C\u002Fspan\u003E\u003Cspan style=\"display:flex;\"\u003E\u003Cspan\u003E  createUser(input: { name: &#34;John Doe&#34; }) {\n\u003C\u002Fspan\u003E\u003C\u002Fspan\u003E\u003Cspan style=\"display:flex;\"\u003E\u003Cspan\u003E    id\n\u003C\u002Fspan\u003E\u003C\u002Fspan\u003E\u003Cspan style=\"display:flex;\"\u003E\u003Cspan\u003E    name\n\u003C\u002Fspan\u003E\u003C\u002Fspan\u003E\u003Cspan style=\"display:flex;\"\u003E\u003Cspan\u003E    bio # Returns null\n\u003C\u002Fspan\u003E\u003C\u002Fspan\u003E\u003Cspan style=\"display:flex;\"\u003E\u003Cspan\u003E  }\n\u003C\u002Fspan\u003E\u003C\u002Fspan\u003E\u003Cspan style=\"display:flex;\"\u003E\u003Cspan\u003E}\n\u003C\u002Fspan\u003E\u003C\u002Fspan\u003E\u003C\u002Fpre\u003E\u003C\u002Ftd\u003E\u003C\u002Ftr\u003E\u003C\u002Ftbody\u003E\u003C\u002Ftable\u003E\n\u003C\u002Fdiv\u003E\n\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cbr\u002F\u003E\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\u003Cp\u003ESimilarly, when updating a user, you can omit the \u003Ccode\u003Ebio\u003C\u002Fcode\u003E field in the update payload to keep it as null:\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\u003Cscript async=\"\" src=\"https:\u002F\u002Fpagead2.googlesyndication.com\u002Fpagead\u002Fjs\u002Fadsbygoogle.js\"\u003E\u003C\u002Fscript\u003E\n\u003Cins class=\"adsbygoogle\" style=\"display:block\" data-ad-format=\"fluid\" data-ad-layout-key=\"-ef+6k-30-ac+ty\" data-ad-client=\"ca-pub-4833888168110763\" data-ad-slot=\"1024354517\"\u003E\u003C\u002Fins\u003E\n\u003Cscript\u003E\n     (adsbygoogle = window.adsbygoogle || []).push({});\n\u003C\u002Fscript\u003E\u003Cdiv style=\"color:#f8f8f2;background-color:#272822;\"\u003E\n\u003Ctable style=\"border-spacing:0;padding:0;margin:0;border:0;\"\u003E\u003Ctbody\u003E\u003Ctr\u003E\u003Ctd style=\"vertical-align:top;padding:0;margin:0;border:0;\"\u003E\n\u003Cpre tabindex=\"0\" style=\"color:#f8f8f2;background-color:#272822;\"\u003E\u003Cspan style=\"white-space:pre;user-select:none;margin-right:0.4em;padding:0 0.4em 0 0.4em;color:#7f7f7f\"\u003E1\n\u003C\u002Fspan\u003E\u003Cspan style=\"white-space:pre;user-select:none;margin-right:0.4em;padding:0 0.4em 0 0.4em;color:#7f7f7f\"\u003E2\n\u003C\u002Fspan\u003E\u003Cspan style=\"white-space:pre;user-select:none;margin-right:0.4em;padding:0 0.4em 0 0.4em;color:#7f7f7f\"\u003E3\n\u003C\u002Fspan\u003E\u003Cspan style=\"white-space:pre;user-select:none;margin-right:0.4em;padding:0 0.4em 0 0.4em;color:#7f7f7f\"\u003E4\n\u003C\u002Fspan\u003E\u003Cspan style=\"white-space:pre;user-select:none;margin-right:0.4em;padding:0 0.4em 0 0.4em;color:#7f7f7f\"\u003E5\n\u003C\u002Fspan\u003E\u003Cspan style=\"white-space:pre;user-select:none;margin-right:0.4em;padding:0 0.4em 0 0.4em;color:#7f7f7f\"\u003E6\n\u003C\u002Fspan\u003E\u003Cspan style=\"white-space:pre;user-select:none;margin-right:0.4em;padding:0 0.4em 0 0.4em;color:#7f7f7f\"\u003E7\n\u003C\u002Fspan\u003E\u003C\u002Fpre\u003E\u003C\u002Ftd\u003E\n\u003Ctd style=\"vertical-align:top;padding:0;margin:0;border:0;;width:100%\"\u003E\n\u003Cpre tabindex=\"0\" style=\"color:#f8f8f2;background-color:#272822;\"\u003E\u003Cspan style=\"display:flex;\"\u003E\u003Cspan\u003Emutation {\n\u003C\u002Fspan\u003E\u003C\u002Fspan\u003E\u003Cspan style=\"display:flex;\"\u003E\u003Cspan\u003E  updateUser(id: &#34;123&#34;, input: { name: &#34;John Smith&#34; }) {\n\u003C\u002Fspan\u003E\u003C\u002Fspan\u003E\u003Cspan style=\"display:flex;\"\u003E\u003Cspan\u003E    id\n\u003C\u002Fspan\u003E\u003C\u002Fspan\u003E\u003Cspan style=\"display:flex;\"\u003E\u003Cspan\u003E    name\n\u003C\u002Fspan\u003E\u003C\u002Fspan\u003E\u003Cspan style=\"display:flex;\"\u003E\u003Cspan\u003E    bio # Returns null\n\u003C\u002Fspan\u003E\u003C\u002Fspan\u003E\u003Cspan style=\"display:flex;\"\u003E\u003Cspan\u003E  }\n\u003C\u002Fspan\u003E\u003C\u002Fspan\u003E\u003Cspan style=\"display:flex;\"\u003E\u003Cspan\u003E}\n\u003C\u002Fspan\u003E\u003C\u002Fspan\u003E\u003C\u002Fpre\u003E\u003C\u002Ftd\u003E\u003C\u002Ftr\u003E\u003C\u002Ftbody\u003E\u003C\u002Ftable\u003E\n\u003C\u002Fdiv\u003E\n\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cbr\u002F\u003E\u003C\u002Fp\u003E\u003Cp\u003EBy not providing a value for the nullable field, GraphQL will automatically treat it as null.\u003C\u002Fp\u003E",slug:"how-to-return-an-object-or-null-in-graphql",image:"blog\u002Fbc1c7541-887c-4551-b731-2d177c7b757b\u002F657da07cb27dd462faf4930c.png",active:d,nofollow_links:c,hash_tags:["blogweb"],allow_comments:c,no_ad:c,update_daily:c,update_monthly:c,update_yearly:d,meta_title:"How to Return an Object Or Null In GraphQL in 2024?",meta_description:aT,related_posts:[{id:ar,text:as,title:a,image:at,summary:au,slug:av},{id:aw,text:ax,title:a,image:ay,summary:az,slug:aA},{id:aB,text:aC,title:a,image:aD,summary:aE,slug:aF},{id:109444,text:"How to Flatten an Object In GraphQL?",title:a,image:"blog\u002F115c2f05-ed2a-4fb9-9e10-839aed7975fa\u002F657ef5beb27dd462faf80dc8.png",summary:"In GraphQL, flattening an object refers to transforming nested data into a more streamlined and simplified structure. Flattening an object is usually done to enhance the efficiency of querying and data retrieval.To flatten an object in GraphQL, you can follow these steps:Use the spread operator: The spread operator (...) allows you to extract the fields from an object and add them to another object. By using the spread operator, you can flatten the object by extracting its nested fields.",slug:"how-to-flatten-an-object-in-graphql"},{id:109462,text:"How to Create A Graphql Object With Arguments?",title:a,image:"blog\u002Fdf9cc7c4-cfaf-42f1-8e3f-ae130b50f5ae\u002F657f207cb27dd462faf80e02.png",summary:"To create a GraphQL object with arguments, you need to define the object type in your schema and specify the arguments for each field. Here&#39;s how you can do it:Start by defining the object type in your GraphQL schema using the type keyword. For example, let&#39;s create an object type called &#34;User&#34; with a &#34;name&#34; field that accepts a &#34;firstName&#34; argument:\ntype User {\n  name(firstName: String): String\n}\nInside the curly braces of the object type, you define the fields.",slug:"how-to-create-a-graphql-object-with-arguments"},{id:109481,text:"How to Execute A Graphql Query From the Server?",title:a,image:"blog\u002F44e7e2db-a3ad-4735-b9c0-45e8ffcfdde1\u002F657f4b0481b5eea57889c3ed.png",summary:"To execute a GraphQL query from the server, there are several steps involved:Obtain the GraphQL schema: The server needs to have a schema that defines the available queries, mutations, and types. This schema will serve as a guide for executing and validating GraphQL queries.\nReceive the GraphQL request: The server must be able to receive a GraphQL request, usually through an HTTP POST request. The request should include the query string, and optionally, variables and operation name.",slug:"how-to-execute-a-graphql-query-from-the-server"},{id:109399,text:"How to Connect GraphQL to MySQL?",title:a,image:"blog\u002Fe749c285-834f-4bc4-a733-d63c1fe09cd8\u002F657ea07fb27dd462faf49477.png",summary:"To connect GraphQL to MySQL, you need to follow a series of steps:Install and set up a GraphQL server: Start by setting up a GraphQL server using a framework like Apollo Server or express-graphql. This server will handle GraphQL queries and mutations.\nInstall necessary packages: Install the required packages to connect to MySQL and perform database operations. For Node.js, you can use packages like &#39;mysql&#39; or &#39;sequelize&#39; to connect to the MySQL database.",slug:"how-to-connect-graphql-to-mysql"},{id:109666,text:"How to Connect Graphql And Postgresql?",title:a,image:"blog\u002F58c34e80-a62c-4c2a-b733-c465d87d1c75\u002F6580f5c881b5eea578905009.png",summary:"To connect GraphQL and PostgreSQL, you need to follow a few steps:Set up a PostgreSQL database: Install PostgreSQL and create a new database for your project. Ensure that you have the necessary access rights and credentials to connect to the database.\nCreate a GraphQL server: Set up a GraphQL server using a framework or library such as Apollo Server, Express, or GraphQL Yoga. This server will handle the GraphQL queries and mutations.",slug:"how-to-connect-graphql-and-postgresql"},{id:109563,text:"How to Use Graphql With Angular.js?",title:a,image:"blog\u002Fc595c640-5062-4218-8942-e9dcc9c270f3\u002F657ff5c381b5eea57889c4c9.png",summary:"GraphQL is a query language and runtime that is commonly used to build APIs. Angular.js is a popular JavaScript framework for building web applications. When using GraphQL with Angular.js, you need to follow certain steps to integrate and use GraphQL successfully in your application.Setup: Start by installing the necessary dependencies and libraries for GraphQL and Angular.js. You will need to install GraphQL using npm or yarn, along with any other required packages like Apollo Client or Relay.",slug:"how-to-use-graphql-with-angular-js"},{id:110459,text:"How to Deploy A GraphQL Server to Production?",title:a,image:"blog\u002Fd711699c-0d65-48ff-bc82-b4e630873dce\u002F6585cab6775f8cea92ba044b.png",summary:"To deploy a GraphQL server to production, there are several steps you need to follow:Build your GraphQL server: Start by creating your GraphQL server using a suitable programming language and framework, such as Node.js with Apollo Server or Python with Graphene. Implement the necessary resolvers and schema based on your application requirements.\nOptimize your GraphQL schema: It&#39;s essential to design an efficient and reliable schema for your GraphQL server.",slug:"how-to-deploy-a-graphql-server-to-production"}],category:{id:aI,name:x,meta_title:a,meta_description:a,order:b,children:f,description:a,slug:aJ},created:"2023-12-16T13:05:04Z",updated:"2024-01-01T00:00:00Z"}}],fetch:{},error:f,state:{loading:b,settings:{id:h,name:j,domain:aL,port:aM,plan:g,add_source:g,add_source_text:X,forum_active:c,footer_code:aQ,scrollable_pagination:b,add_watermark:b,add_watermark_position:b,hash:aK,robots_txt:aP,locale:aO,meta_title:j,modules:[{uuid:"52f05b96-2b7a-11eb-943e-6a24baf8d0e4",path:"amazon",name:"Amazon",active:d},{uuid:"39e96103-3de3-11eb-9b32-86f43b04e535",path:"tinysrc",name:"TinySRC",active:d},{uuid:"cc863ba7-13bd-11ed-a99e-8ebf5783113d",path:aU,name:"mywebforum.com",active:d},{uuid:"7671225a-2f09-11ee-9f18-9ac8ad3607b3",path:"openai",name:"OpenAI",active:c}],favicon_png:"\u002Ffavicon.png",favicon_ico:a,custom_css:".rating-text .row .d-flex \u003E div{\n  text-align: center;\n}\n\n.rating-text img{\n  max-height: 150px !important;\n  max-width: 190px !important;\n}",meta_description:y,description:y,logo:aN,activation:aR},layout:{id:h,is_dark:b,name:ap,page_transition:"fadeUp",background:"background\u002F79.png",code_theme:"monokai",background_full:c,background_color:a,text_color:a,text_font_family:"Roboto",primary_color:aV,secondary_color:aV,accent_color:k,info_color:k,success_color:k,error_color:k,warning_color:k},menus:[],isFooterVisible:c,showAd:c,cdnUrl:"https:\u002F\u002Fblogweb-static.fra1.cdn.digitaloceanspaces.com",metaOg:{title:Y,url:aq,image:"https:\u002F\u002Fblogweb-static.fra1.cdn.digitaloceanspaces.com\u002Fimages\u002Fdd5f352e-9f56-413f-99cd-ffdea954bcc4\u002Fblog\u002Fbc1c7541-887c-4551-b731-2d177c7b757b\u002F657da07cb27dd462faf4930c.png",type:"article",description:aT,site_name:j},ad:[{id:66,name:"bottom",css_selector:a,position:z,one_time:c,show_every:b,code:Z,active:d,free:c},{id:67,name:"category",css_selector:a,position:aG,one_time:c,show_every:aW,code:Z,active:d,free:c},{id:68,name:"blog 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Users","Moderate Posts","Moderate Comments","Blog Settings","Privacy Settings","Ad Settings","Mail Settings","Layout Settings","Pages","Social Settings","Security Settings","Ratings","Author","Blog Content","Blog","Personal Messages","Admin dashboard","Moderator dashboard","Contact us","Read more at:","How to Return an Object Or Null In GraphQL?","\u003Cscript async src=\"https:\u002F\u002Fpagead2.googlesyndication.com\u002Fpagead\u002Fjs\u002Fadsbygoogle.js\"\u003E\u003C\u002Fscript\u003E\n\u003C!-- freelanceshack --\u003E\n\u003Cins class=\"adsbygoogle\"\n     style=\"display:block\"\n     data-ad-client=\"ca-pub-4833888168110763\"\n     data-ad-slot=\"9432299908\"\n     data-ad-format=\"auto\"\n     data-full-width-responsive=\"true\"\u003E\u003C\u002Fins\u003E\n\u003Cscript\u003E\n     (adsbygoogle = window.adsbygoogle || []).push({});\n\u003C\u002Fscript\u003E","Home","\u002F","Category","Hash Tags","Forum","Redirect","Auto Linker Settings","Keywords List","Community Forum","Edit User Details","View Message","My Profile","Description","Picture","Price","Question","Sign Up","default","https:\u002F\u002Ffreelanceshack.com\u002Fblog\u002Fhow-to-return-an-object-or-null-in-graphql",110863,"How to Perform Null Safety Checks In Kotlin?","blog\u002F998a1fe9-b631-4ed2-89e7-7f6aa43beb20\u002F658859271da63f8b617db0a0.png","In Kotlin, null safety is an essential feature that helps prevent null pointer exceptions. To perform null safety checks, you can use the safe call operator (?.), the not-null assertion operator (!!), or the safe cast operator (as?).Safe Call Operator (?.):\nThe safe call operator lets you execute a statement or access a property only if the object reference is not null. If the object is null, the expression evaluates to null instead of throwing a null pointer exception.","how-to-perform-null-safety-checks-in-kotlin",109691,"How to Print A Custom Message In GraphQL?","blog\u002Fb7608eb7-3f68-47c9-ab1b-d1877f867f8c\u002F6581205c511544cad5fdfc25.png","To print a custom message in GraphQL, you can use the printError function provided by the graphql module. Here&#39;s how you can do it:Import the required modules:\nconst { graphql, printError } = require(&#39;graphql&#39;);\nPrepare your GraphQL schema and query:\n\u002F\u002F Define your GraphQL schema\nconst schema = new GraphQLSchema({ ... });\n\n\u002F\u002F Define your GraphQL query\nconst query = `\n  query {\n    ...  \n  } \n`;\nExecute the GraphQL query:\ngraphQL(schema, query)\n  .","how-to-print-a-custom-message-in-graphql",110251,"How to Implement Custom Directives In GraphQL?","blog\u002F807658eb-29bb-4468-9254-6c50b16f55f0\u002F65847583de9c0b80ee03a930.png","In GraphQL, directives are used to annotate and modify the execution and validation of the GraphQL queries and schema. They allow developers to add custom logic and functionality to the GraphQL API. To implement custom directives in GraphQL, you need to follow these steps:Define the directive: To create a custom directive, you need to define it in the GraphQL schema. The schema is typically defined using the GraphQL Schema Definition Language (SDL).","how-to-implement-custom-directives-in-graphql",3,"Finance",2582,"programming","dd5f352e-9f56-413f-99cd-ffdea954bcc4","freelanceshack.com",80,"logo\u002F78.png","en","User-agent: *\nDisallow: \u002Fsearch\nDisallow: \u002Fadmin\nDisallow: \u002Fprofile\nDisallow: \u002Flogin\nDisallow: \u002Fregister\n\nSitemap: https:\u002F\u002Ffreelanceshack.com\u002Fsitemap.xml","\u003C!-- Yandex.Metrika counter --\u003E\n\u003Cscript type=\"text\u002Fjavascript\" \u003E\n   (function(m,e,t,r,i,k,a){m[i]=m[i]||function(){(m[i].a=m[i].a||[]).push(arguments)};\n   m[i].l=1*new Date();k=e.createElement(t),a=e.getElementsByTagName(t)[0],k.async=1,k.src=r,a.parentNode.insertBefore(k,a)})\n   (window, document, \"script\", \"https:\u002F\u002Fmc.yandex.ru\u002Fmetrika\u002Ftag.js\", \"ym\");\n\n   ym(71055130, \"init\", {\n        clickmap:true,\n        trackLinks:true,\n        accurateTrackBounce:true\n   });\n\u003C\u002Fscript\u003E\n\u003Cnoscript\u003E\u003Cdiv\u003E\u003Cimg src=\"https:\u002F\u002Fmc.yandex.ru\u002Fwatch\u002F71055130\" style=\"position:absolute; left:-9999px;\" alt=\"\" \u002F\u003E\u003C\u002Fdiv\u003E\u003C\u002Fnoscript\u003E\n\u003C!-- \u002FYandex.Metrika counter --\u003E\n\n\u003Cscript data-ad-client=\"ca-pub-4833888168110763\" async src=\"https:\u002F\u002Fpagead2.googlesyndication.com\u002Fpagead\u002Fjs\u002Fadsbygoogle.js\"\u003E\u003C\u002Fscript\u003E","email","2021-01-07T19:31:34Z","Learn the best techniques to efficiently return an object or null in GraphQL.","forum","#424242",4,12,"Latest Threads","\u003Cp\u003EHow to parse XML with Python?\u003C\u002Fp\u003E","\u003Cp\u003EHow to get financial information of stocks in r?\u003C\u002Fp\u003E","\u003Cp\u003EHow to use different icon size on delphi?\u003C\u002Fp\u003E","\u003Cp\u003EHow to extend entity class in spring boot with kotlin?\u003C\u002Fp\u003E","\u003Cp\u003EHow to exclude subtotal price from total price in woocommerce?\u003C\u002Fp\u003E","Posted Links","Table of Contents","Trusted User","Active","Topics","General Settings","Moderate Threads","Authors","Members","Ask AI","Are you sure you want to delete this category?","Created","Your account was successfully confirmed","Forum Category Settings","List Users","Moderate Thread","New User","Model","Forum Settings","Role","Api Key","Query:","Edit Profile","Image","Title","Username","Update","New Ad","Ban","Export Data","Edit Category","New Category","Add a new menu link","My profile"));</script><script src="https://pub-420acf56315e422bbbdab07717bee8cd.r2.dev/assets/0.1/50d1395.js" defer></script><script src="https://pub-420acf56315e422bbbdab07717bee8cd.r2.dev/assets/0.1/498f8f7.js" defer></script><script src="https://pub-420acf56315e422bbbdab07717bee8cd.r2.dev/assets/0.1/fffc2dc.js" defer></script><script src="https://pub-420acf56315e422bbbdab07717bee8cd.r2.dev/assets/0.1/25d50b7.js" defer></script>
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