Congratulations!

[Valid RSS] This is a valid RSS feed.

Recommendations

This feed is valid, but interoperability with the widest range of feed readers could be improved by implementing the following recommendations.

Source: https://dailyyonder.com/feed/

  1. <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?><rss version="2.0"
  2. xmlns:content="http://purl.org/rss/1.0/modules/content/"
  3. xmlns:wfw="http://wellformedweb.org/CommentAPI/"
  4. xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/"
  5. xmlns:atom="http://www.w3.org/2005/Atom"
  6. xmlns:sy="http://purl.org/rss/1.0/modules/syndication/"
  7. xmlns:slash="http://purl.org/rss/1.0/modules/slash/"
  8. xmlns:georss="http://www.georss.org/georss"
  9. xmlns:geo="http://www.w3.org/2003/01/geo/wgs84_pos#"
  10. >
  11.  
  12. <channel>
  13. <title>The Daily Yonder</title>
  14. <atom:link href="https://dailyyonder.com/feed/" rel="self" type="application/rss+xml" />
  15. <link>https://dailyyonder.com/</link>
  16. <description>Rural News and Information</description>
  17. <lastBuildDate>Thu, 29 Feb 2024 14:32:06 +0000</lastBuildDate>
  18. <language>en-US</language>
  19. <sy:updatePeriod>
  20. hourly </sy:updatePeriod>
  21. <sy:updateFrequency>
  22. 1 </sy:updateFrequency>
  23.  
  24. <image>
  25. <url>https://dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2021/03/cropped-dy-wordmark-favicon-32x32.png</url>
  26. <title>The Daily Yonder</title>
  27. <link>https://dailyyonder.com/</link>
  28. <width>32</width>
  29. <height>32</height>
  30. </image>
  31. <item>
  32. <title>Manatee County’s Population Is Exploding. Will There Be Room Left for Rural?</title>
  33. <link>https://dailyyonder.com/manatee-countys-population-is-exploding-will-there-be-room-left-for-rural/2024/02/29/</link>
  34. <comments>https://dailyyonder.com/manatee-countys-population-is-exploding-will-there-be-room-left-for-rural/2024/02/29/#respond</comments>
  35. <dc:creator><![CDATA[Pat Raia]]></dc:creator>
  36. <pubDate>Thu, 29 Feb 2024 11:00:00 +0000</pubDate>
  37. <category><![CDATA[Growth and Development]]></category>
  38. <category><![CDATA[Wildlife]]></category>
  39. <guid isPermaLink="false">https://dailyyonder.com/?p=123482</guid>
  40.  
  41. <description><![CDATA[<figure><img width="1024" height="683" src="https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/6830182632_7030162548_k.jpg?fit=1024%2C683&amp;ssl=1" class="attachment-rss-image-size size-rss-image-size wp-post-image" alt="A green turtle nests on a beach" decoding="async" fetchpriority="high" srcset="https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/6830182632_7030162548_k.jpg?w=2048&amp;ssl=1 2048w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/6830182632_7030162548_k.jpg?resize=760%2C507&amp;ssl=1 760w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/6830182632_7030162548_k.jpg?resize=1296%2C864&amp;ssl=1 1296w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/6830182632_7030162548_k.jpg?resize=768%2C512&amp;ssl=1 768w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/6830182632_7030162548_k.jpg?resize=1536%2C1025&amp;ssl=1 1536w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/6830182632_7030162548_k.jpg?resize=1200%2C800&amp;ssl=1 1200w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/6830182632_7030162548_k.jpg?resize=1024%2C683&amp;ssl=1 1024w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/6830182632_7030162548_k.jpg?resize=600%2C400&amp;ssl=1 600w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/6830182632_7030162548_k.jpg?resize=1568%2C1046&amp;ssl=1 1568w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/6830182632_7030162548_k.jpg?resize=400%2C267&amp;ssl=1 400w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/6830182632_7030162548_k.jpg?resize=706%2C471&amp;ssl=1 706w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/6830182632_7030162548_k.jpg?fit=1024%2C683&amp;ssl=1&amp;w=370 370w" sizes="(max-width: 34.9rem) calc(100vw - 2rem), (max-width: 53rem) calc(8 * (100vw / 12)), (min-width: 53rem) calc(6 * (100vw / 12)), 100vw" /></figure>
  42. <p>Justin Mathews started cultivating his connection with wildlife when he became a master falconer at the tender age of 16. These days, the Manatee County, Florida, native mostly rescues wildlife, such as birds with plastic bags caught in their beaks or turtles that have collided with motorcars. Last time he counted them in 2021, Matthews [&#8230;]</p>
  43. <p>The post <a href="https://dailyyonder.com/manatee-countys-population-is-exploding-will-there-be-room-left-for-rural/2024/02/29/">Manatee County’s Population Is Exploding. Will There Be Room Left for Rural?</a> appeared first on <a href="https://dailyyonder.com">The Daily Yonder</a>.</p>
  44. ]]></description>
  45. <content:encoded><![CDATA[<figure><img width="1024" height="683" src="https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/6830182632_7030162548_k.jpg?fit=1024%2C683&amp;ssl=1" class="attachment-rss-image-size size-rss-image-size wp-post-image" alt="A green turtle nests on a beach" decoding="async" srcset="https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/6830182632_7030162548_k.jpg?w=2048&amp;ssl=1 2048w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/6830182632_7030162548_k.jpg?resize=760%2C507&amp;ssl=1 760w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/6830182632_7030162548_k.jpg?resize=1296%2C864&amp;ssl=1 1296w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/6830182632_7030162548_k.jpg?resize=768%2C512&amp;ssl=1 768w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/6830182632_7030162548_k.jpg?resize=1536%2C1025&amp;ssl=1 1536w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/6830182632_7030162548_k.jpg?resize=1200%2C800&amp;ssl=1 1200w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/6830182632_7030162548_k.jpg?resize=1024%2C683&amp;ssl=1 1024w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/6830182632_7030162548_k.jpg?resize=600%2C400&amp;ssl=1 600w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/6830182632_7030162548_k.jpg?resize=1568%2C1046&amp;ssl=1 1568w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/6830182632_7030162548_k.jpg?resize=400%2C267&amp;ssl=1 400w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/6830182632_7030162548_k.jpg?resize=706%2C471&amp;ssl=1 706w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/6830182632_7030162548_k.jpg?fit=1024%2C683&amp;ssl=1&amp;w=370 370w" sizes="(max-width: 34.9rem) calc(100vw - 2rem), (max-width: 53rem) calc(8 * (100vw / 12)), (min-width: 53rem) calc(6 * (100vw / 12)), 100vw" /></figure>
  46. <p>Justin Mathews started cultivating his connection with wildlife when he became a master falconer at the tender age of 16. These days, the Manatee County, Florida, native mostly rescues wildlife, such as birds with plastic bags caught in their beaks or turtles that have collided with motorcars.</p>
  47.  
  48.  
  49.  
  50. <p>Last time he counted them in 2021, Matthews says that he conducted more than 380 wildlife rescues.</p>
  51.  
  52.  
  53.  
  54. <p>“But I expect them to pick up soon,” he says.</p>
  55.  
  56.  
  57.  
  58. <p>That&#8217;s because since 2021 Manatee County and the rest of Florida has been experiencing a growth spurt that has turned rural small towns throughout the state into suburbia. From 2010 to 2021, the county’s population grew by 33% to 429,000. In December 2022, the agency declared Florida to be the fastest growing state in the nation.</p>
  59.  
  60.  
  61.  
  62. <p>All that growth has created massive development pressure that has spilled from the county’s population center on the Gulf Coast farther east into the traditionally rural interior of the county. The growth has made millionaires of farmers and others who sold acres of land to developers, who in turn built residential neighborhoods on ground that previously contained the habitat of the native wildlife.</p>
  63.  
  64.  
  65.  
  66. <p>It was also the home of the people who prized the natural environment and elbowroom.</p>
  67.  
  68.  
  69.  
  70. <p>Their habitat is shrinking, too, according to Gail Straight, who with her husband, Ed, founded Wildlife, Inc. a non-profit wildlife rescue and rehabilitation organization located on Anna Maria Island near Bradenton, Florida.</p>
  71.  
  72.  
  73.  
  74. <p>Not only has the growth seen the wholesale development of formerly open spaces, it has also become home to newcomers who have an entirely different attitude about sharing the neighborhood with the local wildlife.</p>
  75.  
  76.  
  77.  
  78. <p>“For example, we&#8217;re coming on turtle season, and we put up barriers so that people don&#8217;t walk in areas where turtles have laid their eggs,” Straight recalled. “I had one newcomer who complained that ‘&#8217;I pay taxes and I should be able to walk where I want.’”</p>
  79.  
  80.  
  81.  
  82. <p>Another recent resident asked Straight to “get rid of the raccoons and the coyotes because he wanted his two little dogs to be safe.”</p>
  83.  
  84.  
  85.  
  86. <p>“Not all the people who come here are like this,” Straight said. “But they keep building and there are no restrictions – there is not one legislator in the state who cares about the environment.”</p>
  87.  
  88.  
  89.  
  90. <p>One lawmaker disagrees.</p>
  91.  
  92.  
  93.  
  94. <p>In January, Florida State Representative Bobby Payne hosted a meeting of representatives of 28 of 31 the state&#8217;s rural counties to tap their opinions about what the Legislature could do to protect the environment, wildlife, and the best socioeconomic interests of the human residents there.</p>
  95.  
  96.  
  97.  
  98. <p>He says that the state of Florida has worked to safeguard the Florida Wildlife Corridor, strengthen habitats and allow native wildlife to move easily throughout the state, and to encourage the implementation of conservation easements for farmers and ranchers.</p>
  99.  
  100.  
  101.  
  102. <p>“These are the concerns of those who call rural communities home,” he said.</p>
  103.  
  104.  
  105.  
  106. <p>But that&#8217;s not always the case on the local level, said Straight. She and others claim that members of local Boards of County Commissioners are driven mostly by the revenue they might personally realize from by approving large-scale development.</p>
  107.  
  108.  
  109.  
  110. <p>Fraser Shilling, Ph.D., from the Road Ecology Center of the University of California at Davis maintains that it&#8217;s not that simple.</p>
  111.  
  112.  
  113.  
  114. <p>According to Shilling, local lawmakers may be in favor of growth not necessarily because developers are paying them to approve their projects, but because of the increase in the tax base or because they may have business interests that will benefit from growth.</p>
  115.  
  116.  
  117.  
  118. <p>“They all have other things that they do – and they may be in favor of what growth brings such as restaurants, shopping and other things,” Shilling said. “On the other side are rural residents who don&#8217;t want things to change – it&#8217;s an economic roller coaster.”</p>
  119.  
  120.  
  121.  
  122. <p>The trick is to strike a balance between colliding interests, and that is not easy for lawmakers who may not have even been in office when development plans were initially hatched.</p>
  123.  
  124.  
  125.  
  126. <p>“You can look at rural areas in Oregon or Florida or South Dakota &#8212; it&#8217;s happening everywhere &#8212; and the parcel subdivision of land, when owners of larger parcels of land sell them to developers, is the first step,” Shilling said. “It happens superstitiously because it takes time – as many as 20 years – and it&#8217;s not a harmless thing to develop land that has not been developed before because you lose things that will never come back such as wildlife habitat and rural life.”</p>
  127.  
  128.  
  129.  
  130. <p>Even so, the need to strike that balance will probably not go away.</p>
  131.  
  132.  
  133.  
  134. <p>Shilling said that while some of those who relocate from cities into largely rural communities are retired or at least approaching it, in the future new residents will probably be members of the millennial generation.</p>
  135.  
  136.  
  137.  
  138. <p>“There is the retirement trend – ‘I want my piece (two to five acres ) of paradise,’” he said. “And right now millennials are moving to urban areas for the employment opportunities, but they will experience a kind of &#8216;back-to-the-land&#8217; trend like the 1970s [and will] want the cheapest larger land parcels and their own food, their own power, their own water.”</p>
  139.  
  140.  
  141.  
  142. <p>That&#8217;s why Grant Fichter, president of Alva Strong which promotes environmentally responsible development in Lee County, Florida, believes it is critical for community residents and lawmakers to discuss land use and preservation right now.</p>
  143.  
  144.  
  145.  
  146. <p>“We need to have the discussions” Fichter said.&nbsp;</p>
  147.  
  148.  
  149.  
  150. <p>According to Fichter, those discussions should include requiring developers to take into account not only the current needs of humans and animal residents but address issues of density, infrastructure and cost that will maintain the area&#8217;s rural appeal to future residents whatever generation they represent.&nbsp;</p>
  151.  
  152.  
  153.  
  154. <p>“Right now, there is a very adversarial relationship between the local board and some of the people, but there is an opportunity to do (development) the right way if we would have community leaders come together and do what&#8217;s right for now and in the future,” he said. “The question is, &#8216;how do we maintain quality of life while we have new people joining the community?&#8217;”</p>
  155.  
  156.  
  157.  
  158. <p>In the meantime, Matthews teaches members of home-owners associations and even patrons of a landmark restaurant and bar about native wildlife and how to peacefully coexist with it.</p>
  159.  
  160.  
  161.  
  162. <p>“So I tell them that if they live near a pond, they are going to see an alligator, and that someday, they are going to be in their backyard and see a snake,” Matthews says. “Deal with it – they were here first.”</p>
  163. <p>The post <a href="https://dailyyonder.com/manatee-countys-population-is-exploding-will-there-be-room-left-for-rural/2024/02/29/">Manatee County’s Population Is Exploding. Will There Be Room Left for Rural?</a> appeared first on <a href="https://dailyyonder.com">The Daily Yonder</a>.</p>
  164. ]]></content:encoded>
  165. <wfw:commentRss>https://dailyyonder.com/manatee-countys-population-is-exploding-will-there-be-room-left-for-rural/2024/02/29/feed/</wfw:commentRss>
  166. <slash:comments>0</slash:comments>
  167. </item>
  168. <item>
  169. <title>Rural Students Navigate Frenzied FAFSA Rollout</title>
  170. <link>https://dailyyonder.com/rural-students-navigate-frenzied-fafsa-rollout/2024/02/29/</link>
  171. <comments>https://dailyyonder.com/rural-students-navigate-frenzied-fafsa-rollout/2024/02/29/#respond</comments>
  172. <dc:creator><![CDATA[Nick Fouriezos / Open Campus]]></dc:creator>
  173. <pubDate>Thu, 29 Feb 2024 10:58:00 +0000</pubDate>
  174. <category><![CDATA[Education]]></category>
  175. <category><![CDATA[Mile Markers]]></category>
  176. <category><![CDATA[repub]]></category>
  177. <guid isPermaLink="false">https://dailyyonder.com/?p=123589</guid>
  178.  
  179. <description><![CDATA[<figure><img width="1024" height="685" src="https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/tim-gouw-1K9T5YiZ2WU-unsplash.jpg?fit=1024%2C685&amp;ssl=1" class="attachment-rss-image-size size-rss-image-size wp-post-image" alt="" decoding="async" srcset="https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/tim-gouw-1K9T5YiZ2WU-unsplash.jpg?w=2048&amp;ssl=1 2048w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/tim-gouw-1K9T5YiZ2WU-unsplash.jpg?resize=760%2C508&amp;ssl=1 760w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/tim-gouw-1K9T5YiZ2WU-unsplash.jpg?resize=1296%2C866&amp;ssl=1 1296w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/tim-gouw-1K9T5YiZ2WU-unsplash.jpg?resize=768%2C513&amp;ssl=1 768w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/tim-gouw-1K9T5YiZ2WU-unsplash.jpg?resize=1536%2C1027&amp;ssl=1 1536w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/tim-gouw-1K9T5YiZ2WU-unsplash.jpg?resize=1200%2C802&amp;ssl=1 1200w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/tim-gouw-1K9T5YiZ2WU-unsplash.jpg?resize=1024%2C685&amp;ssl=1 1024w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/tim-gouw-1K9T5YiZ2WU-unsplash.jpg?resize=600%2C400&amp;ssl=1 600w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/tim-gouw-1K9T5YiZ2WU-unsplash.jpg?resize=1568%2C1048&amp;ssl=1 1568w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/tim-gouw-1K9T5YiZ2WU-unsplash.jpg?resize=400%2C267&amp;ssl=1 400w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/tim-gouw-1K9T5YiZ2WU-unsplash.jpg?resize=706%2C472&amp;ssl=1 706w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/tim-gouw-1K9T5YiZ2WU-unsplash.jpg?fit=1024%2C685&amp;ssl=1&amp;w=370 370w" sizes="(max-width: 34.9rem) calc(100vw - 2rem), (max-width: 53rem) calc(8 * (100vw / 12)), (min-width: 53rem) calc(6 * (100vw / 12)), 100vw" /></figure>
  180. <p>Editor’s Note: A version of this story first appeared in&#160;Mile Markers, a twice monthly newsletter from Open Campus about the role of colleges in rural America. You can&#160;join the mailing list at the bottom of this article&#160;to receive future editions in your inbox. Rural students have struggled in recent years to fill out the Free [&#8230;]</p>
  181. <p>The post <a href="https://dailyyonder.com/rural-students-navigate-frenzied-fafsa-rollout/2024/02/29/">Rural Students Navigate Frenzied FAFSA Rollout</a> appeared first on <a href="https://dailyyonder.com">The Daily Yonder</a>.</p>
  182. ]]></description>
  183. <content:encoded><![CDATA[<figure><img width="1024" height="685" src="https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/tim-gouw-1K9T5YiZ2WU-unsplash.jpg?fit=1024%2C685&amp;ssl=1" class="attachment-rss-image-size size-rss-image-size wp-post-image" alt="" decoding="async" srcset="https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/tim-gouw-1K9T5YiZ2WU-unsplash.jpg?w=2048&amp;ssl=1 2048w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/tim-gouw-1K9T5YiZ2WU-unsplash.jpg?resize=760%2C508&amp;ssl=1 760w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/tim-gouw-1K9T5YiZ2WU-unsplash.jpg?resize=1296%2C866&amp;ssl=1 1296w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/tim-gouw-1K9T5YiZ2WU-unsplash.jpg?resize=768%2C513&amp;ssl=1 768w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/tim-gouw-1K9T5YiZ2WU-unsplash.jpg?resize=1536%2C1027&amp;ssl=1 1536w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/tim-gouw-1K9T5YiZ2WU-unsplash.jpg?resize=1200%2C802&amp;ssl=1 1200w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/tim-gouw-1K9T5YiZ2WU-unsplash.jpg?resize=1024%2C685&amp;ssl=1 1024w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/tim-gouw-1K9T5YiZ2WU-unsplash.jpg?resize=600%2C400&amp;ssl=1 600w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/tim-gouw-1K9T5YiZ2WU-unsplash.jpg?resize=1568%2C1048&amp;ssl=1 1568w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/tim-gouw-1K9T5YiZ2WU-unsplash.jpg?resize=400%2C267&amp;ssl=1 400w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/tim-gouw-1K9T5YiZ2WU-unsplash.jpg?resize=706%2C472&amp;ssl=1 706w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/tim-gouw-1K9T5YiZ2WU-unsplash.jpg?fit=1024%2C685&amp;ssl=1&amp;w=370 370w" sizes="(max-width: 34.9rem) calc(100vw - 2rem), (max-width: 53rem) calc(8 * (100vw / 12)), (min-width: 53rem) calc(6 * (100vw / 12)), 100vw" /></figure>
  184. <p style="font-size:14px"><em>Editor’s Note: A version of this story first appeared in&nbsp;<strong>Mile Markers</strong>, a twice monthly newsletter from Open Campus about the role of colleges in rural America. You can&nbsp;</em><a href="#signup"><em>join the mailing list at the bottom of this article</em></a><em>&nbsp;to receive future editions in your inbox.</em></p>
  185.  
  186.  
  187.  
  188. <p>Rural students have struggled in recent years to fill out the Free Application for Student Aid, a key indicator for college-going among high schoolers.</p>
  189.  
  190.  
  191.  
  192. <p>This year has been even more difficult than usual for students across the board. The new FAFSA — shortened to just 36 questions as part of the FAFSA Simplification Act in 2020 — didn’t come out until the end of December, as opposed to October, as is typical.&nbsp;</p>
  193.  
  194.  
  195.  
  196. <p>A month later, the Education Department announced it needed to make adjustments to take the latest inflation data into account, meaning colleges won’t receive them until the first half of March at the earliest.&nbsp;</p>
  197.  
  198.  
  199.  
  200. <p>Mixed-status families currently <a href="https://flight.beehiiv.net/v2/clicks/eyJhbGciOiJIUzI1NiIsInR5cCI6IkpXVCJ9.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.McH-oVUJ_We-NZgdhiyY56V7Awu4OXW5oCBZ-newlO4" target="_blank" rel="noreferrer noopener">can’t </a><a href="https://www.opencampusmedia.org/2024/02/01/glitch-in-financial-aid-form-is-keeping-students-with-immigrant-parents-from-applying-for-college-grants/?utm_source=mile-markers.beehiiv.com&amp;utm_medium=referral&amp;utm_campaign=rural-students-and-the-messy-fafsa-rollout" target="_blank" rel="noreferrer noopener">even</a><a href="https://flight.beehiiv.net/v2/clicks/eyJhbGciOiJIUzI1NiIsInR5cCI6IkpXVCJ9.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.McH-oVUJ_We-NZgdhiyY56V7Awu4OXW5oCBZ-newlO4" target="_blank" rel="noreferrer noopener"> complete the form online</a>, which is required to access federal financial aid. And submission rates for this year so far are <a href="https://www.opencampusmedia.org/2024/02/09/the-dispatch-fafsa-turmoil-continues-across-the-country/?utm_source=mile-markers.beehiiv.com&amp;utm_medium=referral&amp;utm_campaign=rural-students-and-the-messy-fafsa-rollout" target="_blank" rel="noreferrer noopener">57% lower</a> than 2023, according to the National College Attainment Network. </p>
  201.  
  202.  
  203.  
  204. <p>That led to a significant outcry from legislators, with 107 lawmakers recently <a href="https://www.help.senate.gov/chair/newsroom/press/news-sanders-murray-scott-and-106-colleagues-urge-department-of-education-to-address-fafsa-rollout-issues?utm_source=mile-markers.beehiiv.com&amp;utm_medium=referral&amp;utm_campaign=rural-students-and-the-messy-fafsa-rollout" target="_blank" rel="noreferrer noopener">penning a letter to the Department of Education</a> noting that those delays “will most impact the students that need aid most,” including “students from rural backgrounds,” among others. </p>
  205.  
  206.  
  207.  
  208. <p>How will rural students be affected by the FAFSA changes and delays?</p>
  209.  
  210.  
  211.  
  212. <h4 class="wp-block-heading"><strong>1. Students considering selective schools will be affected most</strong></h4>
  213.  
  214.  
  215.  
  216. <p>Some colleges, including the University of Virginia, Oregon State and Kent State in Ohio, have moved back their enrollment deadlines because of the FAFSA issues. That may help some rural students that are considering four-year universities, giving them more time to weigh their financial choices after learning if they qualify for Pell Grants and federal loans to help pay their tuition.&nbsp;</p>
  217.  
  218.  
  219.  
  220. <p>However, rural students have historically had fewer educational resources and support to help them navigate the tricky application process, and are also less likely to have parents who graduated college and can help them.</p>
  221.  
  222.  
  223.  
  224. <p>It’s a challenge Evelyn Irigoyen-Aguierre, an advisor at Garden City High in Kansas, often sees with her students, many of whom are first-generation Mexican Americans like herself and have few people to turn to for help: “From my family, friendships, my relationships, the support wasn’t there,” she <a href="https://www.opencampusmedia.org/2023/05/03/in-west-kansas-family-and-college-collide/?utm_source=mile-markers.beehiiv.com&amp;utm_medium=referral&amp;utm_campaign=rural-students-and-the-messy-fafsa-rollout" target="_blank" rel="noreferrer noopener">told me last year</a>.</p>
  225.  
  226.  
  227.  
  228. <p>Even with the possibility of some timelines being extended, these delays could make the application process even more complicated at a time when many rural students already grapple with whether pursuing a degree is worth the cost.</p>
  229.  
  230.  
  231.  
  232. <h4 class="wp-block-heading"><strong>2. The rural trend toward community colleges may limit the damage</strong></h4>
  233.  
  234.  
  235.  
  236. <p>Juniors and seniors at rural high schools are <a href="https://www.edweek.org/education/nearly-one-in-five-u-s-students-attend-rural-schools-heres-what-you-should-know-about-them/2019/11?utm_source=mile-markers.beehiiv.com&amp;utm_medium=referral&amp;utm_campaign=rural-students-and-the-messy-fafsa-rollout" target="_blank" rel="noreferrer noopener">more likely to take dual-enrollment courses</a> and are <a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC10199298/?utm_source=mile-markers.beehiiv.com&amp;utm_medium=referral&amp;utm_campaign=rural-students-and-the-messy-fafsa-rollout#:~:text=Estimates%20show%20that%20rural%20students,52%25)." target="_blank" rel="noreferrer noopener">more likely to graduate high school</a> than their non-rural peers. Still, <a href="https://flight.beehiiv.net/v2/clicks/eyJhbGciOiJIUzI1NiIsInR5cCI6IkpXVCJ9.eyJ1cmwiOiJodHRwczovL3d3dy5uY2JpLm5sbS5uaWguZ292L3BtYy9hcnRpY2xlcy9QTUMxMDE5OTI5OC8_dXRtX3NvdXJjZT1taWxlLW1hcmtlcnMuYmVlaGlpdi5jb20mdXRtX21lZGl1bT1yZWZlcnJhbCZ1dG1fY2FtcGFpZ249cnVyYWwtc3R1ZGVudHMtYW5kLXRoZS1tZXNzeS1mYWZzYS1yb2xsb3V0Izp-OnRleHQ9RXN0aW1hdGVzJTIwc2hvdyUyMHRoYXQlMjBydXJhbCUyMHN0dWRlbnRzLDUyJTI1KS4iLCJwb3N0X2lkIjoiYjc1ZmE1ZjgtMzI2MC00YTdiLTlkNmQtMWQxZjllMTk3ZDVjIiwicHVibGljYXRpb25faWQiOiJhNjc2MTVhZi0xN2Q4LTQ3NGEtODA0MS02OWNkNTg1ZjAwN2MiLCJ2aXNpdF90b2tlbiI6Ijc4ZmZmNjdmLTY1NTItNGZjMS1hMzYxLWJjZTBhMzJkNWVkNyIsImlhdCI6MTcwODM1NDYwNCwiaXNzIjoib3JjaGlkIn0.Yx9Un5BSFcQb1VWA8rDRYh-WPXqXWtb-COiFWrxxVJA" target="_blank" rel="noreferrer noopener">studies</a> have repeatedly shown that rural students are less likely to attend <a href="https://www.edweek.org/leadership/rural-students-less-likely-to-attend-four-year-private-or-selective-colleges/2014/04?utm_source=mile-markers.beehiiv.com&amp;utm_medium=referral&amp;utm_campaign=rural-students-and-the-messy-fafsa-rollout" target="_blank" rel="noreferrer noopener">four-year universities</a>. </p>
  237.  
  238.  
  239.  
  240. <p>Rural students considering community colleges likely won’t be as impacted by the FAFSA delays. Two-year schools tend to have rolling application deadlines, which leads many students to wait until June or even July to enroll anyway.</p>
  241.  
  242.  
  243.  
  244. <p>“Our students might not feel as much of a pinch as the students applying to selective schools, where there is a deadline to decide,” says Jody Burchett, a senior financial aid officer at Zane State College in the Appalachian region of southwest Ohio.&nbsp;</p>
  245.  
  246.  
  247.  
  248. <p>Rural community colleges may also have more flexibility to help their students in ways larger institutions may not. While other colleges may make completing the FAFSA a pre-condition for applying for institutional aid, Zane State can offer students certain book and tuition scholarships regardless of Pell eligibility.</p>
  249.  
  250.  
  251.  
  252. <p>That individual touch may appeal to students who were already worried about paying for a four-year university, and may not want to wait for FAFSA aid to make a decision about their plans for the fall.&nbsp;</p>
  253.  
  254.  
  255.  
  256. <p>“Since we are small, we have the ability to move with where there is need,” Burchett says.</p>
  257.  
  258.  
  259.  
  260. <h4 class="wp-block-heading"><strong>3. Farm families can set some of their fears aside</strong></h4>
  261.  
  262.  
  263.  
  264. <p>When I wrote about the <a href="https://www.opencampusmedia.org/2023/04/20/will-fafsa-farm-rule-hurt-rural-students/?utm_source=mile-markers.beehiiv.com&amp;utm_medium=referral&amp;utm_campaign=rural-students-and-the-messy-fafsa-rollout" target="_blank" rel="noreferrer noopener">FAFSA changes last April</a>, there were significant concerns that many rural students would be ineligible for federal financial aid due to the elimination of an exemption for farming and small business income.</p>
  265.  
  266.  
  267.  
  268. <p>In response, FAFSA administrators <a href="https://faaaccess.ed.gov/fotw2324/help/faahelp70.htm?utm_source=mile-markers.beehiiv.com&amp;utm_medium=referral&amp;utm_campaign=rural-students-and-the-messy-fafsa-rollout" target="_blank" rel="noreferrer noopener">have since clarified</a> that only income from “investment farms” should be included in those calculations, adding that students won’t need to report “the value of a family farm that the student’s parents live on and operate.”  </p>
  269.  
  270.  
  271.  
  272. <p>There are more than 2 million family farms in the United States, and only about 5% of them make more than $1 million in revenue. Without the clarification, rural students may have been forced to report tractors and other farm recruitment as assets, despite the fact that those materials can’t easily be sold to pay for their college costs.</p>
  273.  
  274.  
  275.  
  276. <p>While there still may be a more concrete legislative fix needed in the future, that clarification “is a good approach to preserving the pathway to college for students living on family farms,” says Frank Ballmann, federal relations director at the National Association of State Student Grant &amp; Aid programs, which lobbied for the fix.</p>
  277.  
  278.  
  279.  
  280. <h4 class="wp-block-heading"><strong>4. The new FAFSA&nbsp;</strong><em><strong>should&nbsp;</strong></em><strong>help rural students in the long run</strong></h4>
  281.  
  282.  
  283.  
  284. <p>While there have been some major growing pangs, most educators believe the FAFSA changes will benefit students over time if it ends up being easier to complete.</p>
  285.  
  286.  
  287.  
  288. <p>“When you’re trying to take on something this big, there are going to be delays, there are going to be bugs, so we understand,” says Terry Baldwin, chief financial officer for Zane State.</p>
  289.  
  290.  
  291.  
  292. <hr class="wp-block-separator has-alpha-channel-opacity"/>
  293.  
  294.  
  295.  
  296. <div id="signup" class="wp-block-group has-light-gray-background-color has-background is-layout-flow wp-block-group-is-layout-flow"><div class="wp-block-group__inner-container">
  297. <div style="height:1px" aria-hidden="true" class="wp-block-spacer"></div>
  298.  
  299.  
  300.  
  301. <div class="wp-block-columns is-layout-flex wp-container-core-columns-layout-1 wp-block-columns-is-layout-flex">
  302. <div class="wp-block-column is-layout-flow wp-block-column-is-layout-flow" style="flex-basis:40%">
  303. <figure class="wp-block-image size-full"><img decoding="async" width="780" height="780" src="https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2021/12/mile-markers-higher-ed-newsletter-logo.png?resize=780%2C780&#038;ssl=1" alt="" class="wp-image-84653" srcset="https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2021/12/mile-markers-higher-ed-newsletter-logo.png?w=800&amp;ssl=1 800w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2021/12/mile-markers-higher-ed-newsletter-logo.png?resize=760%2C760&amp;ssl=1 760w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2021/12/mile-markers-higher-ed-newsletter-logo.png?resize=150%2C150&amp;ssl=1 150w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2021/12/mile-markers-higher-ed-newsletter-logo.png?resize=768%2C768&amp;ssl=1 768w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2021/12/mile-markers-higher-ed-newsletter-logo.png?resize=400%2C400&amp;ssl=1 400w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2021/12/mile-markers-higher-ed-newsletter-logo.png?resize=200%2C200&amp;ssl=1 200w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2021/12/mile-markers-higher-ed-newsletter-logo.png?resize=300%2C300&amp;ssl=1 300w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2021/12/mile-markers-higher-ed-newsletter-logo.png?resize=706%2C706&amp;ssl=1 706w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2021/12/mile-markers-higher-ed-newsletter-logo.png?resize=100%2C100&amp;ssl=1 100w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2021/12/mile-markers-higher-ed-newsletter-logo.png?w=370&amp;ssl=1 370w" sizes="(max-width: 780px) 100vw, 780px" data-recalc-dims="1" /></figure>
  304. </div>
  305.  
  306.  
  307.  
  308. <div class="wp-block-column is-layout-flow wp-block-column-is-layout-flow" style="flex-basis:60%">
  309. <p>This article first appeared in <strong>Mile Markers</strong>, a twice monthly newsletter from <a href="https://www.opencampusmedia.org/">Open Campus</a> about the role of colleges in rural America.&nbsp;<a href="https://www.opencampusmedia.org/category/newsletters/mile-markers/" target="_blank" rel="noreferrer noopener">Join the mailing list today</a> to have future editions delivered to your inbox.</p>
  310.  
  311.  
  312.  
  313. <div class="wp-block-buttons is-layout-flex wp-block-buttons-is-layout-flex">
  314. <div class="wp-block-button has-custom-width wp-block-button__width-100"><a class="wp-block-button__link has-white-color has-text-color has-background wp-element-button" href="https://www.opencampusmedia.org/category/newsletters/mile-markers/" style="background-color:#022b4e" target="_blank" rel="noreferrer noopener">Get Mile Markers</a></div>
  315. </div>
  316. </div>
  317. </div>
  318. </div></div>
  319.  
  320.  
  321.  
  322. <hr class="wp-block-separator has-alpha-channel-opacity is-style-dots"/>
  323. <p>The post <a href="https://dailyyonder.com/rural-students-navigate-frenzied-fafsa-rollout/2024/02/29/">Rural Students Navigate Frenzied FAFSA Rollout</a> appeared first on <a href="https://dailyyonder.com">The Daily Yonder</a>.</p>
  324. ]]></content:encoded>
  325. <wfw:commentRss>https://dailyyonder.com/rural-students-navigate-frenzied-fafsa-rollout/2024/02/29/feed/</wfw:commentRss>
  326. <slash:comments>0</slash:comments>
  327. </item>
  328. <item>
  329. <title>Trump Wins Michigan with Slightly Greater Support in Rural Areas and Suburbs</title>
  330. <link>https://dailyyonder.com/trump-wins-michigan-with-slightly-greater-support-in-rural-areas-and-suburbs/2024/02/28/</link>
  331. <comments>https://dailyyonder.com/trump-wins-michigan-with-slightly-greater-support-in-rural-areas-and-suburbs/2024/02/28/#respond</comments>
  332. <dc:creator><![CDATA[Tim Marema]]></dc:creator>
  333. <pubDate>Wed, 28 Feb 2024 15:12:23 +0000</pubDate>
  334. <category><![CDATA[Rural Voters]]></category>
  335. <category><![CDATA[data]]></category>
  336. <guid isPermaLink="false">https://dailyyonder.com/?p=123992</guid>
  337.  
  338. <description><![CDATA[<figure><img width="1024" height="559" src="https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/michigan-rural-vote-primary-2024.jpg?fit=1024%2C559&amp;ssl=1" class="attachment-rss-image-size size-rss-image-size wp-post-image" alt="" decoding="async" srcset="https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/michigan-rural-vote-primary-2024.jpg?w=1113&amp;ssl=1 1113w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/michigan-rural-vote-primary-2024.jpg?resize=760%2C415&amp;ssl=1 760w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/michigan-rural-vote-primary-2024.jpg?resize=768%2C420&amp;ssl=1 768w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/michigan-rural-vote-primary-2024.jpg?resize=1024%2C559&amp;ssl=1 1024w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/michigan-rural-vote-primary-2024.jpg?resize=400%2C219&amp;ssl=1 400w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/michigan-rural-vote-primary-2024.jpg?resize=706%2C386&amp;ssl=1 706w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/michigan-rural-vote-primary-2024.jpg?fit=1024%2C559&amp;ssl=1&amp;w=370 370w" sizes="(max-width: 34.9rem) calc(100vw - 2rem), (max-width: 53rem) calc(8 * (100vw / 12)), (min-width: 53rem) calc(6 * (100vw / 12)), 100vw" /></figure>
  339. <p>Donald Trump’s victory in Michigan echoed some of the themes from his South Carolina win – strong rural support, coupled with popularity among voters in suburbs and small metropolitan areas.</p>
  340. <p>The post <a href="https://dailyyonder.com/trump-wins-michigan-with-slightly-greater-support-in-rural-areas-and-suburbs/2024/02/28/">Trump Wins Michigan with Slightly Greater Support in Rural Areas and Suburbs</a> appeared first on <a href="https://dailyyonder.com">The Daily Yonder</a>.</p>
  341. ]]></description>
  342. <content:encoded><![CDATA[<figure><img width="1024" height="559" src="https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/michigan-rural-vote-primary-2024.jpg?fit=1024%2C559&amp;ssl=1" class="attachment-rss-image-size size-rss-image-size wp-post-image" alt="" decoding="async" srcset="https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/michigan-rural-vote-primary-2024.jpg?w=1113&amp;ssl=1 1113w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/michigan-rural-vote-primary-2024.jpg?resize=760%2C415&amp;ssl=1 760w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/michigan-rural-vote-primary-2024.jpg?resize=768%2C420&amp;ssl=1 768w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/michigan-rural-vote-primary-2024.jpg?resize=1024%2C559&amp;ssl=1 1024w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/michigan-rural-vote-primary-2024.jpg?resize=400%2C219&amp;ssl=1 400w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/michigan-rural-vote-primary-2024.jpg?resize=706%2C386&amp;ssl=1 706w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/michigan-rural-vote-primary-2024.jpg?fit=1024%2C559&amp;ssl=1&amp;w=370 370w" sizes="(max-width: 34.9rem) calc(100vw - 2rem), (max-width: 53rem) calc(8 * (100vw / 12)), (min-width: 53rem) calc(6 * (100vw / 12)), 100vw" /></figure>
  343. <p>Donald Trump won the Michigan primary with widespread support across the state, with slightly higher margins in rural areas and the suburbs of metropolitan areas, according to a Daily Yonder analysis.</p>
  344.  
  345.  
  346.  
  347. <p>The results were a soft echo of former President Trump’s performance in the <a href="https://dailyyonder.com/in-s-c-trump-draws-largest-support-from-rural-areas-and-suburbs/2024/02/25/">South Carolina primary</a> on Saturday, in which he polled strongest among suburban and rural voters.</p>
  348.  
  349.  
  350.  
  351. <p>In Michigan, Trump defeated former South Carolina Governor Nikki Haley by 3 to 1 (77% to 23%) in the state’s 50 rural (nonmetropolitan) counties. These voters represented 25% of the turnout in Tuesday’s primary.</p>
  352.  
  353.  
  354.  
  355. <p>He did nearly as well in the state’s small metropolitan areas, which include eight counties and 12% of the turnout. Cities in these small metropolitan areas are Battle Creek, Jackson, Midland, Monroe, Muskegon, Saginaw, Bay City, and Nile-Benton Harbor.</p>
  356.  
  357.  
  358.  
  359. <p>Trump also received over 70% of the two-candidate vote in the suburbs of major metropolitan areas (Detroit and Grand Rapids) and medium-sized metropolitan areas (Lansing, Flint, Kalamazoo, Ann Arbor, and South Bend, Indiana).&nbsp;</p>
  360.  
  361.  
  362.  
  363. <p>Voters in the Grand Rapids and Detroit metropolitan areas constituted nearly two-thirds of the turnout. Voters in small metropolitan areas were 12% of the electorate on Tuesday.</p>
  364.  
  365.  
  366.  
  367. <h2 class="wp-block-heading">Definitions</h2>
  368.  
  369.  
  370.  
  371. <p><em>The Daily Yonder analysis uses the 2013 Office of Management and Budget Metropolitan Statistical Areas to define rural.</em></p>
  372.  
  373.  
  374.  
  375. <ul>
  376. <li><em>We define counties that are not located within a metropolitan area as rural. Under the OMB’s 2013 system, nonmetropolitan counties don’t have a city of 50,000 or greater and don’t have close economic ties to a county that does have a city of 50,000 or greater.</em></li>
  377.  
  378.  
  379.  
  380. <li><em>Major metropolitan suburbs are the outlying counties of metros with a population of over 1 million.</em></li>
  381.  
  382.  
  383.  
  384. <li><em>Medium-sized metropolitan core counties are the central counties of metros with a population of 250,000 to under 1 million.</em></li>
  385.  
  386.  
  387.  
  388. <li><em>Medium-sized metropolitan suburbs are the outlying counties of metros with a population of 250,000 to under 1 million. </em></li>
  389.  
  390.  
  391.  
  392. <li><em>Small metropolitan areas include all counties in metros of fewer than 250,000 residents.</em></li>
  393. </ul>
  394. <p>The post <a href="https://dailyyonder.com/trump-wins-michigan-with-slightly-greater-support-in-rural-areas-and-suburbs/2024/02/28/">Trump Wins Michigan with Slightly Greater Support in Rural Areas and Suburbs</a> appeared first on <a href="https://dailyyonder.com">The Daily Yonder</a>.</p>
  395. ]]></content:encoded>
  396. <wfw:commentRss>https://dailyyonder.com/trump-wins-michigan-with-slightly-greater-support-in-rural-areas-and-suburbs/2024/02/28/feed/</wfw:commentRss>
  397. <slash:comments>0</slash:comments>
  398. </item>
  399. <item>
  400. <title>As Covid-19 Emergency Funding Dries Up, Some Rural Schools May Face Steep Fiscal Cliff in 2024</title>
  401. <link>https://dailyyonder.com/as-covid-19-emergency-funding-dries-up-some-rural-schools-may-face-steep-fiscal-cliff-in-2024/2024/02/28/</link>
  402. <comments>https://dailyyonder.com/as-covid-19-emergency-funding-dries-up-some-rural-schools-may-face-steep-fiscal-cliff-in-2024/2024/02/28/#respond</comments>
  403. <dc:creator><![CDATA[Lane Wendell Fischer]]></dc:creator>
  404. <pubDate>Wed, 28 Feb 2024 11:00:00 +0000</pubDate>
  405. <category><![CDATA[Education]]></category>
  406. <category><![CDATA[Yonder Report]]></category>
  407. <guid isPermaLink="false">https://dailyyonder.com/?p=123595</guid>
  408.  
  409. <description><![CDATA[<figure><img width="1024" height="683" src="https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/rural-covid-funding-cliff.png?fit=1024%2C683&amp;ssl=1" class="attachment-rss-image-size size-rss-image-size wp-post-image" alt="" decoding="async" srcset="https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/rural-covid-funding-cliff.png?w=1140&amp;ssl=1 1140w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/rural-covid-funding-cliff.png?resize=760%2C507&amp;ssl=1 760w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/rural-covid-funding-cliff.png?resize=768%2C512&amp;ssl=1 768w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/rural-covid-funding-cliff.png?resize=1024%2C683&amp;ssl=1 1024w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/rural-covid-funding-cliff.png?resize=600%2C400&amp;ssl=1 600w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/rural-covid-funding-cliff.png?resize=400%2C267&amp;ssl=1 400w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/rural-covid-funding-cliff.png?resize=706%2C471&amp;ssl=1 706w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/rural-covid-funding-cliff.png?fit=1024%2C683&amp;ssl=1&amp;w=370 370w" sizes="(max-width: 34.9rem) calc(100vw - 2rem), (max-width: 53rem) calc(8 * (100vw / 12)), (min-width: 53rem) calc(6 * (100vw / 12)), 100vw" /></figure>
  410. <p>Lower-income districts are likely to face bigger budget reductions, along with districts who spent relief aid on teacher salaries and new faculty hires.</p>
  411. <p>The post <a href="https://dailyyonder.com/as-covid-19-emergency-funding-dries-up-some-rural-schools-may-face-steep-fiscal-cliff-in-2024/2024/02/28/">As Covid-19 Emergency Funding Dries Up, Some Rural Schools May Face Steep Fiscal Cliff in 2024</a> appeared first on <a href="https://dailyyonder.com">The Daily Yonder</a>.</p>
  412. ]]></description>
  413. <content:encoded><![CDATA[<figure><img width="1024" height="683" src="https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/rural-covid-funding-cliff.png?fit=1024%2C683&amp;ssl=1" class="attachment-rss-image-size size-rss-image-size wp-post-image" alt="" decoding="async" srcset="https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/rural-covid-funding-cliff.png?w=1140&amp;ssl=1 1140w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/rural-covid-funding-cliff.png?resize=760%2C507&amp;ssl=1 760w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/rural-covid-funding-cliff.png?resize=768%2C512&amp;ssl=1 768w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/rural-covid-funding-cliff.png?resize=1024%2C683&amp;ssl=1 1024w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/rural-covid-funding-cliff.png?resize=600%2C400&amp;ssl=1 600w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/rural-covid-funding-cliff.png?resize=400%2C267&amp;ssl=1 400w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/rural-covid-funding-cliff.png?resize=706%2C471&amp;ssl=1 706w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/rural-covid-funding-cliff.png?fit=1024%2C683&amp;ssl=1&amp;w=370 370w" sizes="(max-width: 34.9rem) calc(100vw - 2rem), (max-width: 53rem) calc(8 * (100vw / 12)), (min-width: 53rem) calc(6 * (100vw / 12)), 100vw" /></figure>
  414. <p>Some rural school districts — particularly those with greater poverty levels — are set to face steep budget reductions when Covid-19 emergency funding closes this September.</p>
  415.  
  416.  
  417.  
  418. <p>To offset the effects of Covid-19 on public education, the federal government issued historic amounts of pandemic relief aid through the Elementary and Secondary School Emergency Relief Fund (ESSER) to states and districts across the country beginning in March 2020.</p>
  419.  
  420.  
  421.  
  422. <p>Over the past several years, the public school system has had access to nearly $190 billion, which states and districts have spent on a variety of needs including technology, transportation, school infrastructure, mental health support, after-school programing, tutoring, faculty training and increased staffing.</p>
  423.  
  424.  
  425.  
  426. <p>But by the end of September 2024, the relief aid will end indefinitely, leaving districts to operate with significantly smaller budgets.</p>
  427.  
  428.  
  429.  
  430. <p>According to an <a href="https://www.future-ed.org/covid-aid-spending-trends-by-city-suburban-rural-school-districts/">analysis</a> from FutureEd, rural districts accessed an average of $5.7 million dollars in aid in the final wave of ESSER funding. While amounts vary, this means the average rural district may face a budget reduction of roughly $2,000 per student.</p>
  431.  
  432.  
  433.  
  434. <p>And the cliff gets even <a href="https://www.brookings.edu/articles/the-esser-fiscal-cliff-will-have-serious-implications-for-student-equity/?utm_campaign=Brown%20Center%20Newsletter&amp;utm_medium=email&amp;utm_content=273973450&amp;utm_source=hs_email">steeper</a> for rural districts serving high-needs students. One in every 7 students in rural America <a href="https://wsos-cdn.s3.us-west-2.amazonaws.com/uploads/sites/18/WRMReport2023_DIGITAL.pdf">experiences poverty</a>. Rural districts with greater poverty levels received more ESSER funds on average, and thus face larger reductions.&nbsp;</p>
  435.  
  436.  
  437.  
  438. <p>How school districts spent ESSER funds determines how easily they’ll navigate the fiscal cliff, said Lori Taylor, an economist and K-12 education finance expert at Texas A&amp;M University.</p>
  439.  
  440.  
  441.  
  442. <p>“The federal government basically said that these were supposed to be one-time funds,” she said in an interview with the Daily Yonder. “A lot of folks spent as if they were going to be a permanent addition to their budget.”</p>
  443.  
  444.  
  445.  
  446. <h3 class="wp-block-heading"><strong>How Rural Schools Planned to Spend Covid-19 Relief Funds</strong></h3>
  447.  
  448.  
  449.  
  450. <p>According to a data analysis from Bella DiMarco and Phyllis W. Jordan at FutureEd, rural schools planned on spending their funds on a mixture of one-time purchases and recurring expenses.</p>
  451.  
  452.  
  453.  
  454. <p>Much like other geographic settings, 48% of rural schools planned on investing their third round of ESSER aid on upgrading their heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC), including one rural school district in <a href="https://www.future-ed.org/covid-aid-spending-trends-by-city-suburban-rural-school-districts/">Maine</a> who “plans to spend half its ESSER III allotment, about $1.3 million, to instal a mechanical HVAC system in one of its four schools that previously did not have a system throughout the building.”</p>
  455.  
  456.  
  457.  
  458. <p>Additionally, 33% of rural schools planned to spend their round three aid on transportation, and 39% on instructional materials.</p>
  459.  
  460.  
  461.  
  462. <p>Schools who spend their ESSER money on these one-time purchases will have an easier time facing the upcoming budget decreases this fall.</p>
  463.  
  464.  
  465.  
  466. <p>But many rural schools also planned to invest their ESSER funds on recurring expenses like school staffing and after school or summer programming.</p>
  467.  
  468.  
  469.  
  470. <p>Almost half of all districts from any geographic setting planned to spend relief aid on hiring and paying teachers and academic staff.&nbsp;</p>
  471.  
  472.  
  473.  
  474. <p>“Rural districts, in general, face more staffing challenges,” DiMarco told the Daily Yonder. “If districts have been using ESSER funds to hold onto staff, paying salaries, or even bonuses … they going to run into that issue of ‘what happens when the money runs out?’”</p>
  475.  
  476.  
  477.  
  478. <p>To support student mental health during the pandemic, many schools planned to hire psychologists and mental health staff. Forty one percent of urban districts and 40% suburban districts planned to hire mental health staff, while only 28% of rural districts reported investing in these new staff.</p>
  479.  
  480.  
  481.  
  482. <figure class="wp-block-image size-large"><img decoding="async" width="780" height="530" src="https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/Mental-Health-3-scaled-1.jpg?resize=780%2C530&#038;ssl=1" alt="" class="wp-image-123599" srcset="https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/Mental-Health-3-scaled-1-scaled.jpg?resize=1296%2C880&amp;ssl=1 1296w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/Mental-Health-3-scaled-1-scaled.jpg?resize=760%2C516&amp;ssl=1 760w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/Mental-Health-3-scaled-1-scaled.jpg?resize=768%2C521&amp;ssl=1 768w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/Mental-Health-3-scaled-1-scaled.jpg?resize=1536%2C1043&amp;ssl=1 1536w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/Mental-Health-3-scaled-1-scaled.jpg?resize=2048%2C1390&amp;ssl=1 2048w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/Mental-Health-3-scaled-1-scaled.jpg?resize=1200%2C815&amp;ssl=1 1200w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/Mental-Health-3-scaled-1-scaled.jpg?resize=1024%2C695&amp;ssl=1 1024w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/Mental-Health-3-scaled-1-scaled.jpg?resize=1568%2C1064&amp;ssl=1 1568w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/Mental-Health-3-scaled-1-scaled.jpg?resize=400%2C272&amp;ssl=1 400w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/Mental-Health-3-scaled-1-scaled.jpg?resize=706%2C479&amp;ssl=1 706w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/Mental-Health-3-scaled-1-scaled.jpg?w=2340&amp;ssl=1 2340w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/Mental-Health-3-scaled-1-1296x880.jpg?w=370&amp;ssl=1 370w" sizes="(max-width: 780px) 100vw, 780px" data-recalc-dims="1" /><figcaption class="wp-element-caption">Rural districts were less likely to plan for spending in areas for student and family support. A lack of mental health professionals in rural areas may help explain part of this gap. (Source: <a href="https://www.future-ed.org/covid-aid-spending-trends-by-city-suburban-rural-school-districts/">FutureEd</a>)</figcaption></figure>
  483.  
  484.  
  485.  
  486. <p>Allen Pratt, executive director for the National Rural Education Association told FutureEd that many rural areas lack mental health professionals, preventing many schools from even considering this option.&nbsp;</p>
  487.  
  488.  
  489.  
  490. <p>Schools who did expand their mental health offerings may be faced with tough decisions when their budgets shrink this fall, and they are no longer able to afford the extra support staff.</p>
  491.  
  492.  
  493.  
  494. <p>When districts are in crisis mode, they are making decisions to get their students through the year without learning loss, Taylor said. “I don’t think that in the crisis moments of Covid-19, people were thinking far enough ahead.”</p>
  495.  
  496.  
  497.  
  498. <p>Another general concern is that smaller rural schools have thinner margins of error, Taylor said.</p>
  499.  
  500.  
  501.  
  502. <p>“One large family moves in and that’s a financial shock to the rural school, or one large family moves out and that’s a financial shock to the rural school.” she said. “So their budgeting has to be, in many ways, more precise.”</p>
  503.  
  504.  
  505.  
  506. <p>No matter how popular or successful an after school program, or new staff hires or bonuses were, no matter the positive impact this extra funding had for public schools, Taylor says there’s a perception in the field that September is a “return to normality.”</p>
  507.  
  508.  
  509.  
  510. <p>“The situation is that education has to compete with healthcare, has to compete with highways, has to compete with the taxpayer’s desire to keep money in their own pockets,” she said. “And absent a crisis, you don’t have this willingness to go into debt.”</p>
  511.  
  512.  
  513.  
  514. <h3 class="wp-block-heading"><strong>Cushioning the Fall</strong></h3>
  515.  
  516.  
  517.  
  518. <p>While districts are required to obligate, or designate, their funds by September 2024, the United States Education Department announced that schools can apply for extensions, to delay the final spending deadline to April 2026 to relieve stress on schools.&nbsp;</p>
  519.  
  520.  
  521.  
  522. <p>This is particularly important for overstretched rural administrators, who will now have additional time to make spending arrangements.&nbsp;</p>
  523.  
  524.  
  525.  
  526. <p>Chalkbeat also reports that state governments, who provide a majority of funding for public schools, could increase education spending to cushion the fall for schools.&nbsp;</p>
  527.  
  528.  
  529.  
  530. <p>“The budget situation will likely vary by state,” writes editor Matt Barnum. “A number of Republican-leaning states have adopted tax cuts and private school choice programs, which could strain state budgets.</p>
  531. <p>The post <a href="https://dailyyonder.com/as-covid-19-emergency-funding-dries-up-some-rural-schools-may-face-steep-fiscal-cliff-in-2024/2024/02/28/">As Covid-19 Emergency Funding Dries Up, Some Rural Schools May Face Steep Fiscal Cliff in 2024</a> appeared first on <a href="https://dailyyonder.com">The Daily Yonder</a>.</p>
  532. ]]></content:encoded>
  533. <wfw:commentRss>https://dailyyonder.com/as-covid-19-emergency-funding-dries-up-some-rural-schools-may-face-steep-fiscal-cliff-in-2024/2024/02/28/feed/</wfw:commentRss>
  534. <slash:comments>0</slash:comments>
  535. </item>
  536. <item>
  537. <title>Could Beyoncé&#8217;s Country Debut Redefine a Genre as We Know It?</title>
  538. <link>https://dailyyonder.com/could-beyonces-country-debut-redefine-a-genre-as-we-know-it/2024/02/28/</link>
  539. <comments>https://dailyyonder.com/could-beyonces-country-debut-redefine-a-genre-as-we-know-it/2024/02/28/#respond</comments>
  540. <dc:creator><![CDATA[Claire Carlson]]></dc:creator>
  541. <pubDate>Wed, 28 Feb 2024 10:59:00 +0000</pubDate>
  542. <category><![CDATA[Arts and Culture]]></category>
  543. <category><![CDATA[keep it rural]]></category>
  544. <guid isPermaLink="false">https://dailyyonder.com/?p=123963</guid>
  545.  
  546. <description><![CDATA[<figure><img width="1024" height="732" src="https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/Beyonce.jpg?fit=1024%2C732&amp;ssl=1" class="attachment-rss-image-size size-rss-image-size wp-post-image" alt="" decoding="async" srcset="https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/Beyonce.jpg?w=2000&amp;ssl=1 2000w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/Beyonce.jpg?resize=760%2C543&amp;ssl=1 760w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/Beyonce.jpg?resize=1296%2C926&amp;ssl=1 1296w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/Beyonce.jpg?resize=768%2C549&amp;ssl=1 768w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/Beyonce.jpg?resize=1536%2C1097&amp;ssl=1 1536w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/Beyonce.jpg?resize=1200%2C857&amp;ssl=1 1200w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/Beyonce.jpg?resize=1024%2C732&amp;ssl=1 1024w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/Beyonce.jpg?resize=1568%2C1120&amp;ssl=1 1568w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/Beyonce.jpg?resize=400%2C286&amp;ssl=1 400w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/Beyonce.jpg?resize=706%2C504&amp;ssl=1 706w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/Beyonce.jpg?fit=1024%2C732&amp;ssl=1&amp;w=370 370w" sizes="(max-width: 34.9rem) calc(100vw - 2rem), (max-width: 53rem) calc(8 * (100vw / 12)), (min-width: 53rem) calc(6 * (100vw / 12)), 100vw" /></figure>
  547. <p>Editor’s Note: This article was originally published in Keep It Rural, an email newsletter from the Daily Yonder. Like what you see?  Join the mailing list for more rural news, thoughts, and analysis in your inbox each week. A long-awaited overhaul of country music is happening before our very eyes, and the latest change is thanks to the [&#8230;]</p>
  548. <p>The post <a href="https://dailyyonder.com/could-beyonces-country-debut-redefine-a-genre-as-we-know-it/2024/02/28/">Could Beyoncé&#8217;s Country Debut Redefine a Genre as We Know It?</a> appeared first on <a href="https://dailyyonder.com">The Daily Yonder</a>.</p>
  549. ]]></description>
  550. <content:encoded><![CDATA[<figure><img width="1024" height="732" src="https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/Beyonce.jpg?fit=1024%2C732&amp;ssl=1" class="attachment-rss-image-size size-rss-image-size wp-post-image" alt="" decoding="async" srcset="https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/Beyonce.jpg?w=2000&amp;ssl=1 2000w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/Beyonce.jpg?resize=760%2C543&amp;ssl=1 760w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/Beyonce.jpg?resize=1296%2C926&amp;ssl=1 1296w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/Beyonce.jpg?resize=768%2C549&amp;ssl=1 768w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/Beyonce.jpg?resize=1536%2C1097&amp;ssl=1 1536w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/Beyonce.jpg?resize=1200%2C857&amp;ssl=1 1200w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/Beyonce.jpg?resize=1024%2C732&amp;ssl=1 1024w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/Beyonce.jpg?resize=1568%2C1120&amp;ssl=1 1568w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/Beyonce.jpg?resize=400%2C286&amp;ssl=1 400w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/Beyonce.jpg?resize=706%2C504&amp;ssl=1 706w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/Beyonce.jpg?fit=1024%2C732&amp;ssl=1&amp;w=370 370w" sizes="(max-width: 34.9rem) calc(100vw - 2rem), (max-width: 53rem) calc(8 * (100vw / 12)), (min-width: 53rem) calc(6 * (100vw / 12)), 100vw" /></figure>
  551. <p><em>Editor’s Note: This article was originally published in </em><a href="https://dailyyonder.com/keep-it-rural/"><em>Keep It Rural</em></a><em>, an email newsletter from the Daily Yonder. Like what you see?  </em><a href="https://dailyyonder.com/contact-us/subscribe-daily-yonder/"><em>Join the mailing list</em></a><em> for more rural news, thoughts, and analysis in your inbox each week.</em></p>
  552.  
  553.  
  554.  
  555. <hr class="wp-block-separator has-alpha-channel-opacity"/>
  556.  
  557.  
  558.  
  559. <p>A long-awaited overhaul of country music is happening before our very eyes, and the latest change is thanks to the one and only Beyoncé.  </p>
  560.  
  561.  
  562.  
  563. <div class="wp-block-columns is-layout-flex wp-container-core-columns-layout-2 wp-block-columns-is-layout-flex">
  564. <div class="wp-block-column is-vertically-aligned-center is-layout-flow wp-block-column-is-layout-flow">
  565. <p>By now you’ve probably heard at least a snippet of her recent single, “Texas Hold ‘Em,” which has taken the number one spot on the <a href="https://www.billboard.com/lists/beyonce-texas-hold-em-number-one-hot-100/">Billboard Hot 100 chart</a> and the Hot Country Songs chart since its release in mid-February. Her other recent single, “16 Carriages,” is having similar success. The two songs are from her forthcoming album “Act II,” which releases March 29, 2024. </p>
  566. </div>
  567.  
  568.  
  569.  
  570. <div class="wp-block-column is-layout-flow wp-block-column-is-layout-flow"><div class="wp-block-image">
  571. <figure class="aligncenter size-full is-resized"><img decoding="async" width="780" height="780" src="https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/beyonce-16-carriages-scaled-1.jpg?resize=780%2C780&#038;ssl=1" alt="" class="wp-image-123965" style="width:316px;height:auto" srcset="https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/beyonce-16-carriages-scaled-1.jpg?w=1024&amp;ssl=1 1024w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/beyonce-16-carriages-scaled-1.jpg?resize=760%2C760&amp;ssl=1 760w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/beyonce-16-carriages-scaled-1.jpg?resize=150%2C150&amp;ssl=1 150w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/beyonce-16-carriages-scaled-1.jpg?resize=768%2C768&amp;ssl=1 768w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/beyonce-16-carriages-scaled-1.jpg?resize=800%2C800&amp;ssl=1 800w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/beyonce-16-carriages-scaled-1.jpg?resize=600%2C600&amp;ssl=1 600w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/beyonce-16-carriages-scaled-1.jpg?resize=400%2C400&amp;ssl=1 400w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/beyonce-16-carriages-scaled-1.jpg?resize=200%2C200&amp;ssl=1 200w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/beyonce-16-carriages-scaled-1.jpg?resize=300%2C300&amp;ssl=1 300w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/beyonce-16-carriages-scaled-1.jpg?resize=706%2C706&amp;ssl=1 706w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/beyonce-16-carriages-scaled-1.jpg?resize=100%2C100&amp;ssl=1 100w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/beyonce-16-carriages-scaled-1.jpg?w=370&amp;ssl=1 370w" sizes="(max-width: 780px) 100vw, 780px" data-recalc-dims="1" /><figcaption class="wp-element-caption">Album art for &#8220;16 Carriages.&#8221; (Photo via Parkwood Entertainment/Columbia Records)</figcaption></figure></div></div>
  572. </div>
  573.  
  574.  
  575.  
  576. <p>These two singles are catchy as hell and more notably <em>country </em>as hell, which has come as a surprise to some listeners who know Beyoncé for her R&amp;B, hip hop, and pop roots. But like any good music legend, Queen Bey has range, and she’s now making history as the first Black woman to hit number one on the Hot Country Songs chart, a list long held by white, usually male, country artists.&nbsp;</p>
  577.  
  578.  
  579.  
  580. <p>But really, it’s hardly a surprise she’s making country music: Born in Houston, Texas, Beyoncé grew up deeply enmeshed in the cowboy culture country music espouses. In 2016, she included country in her album “Lemonade,” which features foot stomping, hollering, and acoustic guitar on the track “Daddy Lessons.” She even played the song that same year at the Country Music Awards with The Chicks, who have made history in their own right as an all-female country band navigating a male-dominated industry.&nbsp;</p>
  581.  
  582.  
  583.  
  584. <figure class="wp-block-embed is-type-video is-provider-youtube wp-block-embed-youtube wp-embed-aspect-16-9 wp-has-aspect-ratio"><div class="wp-block-embed__wrapper">
  585. <iframe title="Beyoncé and Dixie Chicks - Daddy Lessons ( LIVE at CMA Awards 2016 )" width="780" height="439" src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/85Ksi-uzuIg?feature=oembed" frameborder="0" allow="accelerometer; autoplay; clipboard-write; encrypted-media; gyroscope; picture-in-picture; web-share" allowfullscreen></iframe>
  586. </div><figcaption class="wp-element-caption">Beyoncé and The Chicks (formerly known as the Dixie Chicks) perform &#8220;Daddy Lessons&#8221; at the 2016 Country Music Awards.</figcaption></figure>
  587.  
  588.  
  589.  
  590. <p>She joins a long line of Black country artists, but what’s different is she’s Beyoncé – her celebrity status guarantees airtime. She has a better go at it than pretty much any other Black artist trying to enter the country music scene. As Howard University professor Pat Parks put it in a recent <a href="https://thedig.howard.edu/all-stories/beyonces-act-ii-and-countrys-black-roots-theater-arts-professor-discusses-genres-history">interview</a>, “An infinitesimal percentage of Black country artists are breaking through, and that is because of systemic discrimination. It’s coming from your programming directors at the radio station and is coming from the executives that refuse to play Black country music artists’ videos. You cannot chart if people are not listening to your music.”&nbsp;</p>
  591.  
  592.  
  593.  
  594. <p>Beyoncé’s celebrity power forces a conversation in country music about the role of Black musicians and the discrimination they’ve faced in this genre. For too long country music has been weighed down by an assumption that it’s about and for white folks from the country, even though country music is inextricably linked to Black culture: the banjo, for example, was brought to the United States on slave ships from Africa. Black folks have been making country music since country music first came about in rural areas of the American South and West.&nbsp;</p>
  595.  
  596.  
  597.  
  598. <div class="wp-block-columns is-layout-flex wp-container-core-columns-layout-3 wp-block-columns-is-layout-flex">
  599. <div class="wp-block-column is-layout-flow wp-block-column-is-layout-flow" style="flex-basis:33.33%"><div class="wp-block-image">
  600. <figure class="aligncenter size-full is-resized"><img decoding="async" width="298" height="460" src="https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/3235.jpg?resize=298%2C460&#038;ssl=1" alt="" class="wp-image-123966" style="width:255px;height:auto" srcset="https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/3235.jpg?w=298&amp;ssl=1 298w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/3235.jpg?w=370&amp;ssl=1 370w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/3235.jpg?w=400&amp;ssl=1 400w" sizes="(max-width: 298px) 100vw, 298px" data-recalc-dims="1" /><figcaption class="wp-element-caption">The cover of &#8220;Black Country Music,&#8221; by Francesca Royster. (Photo via the University of Texas Press)</figcaption></figure></div></div>
  601.  
  602.  
  603.  
  604. <div class="wp-block-column is-vertically-aligned-center is-layout-flow wp-block-column-is-layout-flow" style="flex-basis:66.66%">
  605. <p>In Francesca Royster’s <a href="https://utpress.utexas.edu/search-grid/?contributor=francesca-t-royster">book</a> “Black Country Music: Listening for Revolutions,” Royster describes how the categorization of country music as “white music” happened in the 20th century when the recording industry split the music coming from rural Black and white communities into “race records” and “hillbilly music,” respectively. Hillbilly music by white artists was renamed “country music” in the middle of the 20th century, which helped define it as a white genre. The recording industry poured money into country music, while race records were pushed aside and disinvested.&nbsp;</p>
  606. </div>
  607. </div>
  608.  
  609.  
  610.  
  611. <p>Even though the sounds we associate with country – banjos, fiddles, harmonicas, twang, hollering, foot stomping – were created by white and Black musicians alike, the recording industry only spent money and gave airtime to white, usually male country artists.</p>
  612.  
  613.  
  614.  
  615. <p>But Beyoncé’s new songs practically demand a change to who we associate with country music. They highlight her own country roots and spotlight the long legacy of Black country artists, and promise that at least one Black artist will be played on the local country radio station.&nbsp;Her foray into country music could be seen not as a deviation from her usual sound but a homecoming, of sorts, and a welcome one at that.&nbsp;&nbsp;</p>
  616. <p>The post <a href="https://dailyyonder.com/could-beyonces-country-debut-redefine-a-genre-as-we-know-it/2024/02/28/">Could Beyoncé&#8217;s Country Debut Redefine a Genre as We Know It?</a> appeared first on <a href="https://dailyyonder.com">The Daily Yonder</a>.</p>
  617. ]]></content:encoded>
  618. <wfw:commentRss>https://dailyyonder.com/could-beyonces-country-debut-redefine-a-genre-as-we-know-it/2024/02/28/feed/</wfw:commentRss>
  619. <slash:comments>0</slash:comments>
  620. </item>
  621. <item>
  622. <title>New Demands to Measure Emissions Raise Cautious Hopes in Pennsylvania Among  Environmental Sleuths Who Monitor Fracking Sites</title>
  623. <link>https://dailyyonder.com/new-demands-to-measure-emissions-raise-cautious-hopes-in-pennsylvania-among-environmental-sleuths-who-monitor-fracking-sites/2024/02/28/</link>
  624. <comments>https://dailyyonder.com/new-demands-to-measure-emissions-raise-cautious-hopes-in-pennsylvania-among-environmental-sleuths-who-monitor-fracking-sites/2024/02/28/#respond</comments>
  625. <dc:creator><![CDATA[Jake Bolster / Inside Climate News]]></dc:creator>
  626. <pubDate>Wed, 28 Feb 2024 10:41:00 +0000</pubDate>
  627. <category><![CDATA[Energy]]></category>
  628. <category><![CDATA[Environment]]></category>
  629. <category><![CDATA[repub]]></category>
  630. <guid isPermaLink="false">https://dailyyonder.com/?p=123929</guid>
  631.  
  632. <description><![CDATA[<figure><img width="1024" height="683" src="https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/AP23222674321782-scaled.jpg?fit=1024%2C683&amp;ssl=1" class="attachment-rss-image-size size-rss-image-size wp-post-image" alt="" decoding="async" srcset="https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/AP23222674321782-scaled.jpg?w=2560&amp;ssl=1 2560w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/AP23222674321782-scaled.jpg?resize=760%2C507&amp;ssl=1 760w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/AP23222674321782-scaled.jpg?resize=1296%2C864&amp;ssl=1 1296w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/AP23222674321782-scaled.jpg?resize=768%2C512&amp;ssl=1 768w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/AP23222674321782-scaled.jpg?resize=1536%2C1024&amp;ssl=1 1536w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/AP23222674321782-scaled.jpg?resize=2048%2C1365&amp;ssl=1 2048w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/AP23222674321782-scaled.jpg?resize=1200%2C800&amp;ssl=1 1200w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/AP23222674321782-scaled.jpg?resize=1024%2C683&amp;ssl=1 1024w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/AP23222674321782-scaled.jpg?resize=600%2C400&amp;ssl=1 600w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/AP23222674321782-scaled.jpg?resize=1568%2C1045&amp;ssl=1 1568w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/AP23222674321782-scaled.jpg?resize=400%2C267&amp;ssl=1 400w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/AP23222674321782-scaled.jpg?resize=706%2C471&amp;ssl=1 706w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/AP23222674321782-scaled.jpg?w=2340&amp;ssl=1 2340w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/AP23222674321782-scaled.jpg?fit=1024%2C683&amp;ssl=1&amp;w=370 370w" sizes="(max-width: 34.9rem) calc(100vw - 2rem), (max-width: 53rem) calc(8 * (100vw / 12)), (min-width: 53rem) calc(6 * (100vw / 12)), 100vw" /></figure>
  633. <p>This story was originally published by Inside Climate News. For the first time, Pennsylvania fracking companies are facing real-time scrutiny from federal and state regulators over emissions of methane and other harmful air pollutants at drilling sites and storage facilities for toxic wastewater left over from oil and gas extractions. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) [&#8230;]</p>
  634. <p>The post <a href="https://dailyyonder.com/new-demands-to-measure-emissions-raise-cautious-hopes-in-pennsylvania-among-environmental-sleuths-who-monitor-fracking-sites/2024/02/28/">New Demands to Measure Emissions Raise Cautious Hopes in Pennsylvania Among  Environmental Sleuths Who Monitor Fracking Sites</a> appeared first on <a href="https://dailyyonder.com">The Daily Yonder</a>.</p>
  635. ]]></description>
  636. <content:encoded><![CDATA[<figure><img width="1024" height="683" src="https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/AP23222674321782-scaled.jpg?fit=1024%2C683&amp;ssl=1" class="attachment-rss-image-size size-rss-image-size wp-post-image" alt="" decoding="async" srcset="https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/AP23222674321782-scaled.jpg?w=2560&amp;ssl=1 2560w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/AP23222674321782-scaled.jpg?resize=760%2C507&amp;ssl=1 760w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/AP23222674321782-scaled.jpg?resize=1296%2C864&amp;ssl=1 1296w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/AP23222674321782-scaled.jpg?resize=768%2C512&amp;ssl=1 768w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/AP23222674321782-scaled.jpg?resize=1536%2C1024&amp;ssl=1 1536w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/AP23222674321782-scaled.jpg?resize=2048%2C1365&amp;ssl=1 2048w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/AP23222674321782-scaled.jpg?resize=1200%2C800&amp;ssl=1 1200w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/AP23222674321782-scaled.jpg?resize=1024%2C683&amp;ssl=1 1024w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/AP23222674321782-scaled.jpg?resize=600%2C400&amp;ssl=1 600w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/AP23222674321782-scaled.jpg?resize=1568%2C1045&amp;ssl=1 1568w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/AP23222674321782-scaled.jpg?resize=400%2C267&amp;ssl=1 400w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/AP23222674321782-scaled.jpg?resize=706%2C471&amp;ssl=1 706w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/AP23222674321782-scaled.jpg?w=2340&amp;ssl=1 2340w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/AP23222674321782-scaled.jpg?fit=1024%2C683&amp;ssl=1&amp;w=370 370w" sizes="(max-width: 34.9rem) calc(100vw - 2rem), (max-width: 53rem) calc(8 * (100vw / 12)), (min-width: 53rem) calc(6 * (100vw / 12)), 100vw" /></figure>
  637. <p class="has-text-align-center"><em>This story was originally published by <a href="https://insideclimatenews.org/news/25022024/new-demands-to-measure-emissions-raise-cautious-hopes-in-pennsylvania-among-environmental-sleuths-who-monitor-fracking-sites/">Inside Climate News</a>.</em></p>
  638.  
  639.  
  640.  
  641. <p>For the first time, Pennsylvania fracking companies are facing real-time scrutiny from federal and state regulators over emissions of methane and other harmful air pollutants at drilling sites and storage facilities for toxic wastewater left over from oil and gas extractions.</p>
  642.  
  643.  
  644.  
  645. <p>The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is requiring more robust tracking at extracting sites across the country through the use of on-site devices to measure methane leaks from wells and low-pressure sources such as wastewater storage tanks. It also announced penalties for companies found to exceed emission thresholds.&nbsp;</p>
  646.  
  647.  
  648.  
  649. <p>In addition, Pennsylvania has launched a pilot program with CNX Resources Corp., one of the biggest oil and gas producers in the Marcellus Shale, to better gauge and understand on-site emissions from the fracking industry.</p>
  650.  
  651.  
  652.  
  653. <p>Melissa Ostroff is among the environmental sleuths who has questioned emissions in rural Pennsylvania, and she remains cautious about how and when communities will benefit from any of the changes. The EPA is giving states up to two years to implement the reforms.&nbsp;</p>
  654.  
  655.  
  656.  
  657. <p>For the past couple years, Ostroff, a policy advocate for the nonprofit Earthworks, has routinely documented plumes of invisible emissions from wells and storage tanks located on drilling sites using an optical infrared camera sensitive to hydrocarbons.</p>
  658.  
  659.  
  660.  
  661. <p>Earthworks has filed 134 complaints about the vapors and emissions from sites in Pennsylvania, with over half of those captured by Ostroff since 2021. Ostroff, who wields a hand-held video camera comparable to what industry monitoring professionals use, has filed reports and footage with state regulators about potential leaks and breaches of emission standards from both storage tanks and the wells.&nbsp;</p>
  662.  
  663.  
  664.  
  665. <p>“There’s something very different from seeing a well with nothing coming out of it and then putting the camera to your eye,” she said.&nbsp;</p>
  666.  
  667.  
  668.  
  669. <p>Ostroff has led state lawmakers and local community members on tours—from vantage points that are steps or fields away from drilling sites, always on public property—to peek through her high-resolution lens. They are all startled, she said, as the invisible becomes visible. There are&nbsp;<a href="https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=l6ueit_CvmE">vapors in the air</a>. Around the tanks, she has recorded mists that the naked eye cannot see, drifting from vents atop the containers or&nbsp;<a href="https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gCGg17Rs9nI">seeping around the ground</a>.</p>
  670.  
  671.  
  672.  
  673. <p>While Ostroff can document potential errant discharge, she has no way to measure volumes or the vapor’s content. Still, “it was shocking,” said Gillian Graber, founder of Protect PT, an environmental organization in Pennsylvania focused on the effects of oil and gas drilling.&nbsp;</p>
  674.  
  675.  
  676.  
  677. <p>Graber has been on several Earthworks tours, and said she has observed a well venting near her daughter’s school in Westmoreland County. “When you have the vent infrastructure near schools and parks where people are running and walking, walking their pets—this is really problematic,” she said. “There needs to be some way to capture these vented materials.”</p>
  678.  
  679.  
  680.  
  681. <p>The vapors detected by Ostroff’s camera can include methane, a greenhouse gas over 80 times more effective at trapping heat in the earth’s atmosphere than carbon dioxide, and naturally occuring volatile organic compounds that come back to the surface in wastewater after drilling, including benzene.&nbsp;</p>
  682.  
  683.  
  684.  
  685. <p>“None of it is great for the environment,” said Dave Yoxtheimer, a Penn State hydrogeologist who studies the Marcelus Shale in Pennsylvania. Wastewater emissions may adversely affect human health, too. Yoxtheimer listed a medley of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that storage tank emissions can contain: benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene. “If you’re exposed to them over a prolonged term at a high enough concentration, I mean, these are carcinogens,” substances capable of causing cancer, he said.&nbsp;&nbsp;</p>
  686.  
  687.  
  688.  
  689. <p>Late last year, the EPA unveiled enhanced standards for monitoring pollution sources and, for the first time, rules that require producers to actively search for leaks. In a major change, companies operating large sites must use sensors or other technology to monitor for emissions—both at new wells and those already in operation. Methane is the single biggest driver of climate change after CO2.</p>
  690.  
  691.  
  692.  
  693. <p>Sites with just one well will be inspected using human audio, visual and olfactory monitoring approaches. In January, the agency announced penalties for violators: $900 fines on every excess ton of methane that oil and gas that companies emit annually, increasing to $1,500 in 2026 and thereafter.&nbsp;</p>
  694.  
  695.  
  696.  
  697. <p>“This is the first time that we’ve seen a rule from the EPA that is going to regulate existing and new sources when it comes to methane” emissions, said John Rutecki, a regulatory and legislative manager with the nonprofit Environmental Defense Fund. And he points out that wastewater tanks are now a target.</p>
  698.  
  699.  
  700.  
  701. <p>“Getting storage vessels on there has been very important for frontline community members,” Rutecki said, and the new monitoring demands may “provide some health protections” to communities near oil and gas fields.&nbsp;</p>
  702.  
  703.  
  704.  
  705. <p>The oil and gas industry has never conducted accurate monitoring of emissions from storage tanks, on-site reservoirs for byproducts of the drilling process. The tanks hold a highly saline liquid containing a mix of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), including naturally occurring benzene, arsenic and radium 226 and 228 dredged up during hydraulic fracturing of shale formations deep underground.</p>
  706.  
  707.  
  708.  
  709. <p>Companies routinely vent the storage tanks to relieve built-up pressure, and to report their emissions, they calculate estimates based on the chemical makeup of the wastewater and the size of the tank. Some producers had not been legally required to monitor, measure or capture emissions in real time, which creates uncertainty about what floats into the air or settles on the ground near the site.</p>
  710.  
  711.  
  712.  
  713. <p>Ostroff’s experience is a case in point. She records vapors from tanks and shares those videos with regulators. They are rarely moved to investigate. “They say ‘they’re allowed to vent. They have to vent. There is not an alternative.’” she said.</p>
  714.  
  715.  
  716.  
  717. <p>In Pennsylvania, large tanks that are calculated to emit more than 200 tons of methane and 2.7 tons of VOCs annually must reduce their emissions by 95 percent, but tanks under those thresholds can be vented as often as a company chooses.&nbsp;</p>
  718.  
  719.  
  720.  
  721. <p>The new EPA rule, which the Biden administration says will also reduce the amount of VOCs emitted by the oil and gas industry, requires a 95 percent reduction in methane emissions from storage tanks that have the potential to emit more than six tons of VOCs or 20 tons of methane annually. It also requires companies, instead of venting, to capture or transform the emissions, either by rerouting them to flares, or using “vapor recovery units,” to snare fugitive methane for further processing.  </p>
  722.  
  723.  
  724.  
  725. <p>Kenneth Davis, a professor of climate and atmospheric science at Penn State University, has measured emissions at oil and gas sites across the United States and, in particular, the volumes of emissions from sites within the Marcellus Shale. For a year and a half starting in May 2015, Davis and his team tagged cell phone towers with air quality monitors that allow for readings about 100 meters above ground. They also tracked emissions using an aircraft. Altogether, Davis’s team recorded emissions that were&nbsp;<a href="https://acp.copernicus.org/articles/23/6127/2023/">at least twice as high</a>&nbsp;as the emissions reported by the industry.&nbsp;</p>
  726.  
  727.  
  728.  
  729. <p>Davis said he found “without question” that chemical vapors can travel far from the emissions source. The closer a person lives to an oil and gas well or to a wastewater storage tank, the more likely that person will breathe compounds churned up by excavations, Davis said.</p>
  730.  
  731.  
  732.  
  733. <p>“Folks are doing their best to account for what they know” when measuring and reporting emissions now, he said, but without better ways to monitor or regulatory demands, emission records are uncertain. “What appears to be true is that there are large, unplanned or large point source emissions that are not part of the inventory” reported to government agencies, he said.</p>
  734.  
  735.  
  736.  
  737. <p>If the industry cooperates to dispel the discrepancy between reported and observed emissions, “there’s hope,” Davis said.</p>
  738.  
  739.  
  740.  
  741. <p>David Hess, a blogger and&nbsp;<a href="https://insideclimatenews.org/news/07012024/david-hess-pennsylvania-environmental-official-rise-of-fracking/">former secretary at the Department of Environmental Protection</a>&nbsp;(DEP) in the state, regularly culls agency reports on methane leaks at drilling sites and sees the gaps in oversight. “It may be normal operations but they’re releasing a lot of methane into the atmosphere uncontrolled,” he said. “From reading the inspection reports, it seems like there’s lots of holes in how those emissions are regulated.”</p>
  742.  
  743.  
  744.  
  745. <p>In Pennsylvania, a months-old partnership intended to help companies and regulators better understand the environmental and human health effects of oil and gas sites may not yield the oversight and regulation that environmentalists see possible in the new EPA rules.&nbsp;</p>
  746.  
  747.  
  748.  
  749. <p>A pilot program<a href="https://www.governor.pa.gov/newsroom/shapiro-administration-and-leading-natural-gas-company-cnx-resources-announce-first-of-its-kind-collaboration-on-environmental-monitoring-and-chemical-disclosures/#:~:text=Governor%20Shapiro%20has%20separately%20instructed,aligned%20with%20forthcoming%20federal%20policy%2C">&nbsp;championed by Gov. Josh Shapiro and CNX</a>, a major oil and gas producer, has given DEP inspectors “unprecedented access” to two wells—out of the hundreds of thousands now operating in the state—to assess emissions. The company, which has been cited since 2020 for more than 400 violations by the DEP, including incidents where CNX failed to prevent wastewater from flowing into waterways, also agreed to disclose, with some restrictions, what chemicals are used in the fracking fluid. It agreed to provide some real-time emission monitoring to DEP regulators at sites in Washington and Greene counties, both south of Pittsburgh.</p>
  750.  
  751.  
  752.  
  753. <p>A section of&nbsp;<a href="https://www.governor.pa.gov/wp-content/uploads/2023/11/Statement-of-Mutual-Interests-CNX.pdf">the four-page agreement</a>, called “CNX’s Radical Transparency Efforts,” shows that the company’s chemical disclosures would still be “subject to trade secret claims by chemical manufacturers,” exempting them from regulation under the federal Safe Drinking Water Act. In addition, real-time air quality data “may be delayed or suspended by CNX at its discretion.”&nbsp;</p>
  754.  
  755.  
  756.  
  757. <p>CNX agreed to conduct pre-drill water surveys for residential drinking water supplies existing “within 2,500 ft of a vertical unconventional well bore, and any newly constructed centralized large volume storage tank battery.” CNX’s Washington County site was built in 2023, and it is unclear from the agreement’s language whether “newly constructed” storage tanks applied to wastewater tanks already on the premises or yet to be built.&nbsp;</p>
  758.  
  759.  
  760.  
  761. <p>Since the partnership was announced,&nbsp;<a href="https://insideclimatenews.org/news/07022024/first-year-pennsylvania-governor-josh-shapiro-forged-alliances-with-natural-gas-industry/">environmentalists have questioned</a>&nbsp;whether the limited effort is capturing potential problems or helping to confuse matters.</p>
  762.  
  763.  
  764.  
  765. <p>State Sen. Katie Muth, who has introduced legislation to classify wastewater from fracking as hazardous material, said the governor’s pact with CNX doesn’t do enough or ask enough of the company. “It’s not a full suite of what needs to be monitored,” said Muth, a Democrat.</p>
  766.  
  767.  
  768.  
  769. <p>“Out of the however many hundreds of wells they have, they’re monitoring a ridiculously low number of wells,” she said, adding a question for CNX, which last year&nbsp;<a href="https://markets.ft.com/data/equities/tearsheet/profile?s=CNX:NYQ">posted $1.3 billion in revenue</a>: “Why aren’t you monitoring all your wells?”</p>
  770.  
  771.  
  772.  
  773. <p>Graber is bothered by the voluntary nature of the partnership. “I do not think companies will do anything that they are not mandated by law to do,” she said. “The people of Pennsylvania don’t trust these companies,” she said. People “don’t trust them to do the right thing.”</p>
  774.  
  775.  
  776.  
  777. <p>CNX did not return requests for comment for this story. In a press release Shapiro issued in November,&nbsp; Nick Deiuliis, the company’s CEO, said&nbsp;<a href="https://insideclimatenews.org/news/07022024/first-year-pennsylvania-governor-josh-shapiro-forged-alliances-with-natural-gas-industry/">CNX plans to use its partnership</a>&nbsp;with the DEP to provide “open-sourcing facts, science, and data to all stakeholders,” to create “mutual trust which can serve as the basis for cooperation and real environmental and economic progress in the Commonwealth.”&nbsp;</p>
  778.  
  779.  
  780.  
  781. <p>For environmentalists like Ostroff, the CNX experiment only emphasizes that state regulators are&nbsp; reliant on slim evidence to protect from potential harm, and she questioned the science and&nbsp; monitoring methods at the two sites.</p>
  782.  
  783.  
  784.  
  785. <p>“CNX is using static air monitors. They’re capturing what is in the air at that time” rather than measuring emissions from the sources and observing how they travel, Ostroff said. She plans this spring to video a handful of wells that she has yet to see up close—and she wants to record video from the two CNX wells now under DEP review.</p>
  786.  
  787.  
  788.  
  789. <p>“If Pennsylvania implements [the new EPA rules] in a way where there are more frequent inspections from operators and if that is actually enforced, it should make my job easier,” Ostroff said. “Without proper enforcement, we’re not going to actually see any changes.”</p>
  790.  
  791.  
  792.  
  793. <hr class="wp-block-separator has-alpha-channel-opacity is-style-dots"/>
  794.  
  795.  
  796.  
  797. <p><em>Jake Bolster is a freelance multimedia journalist who covers climate and the environment across the United States.</em></p>
  798. <p>The post <a href="https://dailyyonder.com/new-demands-to-measure-emissions-raise-cautious-hopes-in-pennsylvania-among-environmental-sleuths-who-monitor-fracking-sites/2024/02/28/">New Demands to Measure Emissions Raise Cautious Hopes in Pennsylvania Among  Environmental Sleuths Who Monitor Fracking Sites</a> appeared first on <a href="https://dailyyonder.com">The Daily Yonder</a>.</p>
  799. ]]></content:encoded>
  800. <wfw:commentRss>https://dailyyonder.com/new-demands-to-measure-emissions-raise-cautious-hopes-in-pennsylvania-among-environmental-sleuths-who-monitor-fracking-sites/2024/02/28/feed/</wfw:commentRss>
  801. <slash:comments>0</slash:comments>
  802. </item>
  803. <item>
  804. <title>Commentary: Setting Up a Successful Comeback</title>
  805. <link>https://dailyyonder.com/commentary-setting-up-a-successful-comeback/2024/02/27/</link>
  806. <comments>https://dailyyonder.com/commentary-setting-up-a-successful-comeback/2024/02/27/#respond</comments>
  807. <dc:creator><![CDATA[Brian Noland / East Tennessee State University]]></dc:creator>
  808. <pubDate>Tue, 27 Feb 2024 11:00:00 +0000</pubDate>
  809. <category><![CDATA[Economy]]></category>
  810. <category><![CDATA[Education]]></category>
  811. <category><![CDATA[commentary]]></category>
  812. <guid isPermaLink="false">https://dailyyonder.com/?p=123408</guid>
  813.  
  814. <description><![CDATA[<figure><img width="1024" height="731" src="https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/At-Podium-5071b.jpg?fit=1024%2C731&amp;ssl=1" class="attachment-rss-image-size size-rss-image-size wp-post-image" alt="" decoding="async" srcset="https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/At-Podium-5071b.jpg?w=2100&amp;ssl=1 2100w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/At-Podium-5071b.jpg?resize=760%2C543&amp;ssl=1 760w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/At-Podium-5071b.jpg?resize=1296%2C926&amp;ssl=1 1296w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/At-Podium-5071b.jpg?resize=768%2C549&amp;ssl=1 768w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/At-Podium-5071b.jpg?resize=1536%2C1097&amp;ssl=1 1536w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/At-Podium-5071b.jpg?resize=2048%2C1463&amp;ssl=1 2048w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/At-Podium-5071b.jpg?resize=1200%2C857&amp;ssl=1 1200w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/At-Podium-5071b.jpg?resize=1024%2C731&amp;ssl=1 1024w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/At-Podium-5071b.jpg?resize=1568%2C1120&amp;ssl=1 1568w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/At-Podium-5071b.jpg?resize=400%2C286&amp;ssl=1 400w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/At-Podium-5071b.jpg?resize=706%2C504&amp;ssl=1 706w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/At-Podium-5071b.jpg?fit=1024%2C731&amp;ssl=1&amp;w=370 370w" sizes="(max-width: 34.9rem) calc(100vw - 2rem), (max-width: 53rem) calc(8 * (100vw / 12)), (min-width: 53rem) calc(6 * (100vw / 12)), 100vw" /></figure>
  815. <p>Over the course of my career, I have had the privilege of traveling thousands of miles on the beautiful backroads of Appalachia, as well as Middle and West Tennessee. I have visited schools, participated in town halls, worked booths at state fairs and met with local employers to discuss workforce needs.&#160; No matter where I [&#8230;]</p>
  816. <p>The post <a href="https://dailyyonder.com/commentary-setting-up-a-successful-comeback/2024/02/27/">Commentary: Setting Up a Successful Comeback</a> appeared first on <a href="https://dailyyonder.com">The Daily Yonder</a>.</p>
  817. ]]></description>
  818. <content:encoded><![CDATA[<figure><img width="1024" height="731" src="https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/At-Podium-5071b.jpg?fit=1024%2C731&amp;ssl=1" class="attachment-rss-image-size size-rss-image-size wp-post-image" alt="" decoding="async" srcset="https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/At-Podium-5071b.jpg?w=2100&amp;ssl=1 2100w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/At-Podium-5071b.jpg?resize=760%2C543&amp;ssl=1 760w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/At-Podium-5071b.jpg?resize=1296%2C926&amp;ssl=1 1296w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/At-Podium-5071b.jpg?resize=768%2C549&amp;ssl=1 768w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/At-Podium-5071b.jpg?resize=1536%2C1097&amp;ssl=1 1536w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/At-Podium-5071b.jpg?resize=2048%2C1463&amp;ssl=1 2048w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/At-Podium-5071b.jpg?resize=1200%2C857&amp;ssl=1 1200w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/At-Podium-5071b.jpg?resize=1024%2C731&amp;ssl=1 1024w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/At-Podium-5071b.jpg?resize=1568%2C1120&amp;ssl=1 1568w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/At-Podium-5071b.jpg?resize=400%2C286&amp;ssl=1 400w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/At-Podium-5071b.jpg?resize=706%2C504&amp;ssl=1 706w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/At-Podium-5071b.jpg?fit=1024%2C731&amp;ssl=1&amp;w=370 370w" sizes="(max-width: 34.9rem) calc(100vw - 2rem), (max-width: 53rem) calc(8 * (100vw / 12)), (min-width: 53rem) calc(6 * (100vw / 12)), 100vw" /></figure>
  819. <p>Over the course of my career, I have had the privilege of traveling thousands of miles on the beautiful backroads of Appalachia, as well as Middle and West Tennessee. I have visited schools, participated in town halls, worked booths at state fairs and met with local employers to discuss workforce needs.&nbsp;</p>
  820.  
  821.  
  822.  
  823. <p>No matter where I go, I always tout the value of pursuing some form of higher education. I note that there are many options, ranging from trade and technical schools to certificate programs, to community colleges and four-year institutions, like East Tennessee State University where I serve as president.&nbsp;</p>
  824.  
  825.  
  826.  
  827. <p>I have often found people in rural communities to be some of the most steadfast believers in the power of education. They understand the critical role advanced learning plays in preparing their children for a rapidly changing workforce and world. They know a college degree can set them up for career success and is one of the surest paths to economic mobility.&nbsp;</p>
  828.  
  829.  
  830.  
  831. <p>Yet, when I talk to rural families about sending their kids to college, their hopes are tempered by a tinge of sadness.</p>
  832.  
  833.  
  834.  
  835. <p>I know why, and I understand. For decades, rural communities across our nation have suffered the pain and loss of seeing their children leave home — not just for college, but for good. There is a fear that sending our kids off to college means draining our small towns of the lifeblood needed to power the future. But I believe sending more students to college is the key to reinvigorating our rural communities.&nbsp;</p>
  836.  
  837.  
  838.  
  839. <p>We are now fully immersed in the information age, an era in which many jobs are no longer tied to geographic location. That means more of today’s graduates can earn a degree and then bring their talent and skills back home without sacrificing job opportunities. The impact of a four-year college degree is tremendous, not just for those who earn it, but for the communities in which they live and serve. It creates ripple effects ranging from a stronger and more resilient economy to better community health outcomes, to increased arts and cultural activities.&nbsp;</p>
  840.  
  841.  
  842.  
  843. <p>Over the course of their lifetime, the average bachelor’s degree holder will contribute <a href="https://www.brookings.edu/articles/what-colleges-do-for-local-economies-a-direct-measure-based-on-consumption/">$278,000 more to local economies</a> compared to the average high school graduate. This economic injection supports local businesses, which in turn can reinvest in schools, parks, and vital infrastructure projects, enhancing the overall quality of life. A well-educated workforce also helps attract new businesses and jobs to diversify the economy, making it less vulnerable to economic downturns or industry changes. Beyond economic contributions, college-educated individuals also <a href="https://www.cmich.edu/blog/presidential-perspectives/2021/10/26/higher-education-a-private-benefit-or-public-good">bolster civic engagement</a>, displaying higher propensities to vote and volunteer.&nbsp;</p>
  844.  
  845.  
  846.  
  847. <p><a href="https://www.ers.usda.gov/amber-waves/2015/july/why-some-return-home-to-rural-america-and-why-it-matters/">Research led by the USDA</a> found that keeping students in rural communities after high school was less important than encouraging them to come back&nbsp;—&nbsp;once they have more fully developed the skills and experience needed to serve and lead. College graduates who return fill crucial roles for local communities as doctors, pharmacists, bankers, lawyers, hospital administrators and teachers. They sustain family-owned businesses and take over businesses from retiring owners. Higher education also is a boon to the agricultural backbone of rural areas, equipping the next generation with the acumen to modernize and maintain the prosperity of legacy farms. These types of entrepreneurial efforts and self-employment <a href="https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/ruso.12024">improve the employment base and expand existing services</a>.</p>
  848.  
  849.  
  850.  
  851. <p>To the esteemed leaders in our rural towns — from local government officials to faith leaders, to small-business owners — I extend a call to action. Join me in promoting the value of higher education. As influential figures in your communities, you want the best for your neighbors. It is why you have chosen to lead them, represent them, mentor them and live alongside them. Encourage those in your community, young and old, to advance their education and skills. Let them know their knowledge and talents are needed and can be put to good use right here at home. By doing so, we advocate for an investment that not only fortifies individuals but also serves as the underpinning for vibrant, dynamic and adaptable rural life.&nbsp;</p>
  852.  
  853.  
  854.  
  855. <p>A four-year degree is good for rural residents and good for rural communities. Learn more about how you can share this message by visiting the <a href="https://fourthefuturetn.com/">Four the Future</a> website.</p>
  856.  
  857.  
  858.  
  859. <hr class="wp-block-separator has-alpha-channel-opacity is-style-dots"/>
  860.  
  861.  
  862.  
  863. <p><em>Since 2012, Dr. Brian Noland has served as the ninth president of East Tennessee State University. Prior to that, he led the development and implementation of higher education policy in both Tennessee and West Virginia.</em></p>
  864. <p>The post <a href="https://dailyyonder.com/commentary-setting-up-a-successful-comeback/2024/02/27/">Commentary: Setting Up a Successful Comeback</a> appeared first on <a href="https://dailyyonder.com">The Daily Yonder</a>.</p>
  865. ]]></content:encoded>
  866. <wfw:commentRss>https://dailyyonder.com/commentary-setting-up-a-successful-comeback/2024/02/27/feed/</wfw:commentRss>
  867. <slash:comments>0</slash:comments>
  868. </item>
  869. <item>
  870. <title>Commentary: Access to Justice Is More Than a Punch Line in Rural Areas</title>
  871. <link>https://dailyyonder.com/commentary-access-to-justice-is-more-than-a-punch-line-in-rural-areas/2024/02/27/</link>
  872. <comments>https://dailyyonder.com/commentary-access-to-justice-is-more-than-a-punch-line-in-rural-areas/2024/02/27/#respond</comments>
  873. <dc:creator><![CDATA[Christopher Chavis]]></dc:creator>
  874. <pubDate>Tue, 27 Feb 2024 10:59:00 +0000</pubDate>
  875. <category><![CDATA[Arts and Culture]]></category>
  876. <category><![CDATA[Justice]]></category>
  877. <category><![CDATA[commentary]]></category>
  878. <guid isPermaLink="false">https://dailyyonder.com/?p=123270</guid>
  879.  
  880. <description><![CDATA[<figure><img width="1024" height="522" src="https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/my-cousin-vinny.png?fit=1024%2C522&amp;ssl=1" class="attachment-rss-image-size size-rss-image-size wp-post-image" alt="" decoding="async" srcset="https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/my-cousin-vinny.png?w=2732&amp;ssl=1 2732w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/my-cousin-vinny.png?resize=760%2C387&amp;ssl=1 760w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/my-cousin-vinny.png?resize=1296%2C660&amp;ssl=1 1296w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/my-cousin-vinny.png?resize=768%2C391&amp;ssl=1 768w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/my-cousin-vinny.png?resize=1536%2C783&amp;ssl=1 1536w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/my-cousin-vinny.png?resize=2048%2C1043&amp;ssl=1 2048w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/my-cousin-vinny.png?resize=1200%2C611&amp;ssl=1 1200w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/my-cousin-vinny.png?resize=1024%2C522&amp;ssl=1 1024w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/my-cousin-vinny.png?resize=1568%2C799&amp;ssl=1 1568w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/my-cousin-vinny.png?resize=400%2C204&amp;ssl=1 400w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/my-cousin-vinny.png?resize=706%2C360&amp;ssl=1 706w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/my-cousin-vinny.png?w=2340&amp;ssl=1 2340w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/my-cousin-vinny.png?fit=1024%2C522&amp;ssl=1&amp;w=370 370w" sizes="(max-width: 34.9rem) calc(100vw - 2rem), (max-width: 53rem) calc(8 * (100vw / 12)), (min-width: 53rem) calc(6 * (100vw / 12)), 100vw" /></figure>
  881. <p>How much do you know about the rural access-to-justice gap? You may not know the term, but you know what it means if you’ve heard or seen even small amounts of pop-culture media.  Think, for example, of “The Night the Lights Went Out in Georgia,” a song that was a hit for Vicki Lawrence in [&#8230;]</p>
  882. <p>The post <a href="https://dailyyonder.com/commentary-access-to-justice-is-more-than-a-punch-line-in-rural-areas/2024/02/27/">Commentary: Access to Justice Is More Than a Punch Line in Rural Areas</a> appeared first on <a href="https://dailyyonder.com">The Daily Yonder</a>.</p>
  883. ]]></description>
  884. <content:encoded><![CDATA[<figure><img width="1024" height="522" src="https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/my-cousin-vinny.png?fit=1024%2C522&amp;ssl=1" class="attachment-rss-image-size size-rss-image-size wp-post-image" alt="" decoding="async" srcset="https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/my-cousin-vinny.png?w=2732&amp;ssl=1 2732w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/my-cousin-vinny.png?resize=760%2C387&amp;ssl=1 760w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/my-cousin-vinny.png?resize=1296%2C660&amp;ssl=1 1296w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/my-cousin-vinny.png?resize=768%2C391&amp;ssl=1 768w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/my-cousin-vinny.png?resize=1536%2C783&amp;ssl=1 1536w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/my-cousin-vinny.png?resize=2048%2C1043&amp;ssl=1 2048w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/my-cousin-vinny.png?resize=1200%2C611&amp;ssl=1 1200w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/my-cousin-vinny.png?resize=1024%2C522&amp;ssl=1 1024w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/my-cousin-vinny.png?resize=1568%2C799&amp;ssl=1 1568w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/my-cousin-vinny.png?resize=400%2C204&amp;ssl=1 400w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/my-cousin-vinny.png?resize=706%2C360&amp;ssl=1 706w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/my-cousin-vinny.png?w=2340&amp;ssl=1 2340w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/my-cousin-vinny.png?fit=1024%2C522&amp;ssl=1&amp;w=370 370w" sizes="(max-width: 34.9rem) calc(100vw - 2rem), (max-width: 53rem) calc(8 * (100vw / 12)), (min-width: 53rem) calc(6 * (100vw / 12)), 100vw" /></figure>
  885. <p>How much do you know about the rural access-to-justice gap? You may not know the term, but you know what it means if you’ve heard or seen even small amounts of pop-culture media. </p>
  886.  
  887.  
  888.  
  889. <p>Think, for example, of “The Night the Lights Went Out in Georgia,” a song that was a hit for Vicki Lawrence in 1972 and Reba McEntire in 1991.&nbsp;</p>
  890.  
  891.  
  892.  
  893. <p>The murder ballad is complicated, but the rural justice gap is clear. An innocent man gets hung for murder because the sheriff jumps to a conclusion and a judge rushes the verdict so he can get home for supper.</p>
  894.  
  895.  
  896.  
  897. <p><em>That&#8217;s the night that the lights went out in Georgia</em><em><br></em><em>That&#8217;s the night that they hung an innocent man</em><em><br></em><em>Well, don&#8217;t trust your soul to no backwoods Southern lawyer</em><em><br></em><em>&#8216;Cause the judge in the town&#8217;s got bloodstains on his hands</em></p>
  898.  
  899.  
  900.  
  901. <p>In Harper Lee’s <em>To Kill a Mockingbird</em>, the accused has legal representation but is still wrongfully convicted.</p>
  902.  
  903.  
  904.  
  905. <p>Both of these fictional pop-culture touchstones take place in small towns and rural spaces and illustrate <em>why</em> it is important to address the access-to-justice gap.&nbsp;</p>
  906.  
  907.  
  908.  
  909. <p>Remember the emotion you felt the first time you heard “The Night the Lights Went Out in Georgia” or read the novel or saw the movie version of <em>Mockingbird</em>? You knew the results were unfair and something should have been done. This impetus for fairness is at the heart of efforts to improve access to legal justice in rural areas. </p>
  910.  
  911.  
  912.  
  913. <p>We need to make sure rural people have access to legal counsel and a fair opportunity to be heard in court. Your awareness can be turned into action. </p>
  914.  
  915.  
  916.  
  917. <p>The idea of injustice in rural spaces is embedded in other parts of our pop culture. Think about how often you see the trope of an outsider being unfairly targeted in a small town. An absurd example is the 1992 movie “My Cousin Vinny.” The premise of the movie was that a set of outsiders in a small town had been accused of a crime they did not commit.&nbsp;</p>
  918.  
  919.  
  920.  
  921. <p>Also in 1992 was Richard Marx’s song “Hazard,” which describes a kid who moves to a small Nebraska town at the age of 7. He’s treated as an outcast and accused of the murder of his only friend years later.&nbsp;</p>
  922.  
  923.  
  924.  
  925. <p>Depictions of small-town injustice aren’t confined to works of fiction. I grew up watching “Unsolved Mysteries,” an anthology series that regularly featured stories about crimes (and sometimes other events) that happened in communities around the country. The show often featured small-town and rural crimes that weren’t thoroughly investigated. And sometimes there was outright corruption in law enforcement.</p>
  926.  
  927.  
  928.  
  929. <p>The justice gap isn’t confined to rural areas, of course. But the shortage of lawyers in rural America exacerbates the problem.&nbsp;</p>
  930.  
  931.  
  932.  
  933. <p>The lawyer shortage was treated as a throwaway gag in the 1988 Chevy Chase film “Funny Farm.” In that film, a couple files for divorce and realizes there were only two lawyers in their Vermont town. The film makes light of the fact that these two lawyers were always opposite each other in court.&nbsp;</p>
  934.  
  935.  
  936.  
  937. <p>Between 15-20% of Americans live in rural communities, yet only 2% of lawyers practice there. A small number of lawyers in a space means that the existing lawyers are overworked and juggling a monumental number of cases. In a criminal court, that can mean defendants are more likely to be wrongfully convicted due to ineffective counsel. In a civil court, it makes it more likely that potential plaintiffs can’t sue someone who has wronged them. Your awareness of the problem is an asset. You can advocate for solutions, including <a href="https://dailyyonder.com/commentary-the-dismantling-of-rural-legal-aid/2022/12/01/">additional funding for Legal Services programs</a>. Our pop culture has normalized the access-to-justice gap. Let’s work together to overcome it.</p>
  938.  
  939.  
  940.  
  941. <hr class="wp-block-separator has-alpha-channel-opacity is-style-dots"/>
  942.  
  943.  
  944.  
  945. <p><em>Christopher Chavis grew up in rural Robeson County, North Carolina, and is a frequent writer and speaker on rural access-to-justice issues. He is a citizen of the Lumbee Tribe of North Carolina.</em></p>
  946. <p>The post <a href="https://dailyyonder.com/commentary-access-to-justice-is-more-than-a-punch-line-in-rural-areas/2024/02/27/">Commentary: Access to Justice Is More Than a Punch Line in Rural Areas</a> appeared first on <a href="https://dailyyonder.com">The Daily Yonder</a>.</p>
  947. ]]></content:encoded>
  948. <wfw:commentRss>https://dailyyonder.com/commentary-access-to-justice-is-more-than-a-punch-line-in-rural-areas/2024/02/27/feed/</wfw:commentRss>
  949. <slash:comments>0</slash:comments>
  950. </item>
  951. <item>
  952. <title>As the Number of American Farms and Farmers Declines, Agriculture Secretary Urges Climate Action to Reverse the Trend</title>
  953. <link>https://dailyyonder.com/as-the-number-of-american-farms-and-farmers-declines-agriculture-secretary-urges-climate-action-to-reverse-the-trend/2024/02/27/</link>
  954. <comments>https://dailyyonder.com/as-the-number-of-american-farms-and-farmers-declines-agriculture-secretary-urges-climate-action-to-reverse-the-trend/2024/02/27/#respond</comments>
  955. <dc:creator><![CDATA[Georgina Gustin / Inside Climate News]]></dc:creator>
  956. <pubDate>Tue, 27 Feb 2024 10:58:00 +0000</pubDate>
  957. <category><![CDATA[Agriculture]]></category>
  958. <category><![CDATA[Environment]]></category>
  959. <category><![CDATA[repub]]></category>
  960. <guid isPermaLink="false">https://dailyyonder.com/?p=123438</guid>
  961.  
  962. <description><![CDATA[<figure><img width="1024" height="576" src="https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/12162109155_74e0159f7e_k.jpg?fit=1024%2C576&amp;ssl=1" class="attachment-rss-image-size size-rss-image-size wp-post-image" alt="" decoding="async" srcset="https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/12162109155_74e0159f7e_k.jpg?w=2048&amp;ssl=1 2048w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/12162109155_74e0159f7e_k.jpg?resize=760%2C428&amp;ssl=1 760w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/12162109155_74e0159f7e_k.jpg?resize=1296%2C729&amp;ssl=1 1296w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/12162109155_74e0159f7e_k.jpg?resize=768%2C432&amp;ssl=1 768w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/12162109155_74e0159f7e_k.jpg?resize=1536%2C864&amp;ssl=1 1536w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/12162109155_74e0159f7e_k.jpg?resize=1200%2C675&amp;ssl=1 1200w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/12162109155_74e0159f7e_k.jpg?resize=1024%2C576&amp;ssl=1 1024w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/12162109155_74e0159f7e_k.jpg?resize=1568%2C882&amp;ssl=1 1568w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/12162109155_74e0159f7e_k.jpg?resize=400%2C225&amp;ssl=1 400w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/12162109155_74e0159f7e_k.jpg?resize=706%2C397&amp;ssl=1 706w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/12162109155_74e0159f7e_k.jpg?fit=1024%2C576&amp;ssl=1&amp;w=370 370w" sizes="(max-width: 34.9rem) calc(100vw - 2rem), (max-width: 53rem) calc(8 * (100vw / 12)), (min-width: 53rem) calc(6 * (100vw / 12)), 100vw" /></figure>
  963. <p>This story was originally published by Inside Climate News. On Tuesday, Agriculture Secretary Tom Vilsack helped unveil his agency’s&#160;Census of Agriculture, a huge quinquennial report that covers 6 million data points and gives the current state-of-the-state of American farms and farmers. In a presentation at the Department of Agriculture (USDA), Vilsack underscored his main takeaway: [&#8230;]</p>
  964. <p>The post <a href="https://dailyyonder.com/as-the-number-of-american-farms-and-farmers-declines-agriculture-secretary-urges-climate-action-to-reverse-the-trend/2024/02/27/">As the Number of American Farms and Farmers Declines, Agriculture Secretary Urges Climate Action to Reverse the Trend</a> appeared first on <a href="https://dailyyonder.com">The Daily Yonder</a>.</p>
  965. ]]></description>
  966. <content:encoded><![CDATA[<figure><img width="1024" height="576" src="https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/12162109155_74e0159f7e_k.jpg?fit=1024%2C576&amp;ssl=1" class="attachment-rss-image-size size-rss-image-size wp-post-image" alt="" decoding="async" srcset="https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/12162109155_74e0159f7e_k.jpg?w=2048&amp;ssl=1 2048w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/12162109155_74e0159f7e_k.jpg?resize=760%2C428&amp;ssl=1 760w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/12162109155_74e0159f7e_k.jpg?resize=1296%2C729&amp;ssl=1 1296w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/12162109155_74e0159f7e_k.jpg?resize=768%2C432&amp;ssl=1 768w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/12162109155_74e0159f7e_k.jpg?resize=1536%2C864&amp;ssl=1 1536w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/12162109155_74e0159f7e_k.jpg?resize=1200%2C675&amp;ssl=1 1200w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/12162109155_74e0159f7e_k.jpg?resize=1024%2C576&amp;ssl=1 1024w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/12162109155_74e0159f7e_k.jpg?resize=1568%2C882&amp;ssl=1 1568w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/12162109155_74e0159f7e_k.jpg?resize=400%2C225&amp;ssl=1 400w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/12162109155_74e0159f7e_k.jpg?resize=706%2C397&amp;ssl=1 706w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/12162109155_74e0159f7e_k.jpg?fit=1024%2C576&amp;ssl=1&amp;w=370 370w" sizes="(max-width: 34.9rem) calc(100vw - 2rem), (max-width: 53rem) calc(8 * (100vw / 12)), (min-width: 53rem) calc(6 * (100vw / 12)), 100vw" /></figure>
  967. <p class="has-text-align-center"><em>This story was originally published by <a href="https://insideclimatenews.org/news/14022024/as-the-number-of-american-farms-and-farmers-declines-agriculture-secretary-urges-climate-action-to-reverse-the-trend/">Inside Climate News</a>.</em></p>
  968.  
  969.  
  970.  
  971. <p>On Tuesday, Agriculture Secretary Tom Vilsack helped unveil his agency’s&nbsp;<a href="https://www.nass.usda.gov/AgCensus/">Census of Agriculture</a>, a huge quinquennial report that covers 6 million data points and gives the current state-of-the-state of American farms and farmers.</p>
  972.  
  973.  
  974.  
  975. <p>In a presentation at the Department of Agriculture (USDA), Vilsack underscored his main takeaway: The number of American farms and farmers continues to decline, a fact that has broad consequences, he argued, beyond farming itself.</p>
  976.  
  977.  
  978.  
  979. <p>“I’m concerned about the state of agriculture and food production in this country,” he said, before ticking off a few numbers to make his point.</p>
  980.  
  981.  
  982.  
  983. <p>In 2017, the year the previous report covered, the country had 2,042,220 farms. In 2022, it had 1,900,487. In that same span, the number of farmed acres dropped from almost 900 million acres to 880 million—a loss in area the size of all the New England states, minus Connecticut, Vilsack noted.</p>
  984.  
  985.  
  986.  
  987. <p>The drop, Vilsack argued, has caused ripple effects across rural America, resulting in the loss of schools, businesses and healthcare infrastructure, and the overall hollowing out of farming communities.</p>
  988.  
  989.  
  990.  
  991. <p>One way to reverse the trend, he said, is to boost support for agricultural methods and practices that have climate benefits so farmers can earn money for them.</p>
  992.  
  993.  
  994.  
  995. <p>“It’s important for us to invest in climate-smart agriculture,” Vilsack said, “because that creates an opportunity for farmers to qualify, potentially, for ecosystem service market credits, which is cash coming into the farm for environmental results that can only occur on the farm. The farm then creates a second source of income.”</p>
  996.  
  997.  
  998.  
  999. <p>In other words, Vilsack argued, climate action could help save the American farm.</p>
  1000.  
  1001.  
  1002.  
  1003. <p>The problem, the census data suggest, is that American farms, especially big factory farms that generate significant greenhouse gas emissions, are growing in size. The data also show that, overall, more government support is flowing to larger or more profitable operations. According to the census, these farms are using more of the precious and drought-depleted water supplies that climate change is projected to deplete even more, especially in the West.</p>
  1004.  
  1005.  
  1006.  
  1007. <p>“This tells a compelling story, across all of these things,” said Anne Schechinger, the Midwest director of the Environmental Working Group (EWG). “It’s a clear picture that these larger farms are doing the best and are benefitting the most from government policies.”</p>
  1008.  
  1009.  
  1010.  
  1011. <p>Researchers and advocacy groups pored over the data after it was released Tuesday afternoon, trying to tease out trends.</p>
  1012.  
  1013.  
  1014.  
  1015. <p>The number of cattle, the biggest source of agricultural greenhouse gas emissions—both from burps and manure storage—actually went down by 5.6 million over the 2017 census. But the number of cattle in large dairies and feedlots—and the overall number of larger dairies and feedlots—went up.</p>
  1016.  
  1017.  
  1018.  
  1019. <p>An analysis of the data by the advocacy group Food &amp; Water Watch found the number of animals raised on large, factory-scale farms rose by 6 percent over 2017 and by 47 percent over 2002. That translates to more animals in concentrated areas, generating more manure that’s disposed of in pits and lagoons where it emits more methane, an especially potent greenhouse gas.</p>
  1020.  
  1021.  
  1022.  
  1023. <p>“We haven’t seen a huge difference in the number of dairy cows,” said Amanda Starbuck, the group’s research director. “But because there’s a shift to these big facilities, we’ve seen an increase in emissions from manure management.” (According to the Environmental Protection Agency’s&nbsp;<a href="https://www.epa.gov/system/files/documents/2023-04/US-GHG-Inventory-2023-Main-Text.pdf">most recent</a>&nbsp;Greenhouse Gas Inventory, methane emissions from manure management rose from 39 million metric tons in 1990 to 66 million in 2021. When animals are raised on pasture, their manure releases very little methane.)&nbsp;</p>
  1024.  
  1025.  
  1026.  
  1027. <p>The EWG analysis found similar trends. The number of the largest cattle farms—those with 5,000 or more cattle per farm—has grown from about 1,100 in 2012 to just under 1,450 in 2022, an increase of nearly 30 percent. Of the “Big Three” livestock—cattle, chicken and hogs—the number of animals produced in the largest farms also went up, by about 28 percent for cows, and 24 percent for hogs and chickens.</p>
  1028.  
  1029.  
  1030.  
  1031. <p>As for farm economics, Schechinger noted that the most recent income data suggest that farmers are actually doing pretty well and that farm income is roughly at its 20-year average.</p>
  1032.  
  1033.  
  1034.  
  1035. <p>“Farmers don’t need more sources of revenue,” she said, referring to Vilsack’s comments. “They’re already getting subsidies and crop insurance, not to mention we have high farm incomes generally.”</p>
  1036.  
  1037.  
  1038.  
  1039. <p>Schechinger’s&nbsp;<a href="https://insideclimatenews.org/news/28092022/usda-conservation-funding-climate-smart-agriculture/">analyses</a>&nbsp;in the past have found that much of the money the Agriculture Department spends on conservation tends to flow to big-ticket items, such as irrigation systems and methane digesters, which generally go to bigger farms.</p>
  1040.  
  1041.  
  1042.  
  1043. <p>“Conservation money shouldn’t be viewed as a revenue generator,” she added. “It should be viewed as having a climate benefit for the taxpayer money.”</p>
  1044.  
  1045.  
  1046.  
  1047. <p>In his presentation Tuesday, Vilsack referred to the agency’s push to build voluntary carbon markets in which farmers get paid for practices—planting cover crops, stopping tillage and employing so-called adaptive grazing—that sequester carbon or limit emissions. Polluters seeking to offset emissions then purchase those credits.&nbsp;</p>
  1048.  
  1049.  
  1050.  
  1051. <p>The Biden administration has attempted to&nbsp;<a href="https://insideclimatenews.org/news/04012021/biden-climate-plan-agriculture-farmers-tom-vilsack/">make farmers central</a>&nbsp;in its efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and has directed nearly $20 billion to the USDA for climate and conservation programs through the Inflation Reduction Act.</p>
  1052.  
  1053.  
  1054.  
  1055. <p>But to some analysts, the new census suggests that agricultural policy continues to enrich the biggest players at the expense of farmers and the climate.</p>
  1056.  
  1057.  
  1058.  
  1059. <p>“Vilsack is talking about a system that doesn’t benefit farmers; it benefits big food companies and ethanol producers,” said Ben Lilliston, director of rural strategies and climate change&nbsp; at the Institute for Agriculture and Trade Policy. “He’s spinning climate action and is missing some of the lessons of the data that tell us the markets aren’t working. Farmers need to get paid fairly. Farmers are weak players in the market right now. That’s the fundamental problem.”</p>
  1060.  
  1061.  
  1062.  
  1063. <p>“We don’t need to create other income streams that others can capitalize on,” Lilliston added, referring to carbon markets. “If farmers are doing things that are climate-smart, they should be paid a premium for it.”</p>
  1064.  
  1065.  
  1066.  
  1067. <hr class="wp-block-separator has-alpha-channel-opacity is-style-dots"/>
  1068.  
  1069.  
  1070.  
  1071. <p><em>Georgina Gustin covers agriculture for Inside Climate News, and has reported on the intersections of farming, food systems and the environment for much of her journalism career.  </em></p>
  1072. <p>The post <a href="https://dailyyonder.com/as-the-number-of-american-farms-and-farmers-declines-agriculture-secretary-urges-climate-action-to-reverse-the-trend/2024/02/27/">As the Number of American Farms and Farmers Declines, Agriculture Secretary Urges Climate Action to Reverse the Trend</a> appeared first on <a href="https://dailyyonder.com">The Daily Yonder</a>.</p>
  1073. ]]></content:encoded>
  1074. <wfw:commentRss>https://dailyyonder.com/as-the-number-of-american-farms-and-farmers-declines-agriculture-secretary-urges-climate-action-to-reverse-the-trend/2024/02/27/feed/</wfw:commentRss>
  1075. <slash:comments>0</slash:comments>
  1076. </item>
  1077. <item>
  1078. <title>Commentary: Carl Albert Didn’t Fall for the ‘White, Rural Rage’ Stereotype. We Shouldn’t Either.</title>
  1079. <link>https://dailyyonder.com/commentary-carl-albert-didnt-fall-for-the-white-rural-rage-stereotype-we-shouldnt-either/2024/02/26/</link>
  1080. <comments>https://dailyyonder.com/commentary-carl-albert-didnt-fall-for-the-white-rural-rage-stereotype-we-shouldnt-either/2024/02/26/#respond</comments>
  1081. <dc:creator><![CDATA[Jeffery H. Bloodworth]]></dc:creator>
  1082. <pubDate>Mon, 26 Feb 2024 11:00:00 +0000</pubDate>
  1083. <category><![CDATA[History]]></category>
  1084. <category><![CDATA[Politics and Government]]></category>
  1085. <category><![CDATA[Rural Life]]></category>
  1086. <category><![CDATA[Rural Voters]]></category>
  1087. <category><![CDATA[commentary]]></category>
  1088. <guid isPermaLink="false">https://dailyyonder.com/?p=123656</guid>
  1089.  
  1090. <description><![CDATA[<figure><img width="1024" height="702" src="https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/AP680827037-scaled.jpg?fit=1024%2C702&amp;ssl=1" class="attachment-rss-image-size size-rss-image-size wp-post-image" alt="Carl Albert stands at a podium and waves to his right" decoding="async" srcset="https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/AP680827037-scaled.jpg?w=2560&amp;ssl=1 2560w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/AP680827037-scaled.jpg?resize=760%2C521&amp;ssl=1 760w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/AP680827037-scaled.jpg?resize=1296%2C888&amp;ssl=1 1296w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/AP680827037-scaled.jpg?resize=768%2C526&amp;ssl=1 768w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/AP680827037-scaled.jpg?resize=1536%2C1053&amp;ssl=1 1536w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/AP680827037-scaled.jpg?resize=2048%2C1404&amp;ssl=1 2048w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/AP680827037-scaled.jpg?resize=1200%2C822&amp;ssl=1 1200w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/AP680827037-scaled.jpg?resize=1024%2C702&amp;ssl=1 1024w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/AP680827037-scaled.jpg?resize=1568%2C1075&amp;ssl=1 1568w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/AP680827037-scaled.jpg?resize=400%2C274&amp;ssl=1 400w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/AP680827037-scaled.jpg?resize=706%2C484&amp;ssl=1 706w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/AP680827037-scaled.jpg?w=2340&amp;ssl=1 2340w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/AP680827037-scaled.jpg?fit=1024%2C702&amp;ssl=1&amp;w=370 370w" sizes="(max-width: 34.9rem) calc(100vw - 2rem), (max-width: 53rem) calc(8 * (100vw / 12)), (min-width: 53rem) calc(6 * (100vw / 12)), 100vw" /></figure>
  1091. <p>Carl Albert always fretted; But in 1968 the chronic worrywart had every reason for concern. A 22-year veteran of Congress, Albert represented Oklahoma’s rural third district. Nestled in the state’s southeast corner perpendicular to Arkansas and parallel to Texas, “Little Dixie,” as it was called, was restless. Vietnam, inflation, crime, and riots had riled voters. [&#8230;]</p>
  1092. <p>The post <a href="https://dailyyonder.com/commentary-carl-albert-didnt-fall-for-the-white-rural-rage-stereotype-we-shouldnt-either/2024/02/26/">Commentary: Carl Albert Didn’t Fall for the ‘White, Rural Rage’ Stereotype. We Shouldn’t Either.</a> appeared first on <a href="https://dailyyonder.com">The Daily Yonder</a>.</p>
  1093. ]]></description>
  1094. <content:encoded><![CDATA[<figure><img width="1024" height="702" src="https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/AP680827037-scaled.jpg?fit=1024%2C702&amp;ssl=1" class="attachment-rss-image-size size-rss-image-size wp-post-image" alt="Carl Albert stands at a podium and waves to his right" decoding="async" srcset="https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/AP680827037-scaled.jpg?w=2560&amp;ssl=1 2560w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/AP680827037-scaled.jpg?resize=760%2C521&amp;ssl=1 760w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/AP680827037-scaled.jpg?resize=1296%2C888&amp;ssl=1 1296w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/AP680827037-scaled.jpg?resize=768%2C526&amp;ssl=1 768w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/AP680827037-scaled.jpg?resize=1536%2C1053&amp;ssl=1 1536w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/AP680827037-scaled.jpg?resize=2048%2C1404&amp;ssl=1 2048w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/AP680827037-scaled.jpg?resize=1200%2C822&amp;ssl=1 1200w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/AP680827037-scaled.jpg?resize=1024%2C702&amp;ssl=1 1024w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/AP680827037-scaled.jpg?resize=1568%2C1075&amp;ssl=1 1568w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/AP680827037-scaled.jpg?resize=400%2C274&amp;ssl=1 400w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/AP680827037-scaled.jpg?resize=706%2C484&amp;ssl=1 706w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/AP680827037-scaled.jpg?w=2340&amp;ssl=1 2340w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/AP680827037-scaled.jpg?fit=1024%2C702&amp;ssl=1&amp;w=370 370w" sizes="(max-width: 34.9rem) calc(100vw - 2rem), (max-width: 53rem) calc(8 * (100vw / 12)), (min-width: 53rem) calc(6 * (100vw / 12)), 100vw" /></figure>
  1095. <p>Carl Albert <em>always</em> fretted; But in 1968 the chronic worrywart had every reason for concern. A 22-year veteran of Congress, Albert represented Oklahoma’s rural third district. Nestled in the state’s southeast corner perpendicular to Arkansas and parallel to Texas, “Little Dixie,” as it was called, was restless. Vietnam, inflation, crime, and riots had riled voters. And Albert was not only a Democrat, he was the <em>very </em>liberal House Majority Leader responsible for the Great Society and Civil Rights. </p>
  1096.  
  1097.  
  1098.  
  1099. <p>In truth, Albert was really the <em>junior</em> Speaker of the House. The septuagenarian speaker, John McCormack, kept banker’s hours. That left Albert to pull double duty. Throughout the 1960s, he had little time to visit Oklahoma and reconnect with voters. The double workload eventually caused a major heart attack that kept him convalescing in Washington for most of 1967. In 1968, Albert looked to his reelection race with dread. So, he did something wholly unfamiliar to 2024 Americans: He listened.</p>
  1100.  
  1101.  
  1102.  
  1103. <p>Contemporary Americans are a lonely, isolated bunch. A decade ago, Jonathan Haidt, a New York University psychologist, noticed this in his students. Alarmed, he <a href="https://www.theatlantic.com/ideas/archive/2021/11/facebooks-dangerous-experiment-teen-girls/620767/">studied</a> the phenomenon and discovered a <a href="https://www.penguinrandomhouse.com/books/729231/the-anxious-generation-by-jonathan-haidt/">causal link</a> between social media, smart phones, and spiraling rates of adolescent depression and anxiety. But Haidt’s conclusions are not limited to teens and twentysomethings.&nbsp;</p>
  1104.  
  1105.  
  1106.  
  1107. <p>Social media and smart phones have catalyzed a pre-existing condition afflicting nearly every American. In his 2000 book <a href="https://muse.jhu.edu/article/16643"><em>Bowling Alone</em></a>, the sociologist Robert Putnam observed that Americans fraternized much less than in the past. The internet, social media, and smart phones have amplified this phenomenon leading to what the writer Derek Thompson calls a “<a href="https://www.theatlantic.com/ideas/archive/2024/02/america-decline-hanging-out/677451/">crisis of social fitness</a>,” which has spawned a “<a href="https://www.americansurveycenter.org/newsletter/americas-friendship-recession-is-weakening-civic-life/">friendship recession</a>.”</p>
  1108.  
  1109.  
  1110.  
  1111. <p>Over the past two decades, real-life socializing for American men has fallen by <a href="about:blank">30-percent</a>. Single Americans have experienced a more precipitous drop. Today, 33-percent of Americans claim they have “<a href="https://www.americansurveycenter.org/newsletter/americas-friendship-recession-is-weakening-civic-life/">no close friends</a>.” Staring into your smart phone affixed to social media has replaced books clubs, bowling leagues, and the dinner party. And we are glued to a social media, as <a href="https://www.spectator.co.uk/article/childhood-has-been-rewired-professor-jonathan-haidt-on-how-smartphones-are-damaging-a-generation/">Haidt</a> and others have shown, that depict a world in “permanent conflict” making us fretful and downcast. We stare out onto the world peeking through our veritable blinds, isolated and afraid.&nbsp;</p>
  1112.  
  1113.  
  1114.  
  1115. <p>This is what makes Tom Schaller and Paul Waldman’s new book, <a href="https://www.penguinrandomhouse.com/books/734507/white-rural-rage-by-tom-schaller-and-paul-waldman/"><em>White Rural Rage</em></a><em> </em>so predictable—and maddening. Rather than listen and understand complicated, three-dimensional rural Americans, they stereotype. Their analysis is an amalgam of our collective ills. Unwilling to reach across the divide, Schaller and Waldman gorge themselves on the negative and nihilistic. Then they regurgitate every rural, red America stereotype imaginable.&nbsp;</p>
  1116.  
  1117.  
  1118.  
  1119. <p>Treated as a favored “essential minority,” the authors claim “rural white rage” emanates from an inability to make good use of their disproportionate electoral power. In their view, rural whites vote Republican, only to see their economic straits devolve. Angered at this turnabout, they flocked to Donald Trump. To Schaller and Waldman, it is the rural white vote that is solely responsible for Trumpism. Due to their lockstep support for Trump, these voters pose an existential threat to American democracy. <a href="https://www.kirkusreviews.com/book-reviews/tom-schaller/white-rural-rage-heartland/">Kirkus Reviews</a> neatly summarizes their argument, “A view of rural America as a font of white privilege—and of resentment that the privileges aren’t greater.”</p>
  1120.  
  1121.  
  1122.  
  1123. <p>It is true that <a href="https://www.usatoday.com/story/news/politics/elections/2024/01/28/rural-voters-favor-trump/72337833007/">65%</a> of rural Americans voted Trump in 2020. It is also true that the Electoral College and US Senate give rural Americans outsized political power. But fewer than <a href="https://www.census.gov/library/stories/2017/08/rural-america.html">1-in-5 Americans</a> live in rural environs. The vast majority of Trump’s <a href="https://www.usatoday.com/story/news/factcheck/2020/12/30/fact-check-fals-president-than-were-registered-u-s/4010087001/">74 million</a> votes in 2020 came from suburban and urban voters. But Schaller and Waldman are wholly uninterested in these facts. Their argument is little more than a redux of Frank Rich’s 2017 <em>New York Magazine</em> hit piece, “<a href="https://nymag.com/intelligencer/2017/03/frank-rich-no-sympathy-for-the-hillbilly.html">No Sympathy for the Hillbilly</a>.”&nbsp;</p>
  1124.  
  1125.  
  1126.  
  1127. <p><a href="https://www.politico.com/news/magazine/2020/12/01/democrats-rural-vote-wisconsin-441458">Bill Hogseth</a>, chair of the Dunn County Democratic Party in Wisconsin, begs to differ. The Democratic leader of a rural county understands his neighbor’s challenges start with the economy. In 2020, Trump won <a href="https://www.brookings.edu/articles/biden-voting-counties-equal-70-of-americas-economy-what-does-this-mean-for-the-nations-political-economic-divide/">2,547 counties</a>. Collectively they account for a dismal 29% of America’s GDP. Biden’s 509 counties generate 71% of the nation’s GDP. This economic divide cascades across every facet of rural American life. Today, rural Americans trail their urban counterparts in every meaningful metric except <a href="https://www.publichealthpost.org/databyte/geography-of-despair/">stress-related deaths</a>. In 2018 Hillary Clinton <a href="https://dailyyonder.com/editors-note-clintons-red-america-comments-show-true-colors/2018/03/13/">bragged</a> that she won the counties responsible for two-thirds of the nation’s GDP. Instead of boasting, she should have been ashamed that the Democratic Party performed so poorly in the places the American economy was leaving behind.</p>
  1128.  
  1129.  
  1130.  
  1131. <p>Hogseth believes his friends and neighbors vote Trump because “rural people do not feel it is taken seriously by the Democratic Party.” I have written <a href="https://www.jeffbloodworth.com/">scads</a> of articles and a <a href="https://www.kentuckypress.com/9780813142296/losing-the-center/">book</a> on liberalism’s relationship with working class and rural Americans. I am midway through a biography on Speaker Carl Albert. Hogseth could not be more correct. Democrats all but booted rural whites from the party. Rather than learn the history of this political malpractice, Schaller and Waldman castigate rural voters.&nbsp;</p>
  1132.  
  1133.  
  1134.  
  1135. <p>Yes, Trump is a demagogue and a charlatan. It is true that right wing media spreads conspiracy theories and lies. But rural Americans are not budding authoritarians who represent the enemy within. They vote GOP because Democrats have ignored them for a generation. Hogseth is correct in thinking “Democrats can win rural Wisconsin again, but they’ll need to try.” They need look no further than Carl Albert’s example.<strong>&nbsp;</strong></p>
  1136.  
  1137.  
  1138.  
  1139. <p>In April 1968, Albert rightly feared for his political future. Inflation was high. Vietnam was hot. Riots raged. Voters were upset. And a 1966 court ruling had almost doubled Albert’s third district. Overnight, the Congressman had 170,000 new constituents across nine rural counties. The Majority Leader didn’t plaster the airwaves with ads. Instead, the nation’s second most powerful Democrat got into a car and road tripped across rural Oklahoma. Without any staff or much preparation, he spent five-days visiting 27 rural towns and tiny communities to meet his voters.</p>
  1140.  
  1141.  
  1142.  
  1143. <p>In these towns, Albert would amble into gas stations and grocery stores to introduce himself to anyone and everyone. Taking copious notes, he found “there was plenty of grumbling about the riots,” but over five-days he encountered only one “real redneck on the race question.” Arriving in McCurtain, Oklahoma, at 7 p.m., the local gas station, which doubled as the town grocery, was the only open business. Albert introduced himself to the owner, which resulted in a phone call to the mayor that led to an impromptu community meeting at a closed department store that lasted until 10 p.m.&nbsp;</p>
  1144.  
  1145.  
  1146.  
  1147. <p>Stops at local newspapers and banks resulted in earfuls about “the riots.” But Albert knew it was better to have constituents vent their spleen than ruminate in silence. Spontaneous visits to a store led to spur-of-the-moment invites to Rotary Clubs that resulted in unplanned radio interviews which spawned unexpected offers to speak at school assemblies. Word spread. Rural Oklahomans liked that their congressman shook their hand and asked their thoughts. Five days after the road trip commenced, Albert, the world class worrywart, concluded, “I feel we will have no trouble in these communities.”&nbsp;</p>
  1148.  
  1149.  
  1150.  
  1151. <p>Throughout the summer Albert traversed his district. He mended fences. He established new friendships. The liberal won reelection with 68% of the vote.&nbsp;</p>
  1152.  
  1153.  
  1154.  
  1155. <p>Mr. Schaller and Waldman, rural whites aren’t a threat to American democracy. A rural-urban economic divide, cable news, doom scrolling, and “Bowling Alone” endanger it. Ultimately, our “crisis of social fitness” is the problem. And Carl Albert shows us the way to repair it.</p>
  1156.  
  1157.  
  1158.  
  1159. <hr class="wp-block-separator has-alpha-channel-opacity is-style-dots"/>
  1160.  
  1161.  
  1162.  
  1163. <p><em>Jeffery H. Bloodworth is a professor of political history at Gannon University in Erie, Pennsylvania. He is the author of the forthcoming book&nbsp;</em>Heartland Liberal: The Life &amp; Times of Speaker Carl Albert<em>.</em></p>
  1164. <p>The post <a href="https://dailyyonder.com/commentary-carl-albert-didnt-fall-for-the-white-rural-rage-stereotype-we-shouldnt-either/2024/02/26/">Commentary: Carl Albert Didn’t Fall for the ‘White, Rural Rage’ Stereotype. We Shouldn’t Either.</a> appeared first on <a href="https://dailyyonder.com">The Daily Yonder</a>.</p>
  1165. ]]></content:encoded>
  1166. <wfw:commentRss>https://dailyyonder.com/commentary-carl-albert-didnt-fall-for-the-white-rural-rage-stereotype-we-shouldnt-either/2024/02/26/feed/</wfw:commentRss>
  1167. <slash:comments>0</slash:comments>
  1168. </item>
  1169. <item>
  1170. <title>Oklahoma State University Program to Boost Online Retail Opportunities in Rural Areas</title>
  1171. <link>https://dailyyonder.com/oklahoma-state-university-program-to-boost-online-retail-opportunities-in-rural-areas/2024/02/26/</link>
  1172. <comments>https://dailyyonder.com/oklahoma-state-university-program-to-boost-online-retail-opportunities-in-rural-areas/2024/02/26/#respond</comments>
  1173. <dc:creator><![CDATA[Kristi Eaton]]></dc:creator>
  1174. <pubDate>Mon, 26 Feb 2024 10:59:00 +0000</pubDate>
  1175. <category><![CDATA[Broadband and Technology]]></category>
  1176. <category><![CDATA[Economy]]></category>
  1177. <category><![CDATA[Politics and Government]]></category>
  1178. <guid isPermaLink="false">https://dailyyonder.com/?p=123399</guid>
  1179.  
  1180. <description><![CDATA[<figure><img width="1024" height="683" src="https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/rupixen-com-Q59HmzK38eQ-unsplash-scaled.jpg?fit=1024%2C683&amp;ssl=1" class="attachment-rss-image-size size-rss-image-size wp-post-image" alt="" decoding="async" srcset="https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/rupixen-com-Q59HmzK38eQ-unsplash-scaled.jpg?w=2560&amp;ssl=1 2560w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/rupixen-com-Q59HmzK38eQ-unsplash-scaled.jpg?resize=760%2C507&amp;ssl=1 760w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/rupixen-com-Q59HmzK38eQ-unsplash-scaled.jpg?resize=1296%2C864&amp;ssl=1 1296w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/rupixen-com-Q59HmzK38eQ-unsplash-scaled.jpg?resize=768%2C512&amp;ssl=1 768w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/rupixen-com-Q59HmzK38eQ-unsplash-scaled.jpg?resize=1536%2C1024&amp;ssl=1 1536w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/rupixen-com-Q59HmzK38eQ-unsplash-scaled.jpg?resize=2048%2C1365&amp;ssl=1 2048w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/rupixen-com-Q59HmzK38eQ-unsplash-scaled.jpg?resize=1200%2C800&amp;ssl=1 1200w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/rupixen-com-Q59HmzK38eQ-unsplash-scaled.jpg?resize=1024%2C683&amp;ssl=1 1024w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/rupixen-com-Q59HmzK38eQ-unsplash-scaled.jpg?resize=600%2C400&amp;ssl=1 600w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/rupixen-com-Q59HmzK38eQ-unsplash-scaled.jpg?resize=1568%2C1045&amp;ssl=1 1568w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/rupixen-com-Q59HmzK38eQ-unsplash-scaled.jpg?resize=400%2C267&amp;ssl=1 400w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/rupixen-com-Q59HmzK38eQ-unsplash-scaled.jpg?resize=706%2C471&amp;ssl=1 706w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/rupixen-com-Q59HmzK38eQ-unsplash-scaled.jpg?w=2340&amp;ssl=1 2340w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/rupixen-com-Q59HmzK38eQ-unsplash-scaled.jpg?fit=1024%2C683&amp;ssl=1&amp;w=370 370w" sizes="(max-width: 34.9rem) calc(100vw - 2rem), (max-width: 53rem) calc(8 * (100vw / 12)), (min-width: 53rem) calc(6 * (100vw / 12)), 100vw" /></figure>
  1181. <p>A new program from Oklahoma State University aims to offer support to rural retailers as they transition to more online sales, and an expert in the field and fellow e-commerce owner say they believe the program is a step in the right direction.&#160; The Oklahoma Rural E-Commerce Academy is a two-year, grant-funded program that will [&#8230;]</p>
  1182. <p>The post <a href="https://dailyyonder.com/oklahoma-state-university-program-to-boost-online-retail-opportunities-in-rural-areas/2024/02/26/">Oklahoma State University Program to Boost Online Retail Opportunities in Rural Areas</a> appeared first on <a href="https://dailyyonder.com">The Daily Yonder</a>.</p>
  1183. ]]></description>
  1184. <content:encoded><![CDATA[<figure><img width="1024" height="683" src="https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/rupixen-com-Q59HmzK38eQ-unsplash-scaled.jpg?fit=1024%2C683&amp;ssl=1" class="attachment-rss-image-size size-rss-image-size wp-post-image" alt="" decoding="async" srcset="https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/rupixen-com-Q59HmzK38eQ-unsplash-scaled.jpg?w=2560&amp;ssl=1 2560w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/rupixen-com-Q59HmzK38eQ-unsplash-scaled.jpg?resize=760%2C507&amp;ssl=1 760w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/rupixen-com-Q59HmzK38eQ-unsplash-scaled.jpg?resize=1296%2C864&amp;ssl=1 1296w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/rupixen-com-Q59HmzK38eQ-unsplash-scaled.jpg?resize=768%2C512&amp;ssl=1 768w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/rupixen-com-Q59HmzK38eQ-unsplash-scaled.jpg?resize=1536%2C1024&amp;ssl=1 1536w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/rupixen-com-Q59HmzK38eQ-unsplash-scaled.jpg?resize=2048%2C1365&amp;ssl=1 2048w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/rupixen-com-Q59HmzK38eQ-unsplash-scaled.jpg?resize=1200%2C800&amp;ssl=1 1200w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/rupixen-com-Q59HmzK38eQ-unsplash-scaled.jpg?resize=1024%2C683&amp;ssl=1 1024w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/rupixen-com-Q59HmzK38eQ-unsplash-scaled.jpg?resize=600%2C400&amp;ssl=1 600w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/rupixen-com-Q59HmzK38eQ-unsplash-scaled.jpg?resize=1568%2C1045&amp;ssl=1 1568w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/rupixen-com-Q59HmzK38eQ-unsplash-scaled.jpg?resize=400%2C267&amp;ssl=1 400w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/rupixen-com-Q59HmzK38eQ-unsplash-scaled.jpg?resize=706%2C471&amp;ssl=1 706w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/rupixen-com-Q59HmzK38eQ-unsplash-scaled.jpg?w=2340&amp;ssl=1 2340w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/rupixen-com-Q59HmzK38eQ-unsplash-scaled.jpg?fit=1024%2C683&amp;ssl=1&amp;w=370 370w" sizes="(max-width: 34.9rem) calc(100vw - 2rem), (max-width: 53rem) calc(8 * (100vw / 12)), (min-width: 53rem) calc(6 * (100vw / 12)), 100vw" /></figure>
  1185. <p>A new program from Oklahoma State University aims to offer support to rural retailers as they transition to more online sales, and an expert in the field and fellow e-commerce owner say they believe the program is a step in the right direction.&nbsp;</p>
  1186.  
  1187.  
  1188.  
  1189. <p>The Oklahoma Rural E-Commerce Academy is a two-year, grant-funded program that will support rural business owners with technical assistance, training and digital retail workshops. The Academy will focus on five counties in the state: Garfield, Grant, Kay, Noble and Payne.</p>
  1190.  
  1191.  
  1192.  
  1193. <p>“This program is a small business development tool that should yield immediate benefits for rural retailers, enabling them to compete in regional and global markets,” Andrew Van Leuven, assistant professor in the OSU Department of Agricultural Economics in the Ferguson College of Agriculture, said in a press statement.&nbsp;</p>
  1194.  
  1195.  
  1196.  
  1197. <p>“The accompanying research will provide feedback to continually improve and refine the training and workshops as well as practical, evidence-based knowledge for policymakers and community leaders in Oklahoma and other states.”</p>
  1198.  
  1199.  
  1200.  
  1201. <p>Rasha Ahmed is an associate professor of economics at Trinity College in Hartford, Connecticut, and as part of her work she analyzed the competition in the retail sector that led to the demise of “mom and pop” stores, and currently examines the rise of online shopping in the age of information technology.</p>
  1202.  
  1203.  
  1204.  
  1205. <p>Many such programs like the one at OSU are subsidized by the government, Ahmed said. When those subsidies go away, the costs may be more for the consumer, and that’s where it’ll be interesting to see if the consumer is willing to pay more for online purchases, she added.</p>
  1206.  
  1207.  
  1208.  
  1209. <p>Lou Haverty, meanwhile, owns an e-commerce business that caters to farmers and other rural customers. He sells water tanks and fuel tanks to customers all over the country.&nbsp;</p>
  1210.  
  1211.  
  1212.  
  1213. <p>“It&#8217;s a little bit of an obscure market where a lot of people may not have thought about it. But I think that&#8217;s part of why it works well,” he told the Daily Yonder.&nbsp;</p>
  1214.  
  1215.  
  1216.  
  1217. <p>Haverty said he believes the OSU program is a good idea because the focus &#8211; like with his business &#8211; is on customer service.&nbsp;</p>
  1218.  
  1219.  
  1220.  
  1221. <p><br>“In fact, I picture my business as being a local, brick and mortar retailer from probably 10 to 15 years ago that, prior to the internet, if you needed to purchase something, you would go to your local store, and have a conversation with someone who was knowledgeable, friendly and easy to approach,” he said. “You didn&#8217;t feel like you&#8217;re getting sold to or someone was trying to jam something down your throat, but you got easy information, someone was there to ask questions when you needed to talk to them.”</p>
  1222.  
  1223.  
  1224.  
  1225. <p>He said he has tried to recreate that in the modern world.&nbsp;</p>
  1226.  
  1227.  
  1228.  
  1229. <p>“I have a pretty tight focus on very specific products that I sell. And I have extended calling hours, which is one thing that I think really separates me from other businesses,” he added.</p>
  1230.  
  1231.  
  1232.  
  1233. <p>He said programs like the one that will get underway at OSU are typically run on a trial basis, so it’s important that people sign up for them and take advantage of what they have to offer.&nbsp;</p>
  1234.  
  1235.  
  1236.  
  1237. <p>“Depending on what type of interest level they get, if they get a lot of people that pursue it, they&#8217;re liable to increase the program and provide more effective training over time,” Haverty said.&nbsp;</p>
  1238.  
  1239.  
  1240.  
  1241. <p>The OSU program, which is funded by a grant from the Small Business Administration, will allow OSU undergraduate students skilled in e-commerce web development and marketing to assist in digital modernization.</p>
  1242.  
  1243.  
  1244.  
  1245. <p>“Small-town rural retailers not only create jobs and encourage entrepreneurship but also provide a space that defines the cultural identity of a town,” said June Park, associate professor of design and merchandising in the College of Education and Human Sciences at OSU, in a press statement.&nbsp;</p>
  1246. <p>The post <a href="https://dailyyonder.com/oklahoma-state-university-program-to-boost-online-retail-opportunities-in-rural-areas/2024/02/26/">Oklahoma State University Program to Boost Online Retail Opportunities in Rural Areas</a> appeared first on <a href="https://dailyyonder.com">The Daily Yonder</a>.</p>
  1247. ]]></content:encoded>
  1248. <wfw:commentRss>https://dailyyonder.com/oklahoma-state-university-program-to-boost-online-retail-opportunities-in-rural-areas/2024/02/26/feed/</wfw:commentRss>
  1249. <slash:comments>0</slash:comments>
  1250. </item>
  1251. <item>
  1252. <title>Misplaced Trust</title>
  1253. <link>https://dailyyonder.com/misplaced-trust/2024/02/26/</link>
  1254. <comments>https://dailyyonder.com/misplaced-trust/2024/02/26/#respond</comments>
  1255. <dc:creator><![CDATA[Tristan Ahtone / Grist, Robert Lee / Grist, Amanda Tachine / Grist, An Garagiola / Grist, Audrianna Goodwin / Grist, Maria Parazo Rose / Grist and Clayton Aldern / Grist]]></dc:creator>
  1256. <pubDate>Mon, 26 Feb 2024 10:58:00 +0000</pubDate>
  1257. <category><![CDATA[Education]]></category>
  1258. <category><![CDATA[Environment]]></category>
  1259. <category><![CDATA[Tribal Affairs]]></category>
  1260. <category><![CDATA[repub]]></category>
  1261. <guid isPermaLink="false">https://dailyyonder.com/?p=123228</guid>
  1262.  
  1263. <description><![CDATA[<figure><img width="1024" height="768" src="https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/Pyote-TX-Eliseu-Cavalcante-11.webp?fit=1024%2C768&amp;ssl=1" class="attachment-rss-image-size size-rss-image-size wp-post-image" alt="A construction sign reads &quot;pipeline construction ahead,&quot; with an oil pumpjack in the distance" decoding="async" srcset="https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/Pyote-TX-Eliseu-Cavalcante-11.webp?w=1600&amp;ssl=1 1600w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/Pyote-TX-Eliseu-Cavalcante-11.webp?resize=760%2C570&amp;ssl=1 760w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/Pyote-TX-Eliseu-Cavalcante-11.webp?resize=1296%2C972&amp;ssl=1 1296w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/Pyote-TX-Eliseu-Cavalcante-11.webp?resize=768%2C576&amp;ssl=1 768w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/Pyote-TX-Eliseu-Cavalcante-11.webp?resize=1536%2C1152&amp;ssl=1 1536w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/Pyote-TX-Eliseu-Cavalcante-11.webp?resize=1200%2C900&amp;ssl=1 1200w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/Pyote-TX-Eliseu-Cavalcante-11.webp?resize=800%2C600&amp;ssl=1 800w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/Pyote-TX-Eliseu-Cavalcante-11.webp?resize=600%2C450&amp;ssl=1 600w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/Pyote-TX-Eliseu-Cavalcante-11.webp?resize=400%2C300&amp;ssl=1 400w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/Pyote-TX-Eliseu-Cavalcante-11.webp?resize=200%2C150&amp;ssl=1 200w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/Pyote-TX-Eliseu-Cavalcante-11.webp?resize=1024%2C768&amp;ssl=1 1024w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/Pyote-TX-Eliseu-Cavalcante-11.webp?resize=1568%2C1176&amp;ssl=1 1568w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/Pyote-TX-Eliseu-Cavalcante-11.webp?resize=706%2C530&amp;ssl=1 706w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/Pyote-TX-Eliseu-Cavalcante-11.webp?fit=1024%2C768&amp;ssl=1&amp;w=370 370w" sizes="(max-width: 34.9rem) calc(100vw - 2rem), (max-width: 53rem) calc(8 * (100vw / 12)), (min-width: 53rem) calc(6 * (100vw / 12)), 100vw" /></figure>
  1264. <p>This story was originally published on Grist. Alina Sierra needs $6,405. In 2022, the 19-year-old Tohono O’odham student was accepted to the&#160;University of Arizona, her dream school. She would be&#160;the first in her family to go to college. This story also appeared in Grist Her godfather used to take her to the university’s campus when [&#8230;]</p>
  1265. <p>The post <a href="https://dailyyonder.com/misplaced-trust/2024/02/26/">Misplaced Trust</a> appeared first on <a href="https://dailyyonder.com">The Daily Yonder</a>.</p>
  1266. ]]></description>
  1267. <content:encoded><![CDATA[<figure><img width="1024" height="768" src="https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/Pyote-TX-Eliseu-Cavalcante-11.webp?fit=1024%2C768&amp;ssl=1" class="attachment-rss-image-size size-rss-image-size wp-post-image" alt="A construction sign reads &quot;pipeline construction ahead,&quot; with an oil pumpjack in the distance" decoding="async" srcset="https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/Pyote-TX-Eliseu-Cavalcante-11.webp?w=1600&amp;ssl=1 1600w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/Pyote-TX-Eliseu-Cavalcante-11.webp?resize=760%2C570&amp;ssl=1 760w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/Pyote-TX-Eliseu-Cavalcante-11.webp?resize=1296%2C972&amp;ssl=1 1296w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/Pyote-TX-Eliseu-Cavalcante-11.webp?resize=768%2C576&amp;ssl=1 768w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/Pyote-TX-Eliseu-Cavalcante-11.webp?resize=1536%2C1152&amp;ssl=1 1536w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/Pyote-TX-Eliseu-Cavalcante-11.webp?resize=1200%2C900&amp;ssl=1 1200w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/Pyote-TX-Eliseu-Cavalcante-11.webp?resize=800%2C600&amp;ssl=1 800w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/Pyote-TX-Eliseu-Cavalcante-11.webp?resize=600%2C450&amp;ssl=1 600w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/Pyote-TX-Eliseu-Cavalcante-11.webp?resize=400%2C300&amp;ssl=1 400w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/Pyote-TX-Eliseu-Cavalcante-11.webp?resize=200%2C150&amp;ssl=1 200w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/Pyote-TX-Eliseu-Cavalcante-11.webp?resize=1024%2C768&amp;ssl=1 1024w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/Pyote-TX-Eliseu-Cavalcante-11.webp?resize=1568%2C1176&amp;ssl=1 1568w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/Pyote-TX-Eliseu-Cavalcante-11.webp?resize=706%2C530&amp;ssl=1 706w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/Pyote-TX-Eliseu-Cavalcante-11.webp?fit=1024%2C768&amp;ssl=1&amp;w=370 370w" sizes="(max-width: 34.9rem) calc(100vw - 2rem), (max-width: 53rem) calc(8 * (100vw / 12)), (min-width: 53rem) calc(6 * (100vw / 12)), 100vw" /></figure>
  1268. <p class="has-text-align-center"><em>This story was originally published on <a href="https://grist.org/project/equity/land-grant-universities-indigenous-lands-fossil-fuels/">Grist</a>.</em></p>
  1269.  
  1270.  
  1271.  
  1272. <p class="has-drop-cap">Alina Sierra needs $6,405. In 2022, the 19-year-old Tohono O’odham student was accepted to the&nbsp;University of Arizona, her dream school. She would be&nbsp;the first in her family to go to college.</p> <div class="wp-block-group alignright newspack-media-partners">
  1273. <div class="wp-block-group__inner-container">
  1274. <figure class="wp-block-image size-full is-resized">
  1275. <a href="https://grist.org" target="_blank"><img decoding="async" width="200" height="163" src="https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2021/01/media-partner-logo-grist.png?fit=200%2C163&amp;ssl=1" class="attachment-200x999 size-200x999" alt="Website for Grist" srcset="https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2021/01/media-partner-logo-grist.png?w=200&amp;ssl=1 200w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2021/01/media-partner-logo-grist.png?fit=200%2C163&amp;ssl=1&amp;w=370 370w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2021/01/media-partner-logo-grist.png?fit=200%2C163&amp;ssl=1&amp;w=400 400w" sizes="(max-width: 34.9rem) calc(100vw - 2rem), (max-width: 53rem) calc(8 * (100vw / 12)), (min-width: 53rem) calc(6 * (100vw / 12)), 100vw" /></a> <figcaption>
  1276. This story also appeared in <a href="https://grist.org" target="_blank">Grist</a> </figcaption>
  1277. </figure>
  1278. </div>
  1279. </div>
  1280.  
  1281. <p>Her godfather used to take her to the university’s campus when she was a child, and their excursions could include a stop at the turtle pond or lunch at the student union. Her grandfather also encouraged her, saying: “You’re going to be here one day.”</p>
  1282.  
  1283.  
  1284.  
  1285. <p>“Ever since then,” said Sierra. “I wanted to go.”</p>
  1286.  
  1287.  
  1288.  
  1289. <p>Then the financial reality set in. Unable to afford housing either on or off campus, she couch-surfed her first semester. Barely able to pay for meals, she turned to the campus food pantry for hygiene products. “One week I would get soap; another week, get shampoo,” she said. Without reliable access to the internet, and with health issues and a long bus commute, her grades began to slip. She was soon on academic probation.</p>
  1290.  
  1291.  
  1292.  
  1293. <p>“I always knew it would be expensive,” said Sierra. “I just didn’t know it would be this expensive.”</p>
  1294.  
  1295.  
  1296.  
  1297. <figure class="wp-block-image alignwide size-large"><img decoding="async" width="780" height="520" src="https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/Alina-Sierra-portrait-4.webp?resize=780%2C520&#038;ssl=1" alt="" class="wp-image-123345" srcset="https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/Alina-Sierra-portrait-4.webp?resize=1296%2C864&amp;ssl=1 1296w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/Alina-Sierra-portrait-4.webp?resize=760%2C507&amp;ssl=1 760w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/Alina-Sierra-portrait-4.webp?resize=768%2C512&amp;ssl=1 768w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/Alina-Sierra-portrait-4.webp?resize=1200%2C800&amp;ssl=1 1200w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/Alina-Sierra-portrait-4.webp?resize=1024%2C683&amp;ssl=1 1024w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/Alina-Sierra-portrait-4.webp?resize=600%2C400&amp;ssl=1 600w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/Alina-Sierra-portrait-4.webp?resize=400%2C267&amp;ssl=1 400w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/Alina-Sierra-portrait-4.webp?resize=706%2C471&amp;ssl=1 706w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/Alina-Sierra-portrait-4.webp?w=1536&amp;ssl=1 1536w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/Alina-Sierra-portrait-4-1296x864.webp?w=370&amp;ssl=1 370w" sizes="(max-width: 780px) 100vw, 780px" data-recalc-dims="1" /><figcaption class="wp-element-caption">Alina Sierra poses for a photo while wearing a locket containing the ashes of her godfather. “He would tell me, like, ‘Further your education, education is power,&#8217;” she said. “Before he passed away, I promised him that I was going to go to college and graduate from U of A.” (Photo by Bean Yazzie / Grist)</figcaption></figure>
  1298.  
  1299.  
  1300.  
  1301. <p>She was also confused. The university,&nbsp;known as UArizona, or more colloquially as U of A by local residents and alumni,&nbsp;expressed a lot of support for Indigenous students. It wasn’t just that the Tohono O’odham&nbsp;<a href="https://universityinitiatives.arizona.edu/tribal-flags" rel="noreferrer noopener" target="_blank">flag</a>&nbsp;hung in the bookstore or that the university had a&nbsp;<a href="https://www.as.arizona.edu/university-land-acknowledgement-statement" rel="noreferrer noopener" target="_blank">land acknowledgment</a>&nbsp;reminding the community that the Tucson campus was on O’odham and Yaqui homelands. The same year she was accepted, UArizona launched a program to cover tuition and mandatory fees for undergraduates from all 22 Indigenous nations in the state. President Robert C. Robbins described the new&nbsp;<a href="https://news.arizona.edu/story/uarizona-ensure-tuition-coverage-native-american-undergraduates-arizona" rel="noreferrer noopener" target="_blank">Arizona Native Scholars Grant</a>&nbsp;as a step toward fulfilling the school’s land-grant mission.&nbsp;</p>
  1302.  
  1303.  
  1304.  
  1305. <p>Sierra was eligible for the grant, but it didn’t cover everything. After all the application forms and paperwork, she was still left with a balance of thousands of dollars. She had no choice but to take out a loan, which she kept a secret from her family, especially her mom. “That’s the number one thing she told me: ‘Don’t get a loan,’ but I kind of had to.”</p>
  1306.  
  1307.  
  1308.  
  1309. <figure class="wp-block-image alignwide size-large"><img decoding="async" width="780" height="520" src="https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/University-of-Arizona-sign-2.webp?resize=780%2C520&#038;ssl=1" alt="" class="wp-image-123346" srcset="https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/University-of-Arizona-sign-2.webp?resize=1296%2C864&amp;ssl=1 1296w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/University-of-Arizona-sign-2.webp?resize=760%2C507&amp;ssl=1 760w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/University-of-Arizona-sign-2.webp?resize=768%2C512&amp;ssl=1 768w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/University-of-Arizona-sign-2.webp?resize=1536%2C1024&amp;ssl=1 1536w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/University-of-Arizona-sign-2.webp?resize=1200%2C800&amp;ssl=1 1200w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/University-of-Arizona-sign-2.webp?resize=1024%2C683&amp;ssl=1 1024w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/University-of-Arizona-sign-2.webp?resize=600%2C400&amp;ssl=1 600w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/University-of-Arizona-sign-2.webp?resize=1568%2C1046&amp;ssl=1 1568w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/University-of-Arizona-sign-2.webp?resize=400%2C267&amp;ssl=1 400w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/University-of-Arizona-sign-2.webp?resize=706%2C471&amp;ssl=1 706w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/University-of-Arizona-sign-2.webp?w=1600&amp;ssl=1 1600w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/University-of-Arizona-sign-2-1296x864.webp?w=370&amp;ssl=1 370w" sizes="(max-width: 780px) 100vw, 780px" data-recalc-dims="1" /><figcaption class="wp-element-caption">Cacti grow behind a sign for the University of Arizona. (Photo by Bean Yazzie / Grist)</figcaption></figure>
  1310.  
  1311.  
  1312.  
  1313. <p>Established in 1885, almost 30 years before Arizona was a state, UArizona was one of 52 land-grant universities supported by the&nbsp;<a href="https://www.hcn.org/issues/52.4/indigenous-affairs-education-land-grab-universities" rel="noreferrer noopener" target="_blank">Morrill Act</a>. Signed into law by President Abraham Lincoln, the act used&nbsp;<a href="https://www.hcn.org/issues/52.4/indigenous-affairs-education-land-grab-universities" rel="noreferrer noopener" target="_blank">land taken from Indigenous nations</a>&nbsp;to fund a network of colleges across the fledgling United States.&nbsp;</p>
  1314.  
  1315.  
  1316.  
  1317. <p>By the early 20th century, grants issued under the Morrill Act had produced the modern equivalent of a&nbsp;<a href="https://www.landgrabu.org/" rel="noreferrer noopener" target="_blank">half a billion dollars</a>&nbsp;for land-grant institutions from the redistribution of nearly 11 million acres of Indigenous lands. While most land-grant universities ignore this colonial legacy, UArizona’s Native scholars program appeared to be an effort to exorcise it.&nbsp;</p>
  1318.  
  1319.  
  1320.  
  1321. <p>But the Morrill Act is only one piece of legislation that connects land expropriated from Indigenous communities to these universities.&nbsp;</p>
  1322.  
  1323.  
  1324.  
  1325. <p>In combination with other land-grant laws, UArizona still retains rights to nearly 687,000 acres of land — an area more than twice the size of Los Angeles. The university also has rights to another 703,000 subsurface acres, a term pertaining to oil, gas, minerals, and other resources underground. Known as <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/State_Trust_Lands" target="_blank" rel="noreferrer noopener">trust lands</a>, these expropriated Indigenous territories are held and managed by the state for the school’s continued benefit.</p>
  1326.  
  1327.  
  1328.  
  1329. <p>State trust lands just might be one of the best-kept public secrets in America: They exist in 21 Western and Midwestern states, totaling more than 500 million surface and&nbsp;<a href="https://apps.msuextension.org/magazine/Articles/2015/Fall/MineralRights.pdf" rel="noreferrer noopener" target="_blank">subsurface acres</a>. Those two categories, surface and subsurface, have to be kept separate because they don’t always overlap. What few have bothered to ask is just how many of those acres are funding higher education.</p>
  1330.  
  1331.  
  1332.  
  1333. <p>The parcels themselves are scattered and rural, typically uninhabited and seldom marked. Most appear undeveloped and blend in seamlessly with surrounding landscapes. That is, when they don’t have something like logging underway or a frack pad in sight.</p>
  1334.  
  1335.  
  1336.  
  1337. <p>In 2022, the year Sierra enrolled, UArizona’s state trust lands provided the institution $7.7 million — enough to have paid the full cost of attendance for more than half of every&nbsp;<a href="https://uair.arizona.edu/content/enrollment" target="_blank" rel="noreferrer noopener">Native undergraduate at the Tucson campus</a>&nbsp;that same year. But providing free attendance to anyone is an unlikely scenario, as the school works to rein in&nbsp;<a href="https://apnews.com/article/arizona-university-budget-shortfall-1ef3fbd102717516bb22ca0de6e98f90" target="_blank" rel="noreferrer noopener">a budget shortfall of nearly $240 million</a>.</p>
  1338.  
  1339.  
  1340.  
  1341. <figure class="wp-block-image alignwide size-large"><img decoding="async" width="780" height="438" src="https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/Wilcox-AZ-Eliseu-Cavalcante-3.jpg?resize=780%2C438&#038;ssl=1" alt="" class="wp-image-123348" srcset="https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/Wilcox-AZ-Eliseu-Cavalcante-3.jpg?resize=1296%2C728&amp;ssl=1 1296w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/Wilcox-AZ-Eliseu-Cavalcante-3.jpg?resize=760%2C427&amp;ssl=1 760w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/Wilcox-AZ-Eliseu-Cavalcante-3.jpg?resize=768%2C432&amp;ssl=1 768w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/Wilcox-AZ-Eliseu-Cavalcante-3.jpg?resize=1536%2C863&amp;ssl=1 1536w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/Wilcox-AZ-Eliseu-Cavalcante-3.jpg?resize=1200%2C674&amp;ssl=1 1200w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/Wilcox-AZ-Eliseu-Cavalcante-3.jpg?resize=1024%2C575&amp;ssl=1 1024w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/Wilcox-AZ-Eliseu-Cavalcante-3.jpg?resize=1568%2C881&amp;ssl=1 1568w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/Wilcox-AZ-Eliseu-Cavalcante-3.jpg?resize=400%2C225&amp;ssl=1 400w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/Wilcox-AZ-Eliseu-Cavalcante-3.jpg?resize=706%2C397&amp;ssl=1 706w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/Wilcox-AZ-Eliseu-Cavalcante-3.jpg?w=1600&amp;ssl=1 1600w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/Wilcox-AZ-Eliseu-Cavalcante-3-1296x728.jpg?w=370&amp;ssl=1 370w" sizes="(max-width: 780px) 100vw, 780px" data-recalc-dims="1" /><figcaption class="wp-element-caption">A parcel of land in Willcox, Arizona, granted to the University of Arizona. (Photo by Eliseu Cavalcante / Grist)</figcaption></figure>
  1342.  
  1343.  
  1344.  
  1345. <p>UArizona’s reliance on state trust land for revenue not only contradicts its&nbsp;<a href="https://news.arizona.edu/story/uarizona-land-acknowledgement-illustrates-commitment-indigenous-students-communities" rel="noreferrer noopener" target="_blank">commitment to recognize past injustices</a>&nbsp;regarding stolen Indigenous lands, but also threatens&nbsp;<a href="https://sustainability.arizona.edu/projects/sustainability-climate-action-plan" rel="noreferrer noopener" target="_blank">its climate commitments</a>. The school has pledged to reach net-zero emissions by 2040.&nbsp;</p>
  1346.  
  1347.  
  1348.  
  1349. <p>The parcels are managed by the&nbsp;<a href="https://land.az.gov/" rel="noreferrer noopener" target="_blank">Arizona State Land Department</a>, a separate government agency that has leased portions of them to agriculture, grazing, and commercial activities. But extractive industries make up a major portion of the trust land portfolio. Of the 705,000 subsurface acres that benefit UArizona, almost 645,000 are earmarked for oil and gas production. The lands were taken from at least 10 Indigenous nations, almost all of which were seized by executive order or congressional action in the wake of warfare.&nbsp;</p>
  1350.  
  1351.  
  1352.  
  1353. <p>Over the past year, Grist has examined publicly available data to locate trust lands associated with land-grant universities seeded by the Morrill Act. We found 14 universities that matched this criteria. In the process, we identified their original sources and analyzed their ongoing uses. In all, we located and mapped more than 8.2 million surface and subsurface acres taken from 123 Indigenous nations. This land currently produces income for those institutions.</p>
  1354.  
  1355.  
  1356.  
  1357. <p id="mapjump">“Universities continue to benefit from colonization,” said Sharon Stein, an assistant professor of higher education at the University of British Columbia and a climate researcher. “It’s not just a historical fact; the actual income of the institution is subsidized by this ongoing dispossession.”</p>
  1358.  
  1359.  
  1360.  
  1361. <p>The amount of acreage under management for land-grant universities varies widely, from as little as 15,000 acres aboveground in North Dakota to more than 2.1 million belowground in Texas. Combined, Indigenous nations were paid approximately $4.3 million in today’s dollars for these lands, but in many cases, nothing was paid at all. In 2022 alone, these trust lands generated more than $2.2 billion for their schools. Between 2018 and 2022, the lands produced almost $6.7 billion. However, those figures are likely an undercount as multiple state agencies did not return requests to confirm amounts.</p>
  1362.  
  1363.  
  1364.  
  1365. <p>This work builds upon previous investigations that examined how&nbsp;<a href="https://www.hcn.org/topics/land-grab-universities" rel="noreferrer noopener" target="_blank">land grabs</a>&nbsp;capitalized and transformed the U.S. university system. The new data reveals how state trust lands continue to transfer wealth from Indigenous nations to land-grant universities more than a century after the original Morrill Act.</p>
  1366.  
  1367.  
  1368.  
  1369. <p>It also provides insight into the relationship between colonialism, higher education, and climate change in the Western United States.&nbsp;</p>
  1370.  
  1371.  
  1372.  
  1373. <p>Nearly 25 percent of land-grant university trust lands are designated for either fossil fuel production or the mining of minerals, like coal and iron-rich taconite. Grazing is permitted on about a third of the land, or approximately 2.8 million surface acres. Those parcels are often coupled with subsurface rights, which means oil and gas extraction can occur underneath cattle operations, themselves often a&nbsp;<a href="https://grist.org/agriculture/why-cant-we-just-quit-cows/">major source of methane emissions</a>. Timber, agriculture, and infrastructure leases — for roads or pipelines, for instance — make up much of the remaining acreage.&nbsp;</p>
  1374.  
  1375.  
  1376.  
  1377. <p>By contrast, renewable energy production is permitted on roughly one-quarter of 1 percent of the land in our dataset. Conservation covers an even more meager 0.15 percent.</p>
  1378.  
  1379.  
  1380.  
  1381. <p>However, those land use statistics are likely undercounts due to the different ways states record activities. Many state agencies we contacted for this story had incomplete public information on how land was used.&nbsp;</p>
  1382.  
  1383.  
  1384.  
  1385. <p>“People generally are not eager to confront their own complicity in colonialism and climate change,” said Stein. “But we also have to recognize, for instance, myself as a white settler, that we are part of that system, that we are benefiting from that system, that we are actively reproducing that system every day.”</p>
  1386.  
  1387.  
  1388.  
  1389. <p>Students like Alina Sierra struggle to pay for education at a university built on her peoples’ lands and supported with their natural resources. But both current and future generations will have to live with the way trust lands are used to subsidize land-grant universities.&nbsp;</p>
  1390.  
  1391.  
  1392.  
  1393. <p>In December 2023, Sierra decided the cost to attend UArizona was too high and dropped out.&nbsp;</p>
  1394.  
  1395.  
  1396.  
  1397. <p>UArizona did not respond to a request for comment on this story.</p>
  1398.  
  1399.  
  1400.  
  1401. <figure class="wp-block-image alignwide size-large"><img decoding="async" width="780" height="520" src="https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/Alina-Sierra-portrait-5.webp?resize=780%2C520&#038;ssl=1" alt="" class="wp-image-123351" srcset="https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/Alina-Sierra-portrait-5.webp?resize=1296%2C864&amp;ssl=1 1296w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/Alina-Sierra-portrait-5.webp?resize=760%2C507&amp;ssl=1 760w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/Alina-Sierra-portrait-5.webp?resize=768%2C512&amp;ssl=1 768w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/Alina-Sierra-portrait-5.webp?resize=1200%2C800&amp;ssl=1 1200w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/Alina-Sierra-portrait-5.webp?resize=1024%2C683&amp;ssl=1 1024w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/Alina-Sierra-portrait-5.webp?resize=600%2C400&amp;ssl=1 600w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/Alina-Sierra-portrait-5.webp?resize=400%2C267&amp;ssl=1 400w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/Alina-Sierra-portrait-5.webp?resize=706%2C471&amp;ssl=1 706w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/Alina-Sierra-portrait-5.webp?w=1536&amp;ssl=1 1536w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/Alina-Sierra-portrait-5-1296x864.webp?w=370&amp;ssl=1 370w" sizes="(max-width: 780px) 100vw, 780px" data-recalc-dims="1" /><figcaption class="wp-element-caption">Alina Sierra stands on a dead-end street near her home. (Photo by Bean Yazzie / Grist)</figcaption></figure>
  1402.  
  1403.  
  1404.  
  1405. <hr class="wp-block-separator has-alpha-channel-opacity is-style-wide"/>
  1406.  
  1407.  
  1408.  
  1409. <p class="has-drop-cap">Acreage now held in trust by states for land-grant universities is part of America’s sweeping history of real estate creation, a history rooted in Indigenous dispossession. </p>
  1410.  
  1411.  
  1412.  
  1413. <p>Trust lands in most states were clipped from the more than 1.8 billion acres that were once part of the United States’ public domain — territory claimed, colonized, and redistributed in a process that began in the 18th century and continues today.</p>
  1414.  
  1415.  
  1416.  
  1417. <p>The making of the public domain is the stuff of textbook lessons on U.S. expansion. After consolidating states’ western land claims in the aftermath of the American Revolution, federal officials obtained a series of massive territorial acquisitions from rival imperial powers. No doubt you’ve heard of a few of these deals: They ranged from the&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="https://www.slate.com/articles/news_and_politics/history/2017/03/how_much_did_the_louisiana_purchase_actually_cost.html" rel="noreferrer noopener" target="_blank">Louisiana Purchase of 1803</a>&nbsp;to the Alaska Purchase of 1867.&nbsp;</p>
  1418.  
  1419.  
  1420.  
  1421. <p>Backed by the&nbsp;<a href="https://law.lclark.edu/live/files/10656-lcb154art5watsonpdf" rel="noreferrer noopener" target="_blank">doctrine of discovery,</a>&nbsp;a legal principle with religious roots that justified the seizure of lands around the world by Europeans, U.S. claims to Indigenous territories were initially little more than projections of jurisdiction. They asserted an exclusive right to steal from Indigenous nations, divide the territory into new states, and carve it up into private property. Although Pope Francis<a href="https://www.aptnnews.ca/national-news/doctrine-of-discovery-is-a-legal-fiction-but-revoking-it-wont-herald-immediate-changes-experts-say/" rel="noreferrer noopener" target="_blank">&nbsp;repudiated</a>&nbsp;the Catholic Church’s association with the doctrine in 2023, it remains a bedrock principle of U.S. law.</p>
  1422.  
  1423.  
  1424.  
  1425. <p>Starting in the 1780s, federal authorities began aggressively taking Native land before surveying and selling parcels to new owners. Treaties were the preferred instrument, accompanied by a range of executive orders and congressional acts. Behind their tidy legal language and token payments lay&nbsp;<a href="https://www.hcn.org/issues/51.17/indigenous-affairs-the-us-stole-generations-of-indigenous-children-to-open-the-west" rel="noreferrer noopener" target="_blank">actual or threatened violence</a>, or the use of debts or dire conditions, such as starvation, to coerce signatures from Indigenous peoples and compel relocation.&nbsp;</p>
  1426.  
  1427.  
  1428.  
  1429. <p>By the 1930s, tribal landholdings in the form of reservations covered less than 2 percent of the United States. Most were located in places with few natural resources and&nbsp;<a href="https://grist.org/indigenous/us-climate-report-says-land-theft-colonization-amplify-climate-crisis-indigenous-peoples/">more sensitive to climate change</a>&nbsp;than their<a href="https://www.science.org/content/article/native-tribes-have-lost-99-their-land-united-states" rel="noreferrer noopener" target="_blank">&nbsp;original homelands</a>. When reservations proved more valuable than expected, due to the discovery of oil, for instance, outcomes could be even worse, as viewers of&nbsp;<em>Killers of the Flower Moon&nbsp;</em><a href="https://grist.org/accountability/abandoned-oil-wells-osage-nation/">learned last year</a>.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p>
  1430.  
  1431.  
  1432.  
  1433. <p>The public domain once covered three-fourths of what is today the United States. Federal authorities still retain about 30 percent of this reservoir of plundered land, most conspicuously as national parks, but also as military bases, national forests, grazing land, and more. The rest, nearly 1.3 billion acres, has been redistributed to new owners through myriad laws.</p>
  1434.  
  1435.  
  1436.  
  1437. <figure class="wp-block-image alignwide size-large"><img decoding="async" width="780" height="585" src="https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/Pyote-TX-Eliseu-Cavalcante-11.webp?resize=780%2C585&#038;ssl=1" alt="" class="wp-image-123352" srcset="https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/Pyote-TX-Eliseu-Cavalcante-11.webp?resize=1296%2C972&amp;ssl=1 1296w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/Pyote-TX-Eliseu-Cavalcante-11.webp?resize=760%2C570&amp;ssl=1 760w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/Pyote-TX-Eliseu-Cavalcante-11.webp?resize=768%2C576&amp;ssl=1 768w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/Pyote-TX-Eliseu-Cavalcante-11.webp?resize=1536%2C1152&amp;ssl=1 1536w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/Pyote-TX-Eliseu-Cavalcante-11.webp?resize=1200%2C900&amp;ssl=1 1200w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/Pyote-TX-Eliseu-Cavalcante-11.webp?resize=800%2C600&amp;ssl=1 800w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/Pyote-TX-Eliseu-Cavalcante-11.webp?resize=600%2C450&amp;ssl=1 600w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/Pyote-TX-Eliseu-Cavalcante-11.webp?resize=400%2C300&amp;ssl=1 400w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/Pyote-TX-Eliseu-Cavalcante-11.webp?resize=200%2C150&amp;ssl=1 200w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/Pyote-TX-Eliseu-Cavalcante-11.webp?resize=1024%2C768&amp;ssl=1 1024w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/Pyote-TX-Eliseu-Cavalcante-11.webp?resize=1568%2C1176&amp;ssl=1 1568w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/Pyote-TX-Eliseu-Cavalcante-11.webp?resize=706%2C530&amp;ssl=1 706w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/Pyote-TX-Eliseu-Cavalcante-11.webp?w=1600&amp;ssl=1 1600w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/Pyote-TX-Eliseu-Cavalcante-11-1296x972.webp?w=370&amp;ssl=1 370w" sizes="(max-width: 780px) 100vw, 780px" data-recalc-dims="1" /><figcaption class="wp-element-caption">Signs mark oil activity on parcels granted to Texas A&amp;M in Pyote, Texas. (Photo by Eliseu Cavalcante / Grist)</figcaption></figure>
  1438.  
  1439.  
  1440.  
  1441. <p>When it came to redistribution, grants of various stripes were more common than land sales. Individuals and corporate grantees — think homesteaders or railroads — were prominent recipients, but in terms of sheer acreage given, they trailed a third group: state governments.&nbsp;</p>
  1442.  
  1443.  
  1444.  
  1445. <p>Federal-to-state grants were immense. Cram them all together and they would comfortably cover all of Western Europe. Despite their size and ongoing financial significance, they have never attracted much attention outside of state offices and agencies responsible for managing them.</p>
  1446.  
  1447.  
  1448.  
  1449. <p>The Morrill Act, one of the best known examples of federal-to-state grants, followed a well-established path for funding state institutions. This involved handing Indigenous land to state legislatures so agencies could then manage those lands on behalf of specifically chosen beneficiaries.&nbsp;&nbsp;</p>
  1450.  
  1451.  
  1452.  
  1453. <p>Many other laws subsidized higher education by issuing grants to state or territorial governments in a similar way. The biggest of those bounties came through so-called “<a href="https://www.encyclopedia.com/history/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/enabling-acts" rel="noreferrer noopener" target="_blank">enabling acts</a>” that authorized U.S. territories to graduate to statehood.&nbsp;</p>
  1454.  
  1455.  
  1456.  
  1457. <p>Every new state carved out of the public domain in the contiguous United States received land grants for public institutions through their enabling acts. These grants functioned like dowries for joining the Union and funded a variety of public works and state services ranging from penitentiaries to fish hatcheries. Their main function, however, was subsidizing education.</p>
  1458.  
  1459.  
  1460.  
  1461. <p>Primary and secondary schools, or K-12 schools, were the greatest beneficiaries by far, followed by institutions of higher education. What remains of them today are referred to as trust lands. “A perpetual, multigenerational land trust for the support of the Beneficiaries and future generations” is how the Arizona State Land Department describes them.</p>
  1462.  
  1463.  
  1464.  
  1465. <p>Higher education grants were earmarked for universities, teachers colleges, mining schools, scientific schools, and agricultural colleges, the latter being the means through which states that joined the Union after 1862 got their Morrill Act shares. States could separate or consolidate their benefits as they saw fit, which resulted in many grants becoming attached to Morrill Act colleges.&nbsp;&nbsp;</p>
  1466.  
  1467.  
  1468.  
  1469. <p>Originally, the land was intended to be sold to raise capital for trust funds. By the late 19th century, however, stricter requirements on sales and a more conscientious pursuit of long-term gains reduced sales in favor of short-term leasing.&nbsp;</p>
  1470.  
  1471.  
  1472.  
  1473. <p>The change in management strategy paid off. Many state land trusts have been operating for more than a century. In that time, they have generated rents from agriculture, grazing, and recreation. As soon as they were able, managers moved into natural resource extraction, permitting oil wells, logging, mining, and fracking.&nbsp;</p>
  1474.  
  1475.  
  1476.  
  1477. <p>Land use decisions are typically made by state land agencies or lawmakers. Of the six land-grant institutions that responded to requests for comment on this investigation, those that referenced their trust lands deferred to state agencies, making clear that they had no control over permitted activities.</p>
  1478.  
  1479.  
  1480.  
  1481. <p>State agencies likewise receive and distribute the income. As money comes in, it is either delivered directly to beneficiaries or, more commonly, diverted to permanent state trust funds, which invest the proceeds and make scheduled payouts to support select public services and institutions.&nbsp;</p>
  1482.  
  1483.  
  1484.  
  1485. <p>These trusts have a <a href="https://headwaterseconomics.org/public-lands/state-trust-lands-model/" target="_blank" rel="noreferrer noopener">fiduciary obligation to generate profit</a> for institutions, not minimize environmental damage. Although some of the permitted activities are renewable and low-impact, others are quietly stripping the land. All of them fill public coffers with proceeds derived from ill-gotten resources.</p>
  1486.  
  1487.  
  1488.  
  1489. <hr class="wp-block-separator has-alpha-channel-opacity is-style-wide"/>
  1490.  
  1491.  
  1492.  
  1493. <p class="has-drop-cap">For a $10 fee last December, anyone in New Mexico could chop down a<a href="https://www.nmstatelands.org/2023/11/20/state-land-office-again-offering-low-cost-christmas-tree-cutting-and-sand-gathering-permits/" target="_blank" rel="noreferrer noopener"> Christmas tree</a> in a pine stand on a patch of state trust land just off Highway 120 near Black Lake, southeast of Taos. The rules: Pay your fee, bring your permit, choose a tree, and leave nothing behind but a stump less than 6 inches high.</p>
  1494.  
  1495.  
  1496.  
  1497. <p>“The holidays are a time we should be enjoying our loved ones, not worrying about the cost of providing a memorable experience for our kids,” said Commissioner of Public Lands Stephanie Garcia Richard, adding that “the nominal fee it costs for a permit will directly benefit New Mexico public schools, so it supports a good cause too.” The offer has been popular enough to keep the program running for several years.</p>
  1498.  
  1499.  
  1500.  
  1501. <p>The New Mexico State Land Office,&nbsp;<a href="https://nmpolitics.net/index/2009/11/egolf-wants-more-oversight-for-land-office/" rel="noreferrer noopener" target="_blank">sometimes described</a>&nbsp;by state legislators as “the most powerful office you’ve never heard of,” has been a successful operation for a very long time. Since it started reporting revenue in 1900, it’s generated well over $42 billion in 2023 dollars.</p>
  1502.  
  1503.  
  1504.  
  1505. <p>All that money isn’t from Christmas trees.</p>
  1506.  
  1507.  
  1508.  
  1509. <p>For generations, oil and gas royalties have fueled the state’s trust land revenue, with a portion of the funds designated for New Mexico State University, or NMSU,&nbsp;<a href="https://www.landgrabu.org/universities/new-mexico-state-university" target="_blank" rel="noreferrer noopener">a land-grant school founded in 1888</a>&nbsp;when New Mexico was still a territory.</p>
  1510.  
  1511.  
  1512.  
  1513. <p>The oil comes from drilling in the northwestern fringe of the Permian Basin, one of the oldest targets of large-scale oil production in the United States. Corporate descendants of Standard Oil, the infamous monopoly controlled by John D. Rockefeller, were operating in the Permian as early as the 1920s. Despite being a consistent source of oil, prospects for exploitation dimmed by the late 20th century, before surging again in the 21st. Today, it’s more profitable than ever.</p>
  1514.  
  1515.  
  1516.  
  1517. <p>In recent decades, more sophisticated exploration techniques have revealed more “recoverable” fossil fuel in the Permian than previously believed. A 2018&nbsp;<a href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/publication/fs20183073" target="_blank" rel="noreferrer noopener">report</a>&nbsp;by the United States Geological Survey pegged the volume at 46.3 billion barrels of oil and 281 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, which made the Permian the largest oil and gas deposit in the nation.&nbsp;<a href="https://www.forbes.com/sites/rrapier/2018/12/27/why-the-permian-basin-may-become-the-worlds-most-productive-oil-field/" target="_blank" rel="noreferrer noopener">Analysts</a>, shocked at the sheer volume, and the money to be made, have taken to&nbsp;<a href="https://www.forbes.com/sites/ianpalmer/2022/03/30/the-king-of-shale-oil-the-permian-basin-is-still-riding-the-wave/" target="_blank" rel="noreferrer noopener">crowning</a>&nbsp;the Permian the “King of Shale Oil.” Critics concerned with the climate impact of the expanding operations call it a&nbsp;<a href="https://www.pbs.org/wnet/peril-and-promise/2023/02/the-permian-basin-hosts-the-highest-emitting-oil-and-gas-project-in-north-america/" target="_blank" rel="noreferrer noopener">“carbon bomb.”</a></p>
  1518.  
  1519.  
  1520.  
  1521. <p>As oil and gas extraction spiked, so did New Mexico’s trust land receipts. In the last 20 years, oil and gas has generated between 91 and 97 percent of annual trust land revenue. It broke annual all-time highs in half of those years, topping $1 billion for the first time in 2019 and reaching $2.75 billion last year. Adjusted for inflation, more than 20 percent of New Mexico’s trust land income since 1900 has arrived in just the last five years.</p>
  1522.  
  1523.  
  1524.  
  1525. <p>“Every dollar earned by the Land Office,” Commissioner Richard&nbsp;<a href="https://www.nmstatelands.org/2019/07/10/fiscal-year-2019-revenue-will-surpass-1-billion/" target="_blank" rel="noreferrer noopener">said</a>&nbsp;when revenues broke the billion-dollar barrier, “is a dollar taxpayers do not have to pay to support public institutions.”</p>
  1526.  
  1527.  
  1528.  
  1529. <p>Trust land as a cost-free source of subsidies for citizens is a common framing. In 2023, Richard declared that her office had saved every New Mexico taxpayer $1,500 that year. The&nbsp;<a href="https://www.nmstatelands.org/2023/11/29/state-land-office-earns-record-2-75-billion-in-past-year/" rel="noreferrer noopener" target="_blank">press release</a>&nbsp;did not mention oil or gas, or Apache bands in the state.</p>
  1530.  
  1531.  
  1532.  
  1533. <p>Virtually all of the trust land in New Mexico, including 186,000 surface acres and 253,000 subsurface acres now benefiting NMSU, was seized from various Apache bands during the so-called&nbsp;<a href="https://www.nps.gov/chir/learn/historyculture/apache-wars-cochise.htm" rel="noreferrer noopener" target="_blank">Apache Wars</a>. Often reduced to the iconic photograph of Geronimo on one knee, rifle in hand, hostilities began in 1849, and they remain the longest-running military conflict in U.S. history, continuing until 1924.</p>
  1534.  
  1535.  
  1536.  
  1537. <figure class="wp-block-image alignwide size-large"><img decoding="async" width="780" height="438" src="https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/Hadley-Hall-A-mountain-in-the-back-Eliseu-Cavalcante-1.jpg?resize=780%2C438&#038;ssl=1" alt="" class="wp-image-123358" srcset="https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/Hadley-Hall-A-mountain-in-the-back-Eliseu-Cavalcante-1.jpg?resize=1296%2C728&amp;ssl=1 1296w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/Hadley-Hall-A-mountain-in-the-back-Eliseu-Cavalcante-1.jpg?resize=760%2C427&amp;ssl=1 760w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/Hadley-Hall-A-mountain-in-the-back-Eliseu-Cavalcante-1.jpg?resize=768%2C432&amp;ssl=1 768w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/Hadley-Hall-A-mountain-in-the-back-Eliseu-Cavalcante-1.jpg?resize=1536%2C863&amp;ssl=1 1536w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/Hadley-Hall-A-mountain-in-the-back-Eliseu-Cavalcante-1.jpg?resize=1200%2C674&amp;ssl=1 1200w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/Hadley-Hall-A-mountain-in-the-back-Eliseu-Cavalcante-1.jpg?resize=1024%2C575&amp;ssl=1 1024w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/Hadley-Hall-A-mountain-in-the-back-Eliseu-Cavalcante-1.jpg?resize=1568%2C881&amp;ssl=1 1568w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/Hadley-Hall-A-mountain-in-the-back-Eliseu-Cavalcante-1.jpg?resize=400%2C225&amp;ssl=1 400w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/Hadley-Hall-A-mountain-in-the-back-Eliseu-Cavalcante-1.jpg?resize=706%2C397&amp;ssl=1 706w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/Hadley-Hall-A-mountain-in-the-back-Eliseu-Cavalcante-1.jpg?w=1600&amp;ssl=1 1600w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/Hadley-Hall-A-mountain-in-the-back-Eliseu-Cavalcante-1-1296x728.jpg?w=370&amp;ssl=1 370w" sizes="(max-width: 780px) 100vw, 780px" data-recalc-dims="1" /><figcaption class="wp-element-caption">New Mexico State University, as seen in an aerial view, is a land-grant school founded in 1888. (Photo by Eliseu Cavalcante / Grist)</figcaption></figure>
  1538.  
  1539.  
  1540.  
  1541. <p>In 2019, newly elected New Mexico Governor Michelle Lujan Grisham&nbsp;<a href="https://www.governor.state.nm.us/2021/08/25/gov-lujan-grisham-sets-2030-preservation-goal-protecting-n-m-land-watersheds-wildlife-and-heritage/" target="_blank" rel="noreferrer noopener">began aligning state policy</a>&nbsp;with “scientific consensus around climate change.” According to the state’s&nbsp;<a href="https://www.climateaction.nm.gov/" target="_blank" rel="noreferrer noopener">climate action website</a>, New Mexico is working to tackle climate change by transitioning to clean electricity, reducing greenhouse gas emissions, supporting an economic transition from coal to clean energy, and shoring up natural resource resilience.</p>
  1542.  
  1543.  
  1544.  
  1545. <p>“New Mexico is serious about climate change — and we have to be. We are already seeing drier weather and rising temperatures,” the governor&nbsp;<a href="https://www.climateaction.nm.gov/" rel="noreferrer noopener" target="_blank">wrote on the state’s website</a>. “This administration is committed not only to preventing global warming, but also preparing for its effects today and into the future.”</p>
  1546.  
  1547.  
  1548.  
  1549. <p>No mention was made of increasingly profitable oil and gas extraction on trust lands or their production in the Permian. In 2023, just one 240-acre parcel of land benefiting NMSU was leased for five years for $6 million.&nbsp;</p>
  1550.  
  1551.  
  1552.  
  1553. <p>NMSU did not respond to a request for comment on this story.</p>
  1554.  
  1555.  
  1556.  
  1557. <hr class="wp-block-separator has-alpha-channel-opacity is-style-wide"/>
  1558.  
  1559.  
  1560.  
  1561. <p class="has-drop-cap">More than half of the acreage uncovered in our investigation appears in oil-rich West Texas, the equivalent of more than 3 million football fields. It benefits Texas A&amp;M.</p>
  1562.  
  1563.  
  1564.  
  1565. <p>Take the long drive west along I-10 between San Antonio and El Paso, in the southwest region of the Permian Basin, and you’ll pass straight through several of those densely packed parcels without ever knowing it — they’re hidden in plain sight on the arid landscape. These tracts, and others not far from the highway, were Mescalero Apache territory. Kiowas and Comanches relinquished more parcels farther north.</p>
  1566.  
  1567.  
  1568.  
  1569. <p>In the years after the Civil War, a “peace commission” pressured Comanche and Kiowa leaders for an agreement that would secure land for tribes in northern Texas and Oklahoma. Within two years, federal agents dramatically reduced the size of the resulting reservation with another treaty, triggering a decade of conflict.</p>
  1570.  
  1571.  
  1572.  
  1573. <p>The consequences were disastrous. Kiowas and Comanches lost their land to Texas and their populations collapsed. Between the 1850s and 1890s, Kiowas lost more than 60 percent of their people to disease and war, while Comanches lost nearly 90 percent.</p>
  1574.  
  1575.  
  1576.  
  1577. <p>If this general pattern of colonization and genocide was a common one, the trajectory that resulted in Texas A&amp;M’s enormous state land trust was not.</p>
  1578.  
  1579.  
  1580.  
  1581. <p>Texas was never part of the U.S. public domain. Its brief stint as an independent nation enabled it to enter the Union as a state, skipping territorial status completely. As a result, like the original 13 states, it claimed rights to sell or otherwise distribute all the not-yet-privatized land within its borders.</p>
  1582.  
  1583.  
  1584.  
  1585. <p>Following the broader national model, but ratcheting up the scale, Texas would allocate over 2 million acres to subsidize higher education.&nbsp;</p>
  1586.  
  1587.  
  1588.  
  1589. <p>Texas A&amp;M was established to&nbsp;<a href="https://www.landgrabu.org/universities/texas-am-university" target="_blank" rel="noreferrer noopener">take advantage of a Morrill Act allocation of 180,000 acres</a>, and opened its doors in 1876. The same year, Texas allocated a million acres of trust lands, followed by another million in 1883, nearly all of it on land relinquished in treaties from the mid-1860s.</p>
  1590.  
  1591.  
  1592.  
  1593. <p>Today, the&nbsp;<a href="https://www.utsystem.edu/puf" rel="noreferrer noopener" target="_blank">Permanent University Fund</a>&nbsp;derived from that land is worth nearly $34 billion. That’s thanks to oil, of course, which has been flowing from the university’s trust lands since 1923. In 2022 alone, Texas trust lands produced $2.2 billion in revenue.</p>
  1594.  
  1595.  
  1596.  
  1597. <p>The Kiowa and Comanche were ultimately paid about 2 cents per acre for their land. The Mescalero Apache received nothing.&nbsp;</p>
  1598.  
  1599.  
  1600.  
  1601. <p>Texas A&amp;M did not respond to a request for comment on this story.</p>
  1602.  
  1603.  
  1604.  
  1605. <hr class="wp-block-separator has-alpha-channel-opacity is-style-wide"/>
  1606.  
  1607.  
  1608.  
  1609. <p class="has-drop-cap">For more than a century, logging has been the main driver of Washington State University’s trust land income, on land taken from 21 Indigenous nations, especially the Confederated Tribes and Bands of the Yakama Nation. About 86,000 acres, more than half of the surface trust lands allocated to Washington State University, or&nbsp;<a href="https://www.landgrabu.org/universities/washington-state-university" rel="noreferrer noopener" target="_blank">WSU</a>, are located inside Yakama land cessions, which started in 1855. Between 2018 and 2022, trust lands produced nearly $78.5 million in revenue almost entirely from timber.&nbsp;</p>
  1610.  
  1611.  
  1612.  
  1613. <p>But it isn’t a straight line to the university’s bank account.</p>
  1614.  
  1615.  
  1616.  
  1617. <p>“The university does not receive the proceeds from timber sales directly,” said Phil Weiler, a spokesperson for WSU. “Lands held in trust for the university are managed by the Washington State Department of Natural Resources, not WSU.”</p>
  1618.  
  1619.  
  1620.  
  1621. <figure class="wp-block-image alignwide size-large"><img decoding="async" width="780" height="370" src="https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/Screen-Shot-2024-01-24-at-6.15.56-PM.png?resize=780%2C370&#038;ssl=1" alt="" class="wp-image-123359" srcset="https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/Screen-Shot-2024-01-24-at-6.15.56-PM.png?resize=1296%2C615&amp;ssl=1 1296w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/Screen-Shot-2024-01-24-at-6.15.56-PM.png?resize=760%2C361&amp;ssl=1 760w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/Screen-Shot-2024-01-24-at-6.15.56-PM.png?resize=768%2C365&amp;ssl=1 768w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/Screen-Shot-2024-01-24-at-6.15.56-PM.png?resize=1536%2C729&amp;ssl=1 1536w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/Screen-Shot-2024-01-24-at-6.15.56-PM.png?resize=2048%2C973&amp;ssl=1 2048w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/Screen-Shot-2024-01-24-at-6.15.56-PM.png?resize=1200%2C570&amp;ssl=1 1200w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/Screen-Shot-2024-01-24-at-6.15.56-PM.png?resize=1024%2C486&amp;ssl=1 1024w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/Screen-Shot-2024-01-24-at-6.15.56-PM.png?resize=1568%2C745&amp;ssl=1 1568w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/Screen-Shot-2024-01-24-at-6.15.56-PM.png?resize=400%2C190&amp;ssl=1 400w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/Screen-Shot-2024-01-24-at-6.15.56-PM.png?resize=706%2C335&amp;ssl=1 706w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/Screen-Shot-2024-01-24-at-6.15.56-PM-1296x615.png?w=370&amp;ssl=1 370w" sizes="(max-width: 780px) 100vw, 780px" data-recalc-dims="1" /><figcaption class="wp-element-caption">A trail cuts through a clearcut timber parcel granted to Washington State University. (Photo via Google Maps)</figcaption></figure>
  1622.  
  1623.  
  1624.  
  1625. <p>In 2022, WSU’s trust lands produced about&nbsp;<a href="https://www.dnr.wa.gov/publications/em_annual_report_2022.pdf" rel="noreferrer noopener" target="_blank">$19.5 million in revenue</a>, which was deposited into a fund managed by the State Investment Board. In other words, the state takes on the management responsibility of turning timber into investments, while WSU reaps the rewards by drawing income from the resulting trust funds.&nbsp;</p>
  1626.  
  1627.  
  1628.  
  1629. <p>“The Washington legislature decides how much of the investment earnings will be paid out to Washington State University each biennium,” said Weiler. “By law, those payouts can only be used to fund capital projects and debt service.”</p>
  1630.  
  1631.  
  1632.  
  1633. <p>This arrangement yielded nearly $97 million dollars for WSU from its two main trust funds between 2018 and 2022, and has generally been on the rise since the Great Recession. In recent decades, the money has gone to construction and maintenance of the institution’s infrastructure, like its Biomedical and Health Sciences building, and the PACCAR Clean Technology Building — a research center focused on innovating wood products and sustainable design.&nbsp;</p>
  1634.  
  1635.  
  1636.  
  1637. <p>That revenue may look small in comparison to WSU’s $1.2 billion dollar endowment, but it has added up over time. From statehood in 1889 to 2022, timber sales on trust lands provided Washington State University with roughly $1 billion in revenue when Grist adjusted for inflation. But those figures are likely higher: Between 1971 and 1983, the State of Washington did not produce detailed records on trust land revenue as a cost-cutting measure.&nbsp;</p>
  1638.  
  1639.  
  1640.  
  1641. <p>Meanwhile, WSU students have&nbsp;<a href="https://dailyevergreen.com/159346/news/wsu-must-divest-now-wsu-students-rally-for-fossil-fuel-divestment/" rel="noreferrer noopener" target="_blank">demanded</a>&nbsp;that the university divest from fossil fuel companies held in the endowment. But even if the board of regents agreed, any changes would likely not apply to the school’s state-controlled trust fund, which currently contains shares in ExxonMobil, Shell, Chevron, and at least two dozen other corporations in the oil and gas sector.</p>
  1642.  
  1643.  
  1644.  
  1645. <p>“Washington State University (WSU) is aware that our campuses are located on the homelands of Native peoples and that the institution receives financial benefit from trust lands,” said Weiler.&nbsp;</p>
  1646.  
  1647.  
  1648.  
  1649. <p>In states with trust lands, a reasonably comfortable buffer exists between beneficiaries, legislators, land managers, and investment boards, but that hasn’t always been the case. In Minnesota’s early days, state leaders founded the University of Minnesota while also making policy that would benefit the school, binding the state’s&nbsp;<a href="https://cla.umn.edu/chgs/holocaust-genocide-education/resource-guides/us-dakota-war-1862" rel="noreferrer noopener" target="_blank">history of genocide</a>&nbsp;with the institution.&nbsp;</p>
  1650.  
  1651.  
  1652.  
  1653. <p>Those actions still impact Indigenous peoples in the state today while providing steady revenue streams to the University.</p>
  1654.  
  1655.  
  1656.  
  1657. <p>Henry Sibley began to amass his fortune around 1834 after only a few years in the fur trade in the territory of what would become Minnesota, rising to the role of regional manager of the American Fur Company at just 23. But even then, the industry&nbsp;<a href="https://www.mnhs.org/sibley/learn/henry-hastings-sibley" rel="noreferrer noopener" target="_blank">was on the decline</a>&nbsp;— wild game had been over-hunted and competition was fierce. Sibley responded by diversifying his activities. He moved into timber, making exclusive agreements with the Ojibwe to log along the Snake and Upper St. Croix rivers.&nbsp;</p>
  1658.  
  1659.  
  1660.  
  1661. <p>His years in “<a href="https://digitalcommons.cwu.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?referer=&amp;httpsredir=1&amp;article=1157&amp;context=etd" rel="noreferrer noopener" target="_blank">wild Indian country</a>” were paying off: Sibley knew the land, waterways, and resources of the Great Lakes region, and he knew the people, even marrying Tahshinaohindaway, also known as&nbsp;<a href="https://www.usdakotawar.org/history/henry-h-sibley" rel="noreferrer noopener" target="_blank">Red Blanket Woman</a>, in 1840 — a Mdewakanton Dakota woman from&nbsp;<a href="https://www.dakotahistory.org/historical-sites/76-black-dog-village" rel="noreferrer noopener" target="_blank">Black Dog Village</a>&nbsp;in what is now southern Minneapolis.</p>
  1662.  
  1663.  
  1664.  
  1665. <p>Sibley was a major figure in a number of treaty negotiations, aiding the U.S. in its western expansion, opening what is now Minnesota to settlement by removing tribes. In 1848, he became the first congressional delegate for the Wisconsin Territory, which covered much of present-day Minnesota, and eventually, Minnesota’s first governor.&nbsp;</p>
  1666.  
  1667.  
  1668.  
  1669. <p>But he was also a founding regent of the University of Minnesota — using his personal, political, and industry knowledge of the region to choose federal, state, and private lands for the university. Sibley and other regents <a href="https://mn.gov/indian-affairs/truth-project/" target="_blank" rel="noreferrer noopener">used the institution as a shel corporation</a> to speculate and move money between <a href="https://mn.gov/indian-affairs/assets/full-report_tcm1193-572488.pdf" target="_blank" rel="noreferrer noopener">companies they held shares in</a>.</p>
  1670.  
  1671.  
  1672.  
  1673. <figure class="wp-block-image alignwide size-large"><img decoding="async" width="780" height="520" src="https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/University-of-Minnesota-gopher-mascot-e1707252334699-1296x864.webp?resize=780%2C520&#038;ssl=1" alt="" class="wp-image-123360" srcset="https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/University-of-Minnesota-gopher-mascot-e1707252334699.webp?resize=1296%2C864&amp;ssl=1 1296w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/University-of-Minnesota-gopher-mascot-e1707252334699.webp?resize=760%2C507&amp;ssl=1 760w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/University-of-Minnesota-gopher-mascot-e1707252334699.webp?resize=768%2C512&amp;ssl=1 768w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/University-of-Minnesota-gopher-mascot-e1707252334699.webp?resize=1536%2C1024&amp;ssl=1 1536w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/University-of-Minnesota-gopher-mascot-e1707252334699.webp?resize=1200%2C800&amp;ssl=1 1200w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/University-of-Minnesota-gopher-mascot-e1707252334699.webp?resize=1024%2C683&amp;ssl=1 1024w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/University-of-Minnesota-gopher-mascot-e1707252334699.webp?resize=600%2C400&amp;ssl=1 600w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/University-of-Minnesota-gopher-mascot-e1707252334699.webp?resize=1568%2C1046&amp;ssl=1 1568w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/University-of-Minnesota-gopher-mascot-e1707252334699.webp?resize=400%2C267&amp;ssl=1 400w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/University-of-Minnesota-gopher-mascot-e1707252334699.webp?resize=706%2C471&amp;ssl=1 706w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/University-of-Minnesota-gopher-mascot-e1707252334699.webp?w=1600&amp;ssl=1 1600w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/University-of-Minnesota-gopher-mascot-e1707252334699-1296x864.webp?w=370&amp;ssl=1 370w" sizes="(max-width: 780px) 100vw, 780px" data-recalc-dims="1" /><figcaption class="wp-element-caption">University of Minnesota mascot Goldy the Gopher during a football game in 2022 in Minneapolis. (<strong>Photo by Nick Wosika / Icon Sportswire via Getty Images</strong>)</figcaption></figure>
  1674.  
  1675.  
  1676.  
  1677. <p>In 1851, Sibley helped introduce land-grant legislation for the purpose of a territorial university, and just three days after Congress passed the bill, Minnesota’s territorial leaders established the University of Minnesota. With an eye on statehood, leaders knew more land would be granted for higher education, but first the land had to be made available.&nbsp;</p>
  1678.  
  1679.  
  1680.  
  1681. <p>That same year, with the help of then-territorial governor and fellow university regent Alexander Ramsey, the Dakota signed the&nbsp;<a href="https://www.mnopedia.org/event/treaty-traverse-des-sioux-1851" rel="noreferrer noopener" target="_blank">Treaty of Traverse De Sioux</a>, a land cession that created almost half of the state of Minnesota, and,&nbsp;<a href="https://treatiesmatter.org/exhibit/welcome/u-s-american-indian-treaties-in-minnesota/" rel="noreferrer noopener" target="_blank">taken with other cessions</a>, would later net the University&nbsp;<a href="https://mn.gov/indian-affairs/truth-project/" rel="noreferrer noopener" target="_blank">nearly 187,000 acres of land</a>&nbsp;— an area roughly the size of Tucson.</p>
  1682.  
  1683.  
  1684.  
  1685. <p>Among the many clauses in the treaty was payment: $1.4 million would be given to the Dakota, but only after expenses. Ramsey deducted $35,000 for a handling fee, about $1.4 million in today’s dollars. After agencies and politicians had taken their cuts, the Dakota were promised only $350,000, but ultimately, only a few thousand arrived after federal agents delayed and withheld payments or substituted them for supplies that were never delivered.&nbsp;</p>
  1686.  
  1687.  
  1688.  
  1689. <p>The betrayal led to the Dakota War of 1862. “The Sioux Indians of Minnesota must be exterminated or driven forever beyond the borders of the state,” said Governor Ramsey. Sibley joined in the slaughter, leading an army of volunteers dedicated to&nbsp;<a href="https://cla.umn.edu/chgs/holocaust-genocide-education/resource-guides/us-dakota-war-1862" rel="noreferrer noopener" target="_blank">the genocide of the Dakota people</a>. At the end of the conflict, Ramsey ordered the mass execution of&nbsp;<a href="https://www.startribune.com/in-the-footsteps-of-little-crow/425712324/" rel="noreferrer noopener" target="_blank">more than 300 Dakota men in December of 1862</a>&nbsp;— a number later reduced by then-president Abraham Lincoln to 39, and still the&nbsp;<a href="http://www.usdakotawar.org/history/aftermath/trials-hanging" rel="noreferrer noopener" target="_blank">largest mass execution in U.S. history</a>.&nbsp;</p>
  1690.  
  1691.  
  1692.  
  1693. <p>That grisly punctuation mark at the end of the war meant a windfall for the University of Minnesota, with new lands being opened through the state’s enabling act and another federal grant that had just been passed:&nbsp;<a href="https://www.hcn.org/issues/52.4/indigenous-affairs-education-land-grab-universities" rel="noreferrer noopener" target="_blank">the Morrill Act</a>. Within weeks of the mass execution, the university&nbsp;<a href="https://www.landgrabu.org/universities/university-of-minnesota" rel="noreferrer noopener" target="_blank">was reaping benefits</a>&nbsp;thanks to the political, and military, power of Sibley and the board of regents.&nbsp;</p>
  1694.  
  1695.  
  1696.  
  1697. <p>Between 2018 and 2022, those lands produced more than $17 million in revenue, primarily through leases for the mining of iron and taconite, a low-grade iron ore used by the steel industry. But like other states that rely on investment funds and trusts to generate additional income, those royalties are only the first step in the institution’s financial investments.</p>
  1698.  
  1699.  
  1700.  
  1701. <p>Today, Sibley, Ramsey, and other regents are still honored. Their names adorn parks, counties, and streets, their homes memorialized for future generations. While there have been efforts to&nbsp;<a href="https://www.mankatofreepress.com/news/local_news/what-to-do-with-henry-h-sibley/article_27305d5e-3a25-11eb-b713-5308bd780f6b.html" rel="noreferrer noopener" target="_blank">remove their names</a>&nbsp;from schools and&nbsp;<a href="https://www.startribune.com/park-commissioners-support-renaming-south-minneapolis-sibley-park-to-chante-tinza-winyan-park/600306493/" rel="noreferrer noopener" target="_blank">parks</a>, Minnesota, its institutions, and many of its citizens continue to benefit from their actions.</p>
  1702.  
  1703.  
  1704.  
  1705. <p>The iron and taconite mines that owe their success to the work of these men have left <a href="https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s12685-018-0220-y" target="_blank" rel="noreferrer noopener">lasting visual blight</a>, <a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5794688/" target="_blank" rel="noreferrer noopener">water contamination</a> from historic mine tailings, and <a href="https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29653125/" target="_blank" rel="noreferrer noopener">elevated rates of mesothelioma</a> among taconite workers in Minnesota. The <a href="http://www.minnesotalegalhistoryproject.org/assets/1863%20Indian%20Removal%20Acts.pdf" target="_blank" rel="noreferrer noopener">1863 federal law that authorized the removal of Indigenous peoples from the region</a> is still on the books today and has <a href="https://listen.sdpb.org/politics/2020-02-19/sd-house-committee-rejects-resolution-to-rescind-dakota-removal-act" target="_blank" rel="noreferrer noopener">never been overturned</a>.</p>
  1706.  
  1707.  
  1708.  
  1709. <hr class="wp-block-separator has-alpha-channel-opacity is-style-wide"/>
  1710.  
  1711.  
  1712.  
  1713. <p class="has-drop-cap">Less than half of the universities featured in this story responded to requests for comment, and the National Association of State Trust Lands, the nonprofit consortium that represents trust land agencies and administrators, declined to comment. Those that did, however, highlighted the steps they were making to engage with Indigenous students and communities.</p>
  1714.  
  1715.  
  1716.  
  1717. <p>Still, investments in Indigenous communities are slow coming. Of the universities that responded to our requests, those that directly referenced how trust lands were used maintained they had no control over how they profited from the land.&nbsp;</p>
  1718.  
  1719.  
  1720.  
  1721. <p>And they’re correct, to some degree: States managing assets for land-grants have fiduciary, and legal, obligations to act in the institution’s best interests.&nbsp;</p>
  1722.  
  1723.  
  1724.  
  1725. <p>But that could give land-grant universities a right to ask why maximizing returns doesn’t factor in the value of righting past wrongs or the costs of climate change.</p>
  1726.  
  1727.  
  1728.  
  1729. <p>“We can know very well that these things are happening and that we’re part of the problem, but our desire for continuity and certainty and security override that knowledge,” said Sharon Stein of the University of British Columbia.</p>
  1730.  
  1731.  
  1732.  
  1733. <p>That knowledge, Stein added, is easily eclipsed by investments in colonialism that obscure university complicity and dismiss that change is possible.</p>
  1734.  
  1735.  
  1736.  
  1737. <p>Though it’s a complicated and arduous process changing laws and working with state agencies, universities regularly do it. In 2022, the 14 land-grant universities profiled in this story spent a combined $4.6 million on lobbying on issues ranging from agriculture to defense. All lobbied to influence the federal budget and appropriations.</p>
  1738.  
  1739.  
  1740.  
  1741. <p>But even if those high-level actions are taken, it’s not clear how it will make a difference to people like Alina Sierra in Tucson, who faces a rocky financial future after her departure from the University of Arizona.</p>
  1742.  
  1743.  
  1744.  
  1745. <p>In 2022, a&nbsp;<a href="https://collegefund.org/press-releases/college-fund/four-national-native-scholarship-providers-release-national-study-on-college-affordability-for-indigenous-students/" rel="noreferrer noopener" target="_blank">national study</a>&nbsp;on college affordability found that nearly 40 percent of Native students accrued more than $10,000 in college debt, with some accumulating more than $100,000 in loans. Sierra is still in debt to UArizona for more than $6,000.</p>
  1746.  
  1747.  
  1748.  
  1749. <p>“I think that being on O’odham land, they should give back, because it’s stolen land,” said Sierra. “They should put more into helping us.”&nbsp;</p>
  1750.  
  1751.  
  1752.  
  1753. <p>In January, Sierra enrolled as a full-time student at&nbsp;<a href="https://tocc.edu/" rel="noreferrer noopener" target="_blank">Tohono O’odham Community College</a>&nbsp;in Sells, Arizona — a tribal university on her homelands. The full cost of attendance, from tuition to fees to books, is free.&nbsp;</p>
  1754.  
  1755.  
  1756.  
  1757. <p>The college receives no benefits from state trust lands.</p>
  1758.  
  1759.  
  1760.  
  1761. <p></p>
  1762. <p>The post <a href="https://dailyyonder.com/misplaced-trust/2024/02/26/">Misplaced Trust</a> appeared first on <a href="https://dailyyonder.com">The Daily Yonder</a>.</p>
  1763. ]]></content:encoded>
  1764. <wfw:commentRss>https://dailyyonder.com/misplaced-trust/2024/02/26/feed/</wfw:commentRss>
  1765. <slash:comments>0</slash:comments>
  1766. </item>
  1767. <item>
  1768. <title>In S.C., Trump Draws Largest Support from Rural Areas and Suburbs</title>
  1769. <link>https://dailyyonder.com/in-s-c-trump-draws-largest-support-from-rural-areas-and-suburbs/2024/02/25/</link>
  1770. <comments>https://dailyyonder.com/in-s-c-trump-draws-largest-support-from-rural-areas-and-suburbs/2024/02/25/#respond</comments>
  1771. <dc:creator><![CDATA[Tim Marema]]></dc:creator>
  1772. <pubDate>Sun, 25 Feb 2024 17:22:17 +0000</pubDate>
  1773. <category><![CDATA[Rural Voters]]></category>
  1774. <guid isPermaLink="false">https://dailyyonder.com/?p=123878</guid>
  1775.  
  1776. <description><![CDATA[<figure><img width="1024" height="559" src="https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/sc-republican-primary-rural-2024.jpg?fit=1024%2C559&amp;ssl=1" class="attachment-rss-image-size size-rss-image-size wp-post-image" alt="" decoding="async" srcset="https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/sc-republican-primary-rural-2024.jpg?w=1111&amp;ssl=1 1111w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/sc-republican-primary-rural-2024.jpg?resize=760%2C415&amp;ssl=1 760w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/sc-republican-primary-rural-2024.jpg?resize=768%2C419&amp;ssl=1 768w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/sc-republican-primary-rural-2024.jpg?resize=1024%2C559&amp;ssl=1 1024w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/sc-republican-primary-rural-2024.jpg?resize=400%2C218&amp;ssl=1 400w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/sc-republican-primary-rural-2024.jpg?resize=706%2C385&amp;ssl=1 706w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/sc-republican-primary-rural-2024.jpg?fit=1024%2C559&amp;ssl=1&amp;w=370 370w" sizes="(max-width: 34.9rem) calc(100vw - 2rem), (max-width: 53rem) calc(8 * (100vw / 12)), (min-width: 53rem) calc(6 * (100vw / 12)), 100vw" /></figure>
  1777. <p>In Saturday's South Carolina Republican primary, Donald Trump performed best in rural and suburban areas. </p>
  1778. <p>The post <a href="https://dailyyonder.com/in-s-c-trump-draws-largest-support-from-rural-areas-and-suburbs/2024/02/25/">In S.C., Trump Draws Largest Support from Rural Areas and Suburbs</a> appeared first on <a href="https://dailyyonder.com">The Daily Yonder</a>.</p>
  1779. ]]></description>
  1780. <content:encoded><![CDATA[<figure><img width="1024" height="559" src="https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/sc-republican-primary-rural-2024.jpg?fit=1024%2C559&amp;ssl=1" class="attachment-rss-image-size size-rss-image-size wp-post-image" alt="" decoding="async" srcset="https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/sc-republican-primary-rural-2024.jpg?w=1111&amp;ssl=1 1111w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/sc-republican-primary-rural-2024.jpg?resize=760%2C415&amp;ssl=1 760w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/sc-republican-primary-rural-2024.jpg?resize=768%2C419&amp;ssl=1 768w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/sc-republican-primary-rural-2024.jpg?resize=1024%2C559&amp;ssl=1 1024w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/sc-republican-primary-rural-2024.jpg?resize=400%2C218&amp;ssl=1 400w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/sc-republican-primary-rural-2024.jpg?resize=706%2C385&amp;ssl=1 706w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/sc-republican-primary-rural-2024.jpg?fit=1024%2C559&amp;ssl=1&amp;w=370 370w" sizes="(max-width: 34.9rem) calc(100vw - 2rem), (max-width: 53rem) calc(8 * (100vw / 12)), (min-width: 53rem) calc(6 * (100vw / 12)), 100vw" /></figure>
  1781. <p>In his South Carolina primary victory Saturday, former President Donald Trump racked up his biggest margins in rural and suburban areas, a Daily Yonder analysis shows.</p>
  1782.  
  1783.  
  1784.  
  1785. <p>Trump won the statewide Republican contest by a 20-point margin over Nikki Haley, South Carolina’s former governor and former ambassador to the United Nations.</p>
  1786.  
  1787.  
  1788.  
  1789. <p>Trump’s largest margin of victory came in the state’s rural (nonmetropolitan) counties, where he earned 69% of the vote compared to Haley’s 31%, a margin of 38 points.&nbsp;</p>
  1790.  
  1791.  
  1792.  
  1793. <p>Trump also won landslide victories in the suburban counties of large and medium-sized metropolitan counties.&nbsp;</p>
  1794.  
  1795.  
  1796.  
  1797. <p>In South Carolina&#8217;s three major-metropolitan counties in the suburbs of Charlotte, North Carolina, Trump won by 20 points, 60%-40%.</p>
  1798.  
  1799.  
  1800.  
  1801. <p>In the suburbs of medium-sized metropolitan areas, Trump defeated Haley 64% to 36%, a 28-point margin. </p>
  1802.  
  1803.  
  1804.  
  1805. <p>Haley lost by smaller margins in the core counties of medium-sized metropolitan areas and in small metropolitan areas. In those categories of counties, Trump won by the same margin, 12 points (56% to 44%).</p>
  1806.  
  1807.  
  1808.  
  1809. <p>South Carolina’s 18 medium-sized metropolitan counties are the electoral base of the state. Those counties constituted 70% of the turnout Saturday. The principal cities of these metropolitan areas are Charleston, Greenville, Myrtle Beach, Columbia, and Spartanburg.</p>
  1810.  
  1811.  
  1812.  
  1813. <h2 class="wp-block-heading">Definitions</h2>
  1814.  
  1815.  
  1816.  
  1817. <p><em>The Daily Yonder analysis uses the 2013 Office of Management and Budget Metropolitan Statistical Areas to define rural. </em></p>
  1818.  
  1819.  
  1820.  
  1821. <ul>
  1822. <li><em>We define counties that are not located within a metropolitan area as rural. <em>Twenty of the state’s 46 counties fall in this category</em> <em>(12% of turnout Saturday)</em>.</em> <em>Under the OMB’s 2013 system, nonmetropolitan counties don’t have a city of 50,000 or greater and don’t have close economic ties to a county that does have a city of 50,000 or greater. </em></li>
  1823.  
  1824.  
  1825.  
  1826. <li><em>Major metropolitan suburbs are the outlying counties of metros with a population of over 1 million (8% of turnout)</em>.</li>
  1827.  
  1828.  
  1829.  
  1830. <li><em>Medium-sized metropolitan core counties are the central counties of metros with a population of 250,000 to under 1 million (41% of turnout).</em></li>
  1831.  
  1832.  
  1833.  
  1834. <li><em>Medium-sized metropolitan suburbs are the outlying counties of metros with a population of 250,000 to under 1 million</em> <em>(29% of turnout).</em></li>
  1835.  
  1836.  
  1837.  
  1838. <li><em>Small metropolitan areas include all counties in metros of fewer than 250,000 residents.</em> <em>(10% of turnout).</em></li>
  1839. </ul>
  1840.  
  1841.  
  1842.  
  1843. <p></p>
  1844. <p>The post <a href="https://dailyyonder.com/in-s-c-trump-draws-largest-support-from-rural-areas-and-suburbs/2024/02/25/">In S.C., Trump Draws Largest Support from Rural Areas and Suburbs</a> appeared first on <a href="https://dailyyonder.com">The Daily Yonder</a>.</p>
  1845. ]]></content:encoded>
  1846. <wfw:commentRss>https://dailyyonder.com/in-s-c-trump-draws-largest-support-from-rural-areas-and-suburbs/2024/02/25/feed/</wfw:commentRss>
  1847. <slash:comments>0</slash:comments>
  1848. </item>
  1849. <item>
  1850. <title>45 Degrees North: Garden Fever</title>
  1851. <link>https://dailyyonder.com/45-degrees-north-garden-fever/2024/02/23/</link>
  1852. <comments>https://dailyyonder.com/45-degrees-north-garden-fever/2024/02/23/#respond</comments>
  1853. <dc:creator><![CDATA[Donna Kallner]]></dc:creator>
  1854. <pubDate>Fri, 23 Feb 2024 11:00:00 +0000</pubDate>
  1855. <category><![CDATA[Environment]]></category>
  1856. <category><![CDATA[Rural Life]]></category>
  1857. <guid isPermaLink="false">https://dailyyonder.com/?p=123099</guid>
  1858.  
  1859. <description><![CDATA[<figure><img width="1024" height="576" src="https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/IMG_20220908_131209.jpg?fit=1024%2C576&amp;ssl=1" class="attachment-rss-image-size size-rss-image-size wp-post-image" alt="" decoding="async" srcset="https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/IMG_20220908_131209.jpg?w=1920&amp;ssl=1 1920w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/IMG_20220908_131209.jpg?resize=760%2C428&amp;ssl=1 760w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/IMG_20220908_131209.jpg?resize=1296%2C729&amp;ssl=1 1296w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/IMG_20220908_131209.jpg?resize=768%2C432&amp;ssl=1 768w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/IMG_20220908_131209.jpg?resize=1536%2C864&amp;ssl=1 1536w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/IMG_20220908_131209.jpg?resize=1200%2C675&amp;ssl=1 1200w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/IMG_20220908_131209.jpg?resize=1024%2C576&amp;ssl=1 1024w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/IMG_20220908_131209.jpg?resize=1568%2C882&amp;ssl=1 1568w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/IMG_20220908_131209.jpg?resize=400%2C225&amp;ssl=1 400w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/IMG_20220908_131209.jpg?resize=706%2C397&amp;ssl=1 706w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/IMG_20220908_131209.jpg?fit=1024%2C576&amp;ssl=1&amp;w=370 370w" sizes="(max-width: 34.9rem) calc(100vw - 2rem), (max-width: 53rem) calc(8 * (100vw / 12)), (min-width: 53rem) calc(6 * (100vw / 12)), 100vw" /></figure>
  1860. <p>This time of year, garden fever spreads through rural communities like a stomach bug through an elementary school. But will anyone care about the USDA's updated plant hardiness zone maps when making planting decisions?</p>
  1861. <p>The post <a href="https://dailyyonder.com/45-degrees-north-garden-fever/2024/02/23/">45 Degrees North: Garden Fever</a> appeared first on <a href="https://dailyyonder.com">The Daily Yonder</a>.</p>
  1862. ]]></description>
  1863. <content:encoded><![CDATA[<figure><img width="1024" height="576" src="https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/IMG_20220908_131209.jpg?fit=1024%2C576&amp;ssl=1" class="attachment-rss-image-size size-rss-image-size wp-post-image" alt="" decoding="async" srcset="https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/IMG_20220908_131209.jpg?w=1920&amp;ssl=1 1920w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/IMG_20220908_131209.jpg?resize=760%2C428&amp;ssl=1 760w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/IMG_20220908_131209.jpg?resize=1296%2C729&amp;ssl=1 1296w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/IMG_20220908_131209.jpg?resize=768%2C432&amp;ssl=1 768w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/IMG_20220908_131209.jpg?resize=1536%2C864&amp;ssl=1 1536w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/IMG_20220908_131209.jpg?resize=1200%2C675&amp;ssl=1 1200w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/IMG_20220908_131209.jpg?resize=1024%2C576&amp;ssl=1 1024w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/IMG_20220908_131209.jpg?resize=1568%2C882&amp;ssl=1 1568w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/IMG_20220908_131209.jpg?resize=400%2C225&amp;ssl=1 400w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/IMG_20220908_131209.jpg?resize=706%2C397&amp;ssl=1 706w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/IMG_20220908_131209.jpg?fit=1024%2C576&amp;ssl=1&amp;w=370 370w" sizes="(max-width: 34.9rem) calc(100vw - 2rem), (max-width: 53rem) calc(8 * (100vw / 12)), (min-width: 53rem) calc(6 * (100vw / 12)), 100vw" /></figure>
  1864. <p>Last year, the U.S. Department of Agriculture updated its <a href="https://planthardiness.ars.usda.gov/">plant hardiness zone maps</a>. Zone maps are tools to help gardeners select plants that can survive and thrive in a particular location. Or to put it another way, zone maps are tools to help gardeners avoid the expense and heartbreak of planting things that really don&#8217;t stand a chance.&nbsp;</p>
  1865.  
  1866.  
  1867.  
  1868. <p>Sure. Like a speed dating score sheet ensures true love.</p>
  1869.  
  1870.  
  1871.  
  1872. <p>Every northern gardener I know seems dedicated to some quixotic quest. One friend saves seeds with the goal of producing a particular heirloom tomato variety tolerant of both our short growing season and the limited sunlight available on her wooded property. Another, who lives even farther north, grows regionally adapted flint corn for grinding. Neither is likely to celebrate the general nationwide shift to the next warmer half-zone. Nor would I, if it weren&#8217;t for lima beans.&nbsp;</p>
  1873.  
  1874.  
  1875.  
  1876. <p>Specifically, Christmas lima beans. It takes a 95-day growing season to mature those big, beautiful <em>Phaseolus lunatus </em>for drying. Here in rural northern Wisconsin, I keep frost covers handy into June and bring them back out by mid-September. If you do the math, a 100-day growing season isn&#8217;t completely out of the question. Except that our soil doesn&#8217;t really warm up until mid-June, and it cools down fast around the end of August. And our nights tend to be cool throughout the summer. It&#8217;s a great place to live, unless you&#8217;re a lima bean. And yet, I can picture them at a potluck – homegrown beans, celery, onions and garlic, with local maple syrup or boiled cider to temper the vinegar. Folks who appreciate a good, nutty lima bean salad can understand why I might be tempted to nurture a crop like an ill-fated romance. The phrase <em>Bean Stalker</em> comes to mind.&nbsp;</p>
  1877.  
  1878.  
  1879.  
  1880. <p>At this point, I&#8217;m uncertain whether I&#8217;ve talked myself into or out of trying to grow them. The rational part of my brain is reviewing reasons for and against, and what else I could be learning from this exercise – which I share with you. Stay tuned to the end for a head-scratcher for rural gardeners about sweet corn.</p>
  1881.  
  1882.  
  1883.  
  1884. <h3 class="wp-block-heading">Minimum Temperature</h3>
  1885.  
  1886.  
  1887.  
  1888. <p>Plant hardiness zones represent the average annual <em>extreme minimum temperature</em> in a region over the past 30 years. That may not reflect the coldest it has been or will be at a specific location. It&#8217;s just a specific, measurable indicator of what is generally a crucial factor in the survival of perennial plants, shrubs and trees. Find your zone by typing your zip code in the box <a href="https://planthardiness.ars.usda.gov/pages/how-to-use-the-maps">here</a>. My Zone 4b average annual extreme minimum temperature is -25 to -20 degrees Fahrenheit. After a more extreme cold snap, some shrubs may benefit from a hard pruning in early spring, if the deer and rabbits don&#8217;t make that necessary anyway by nibbling on them all winter.&nbsp;</p>
  1889.  
  1890.  
  1891.  
  1892. <h3 class="wp-block-heading">Other Metrics</h3>
  1893.  
  1894.  
  1895.  
  1896. <p>Hardiness zones can tell a gardener something about how resilient a plant could be to winter stress, but that&#8217;s just one metric important to rural gardeners. Growing Degree Days (GDD) describe the season available for plants to grow and mature. Heat Zones map the number of days per year when high temperatures (86°F or warmer) can stress plants. <a href="https://storymaps.arcgis.com/stories/9ee0cc0a070c409cbde0e3a1d87a487c">Projections suggest</a> we will see increases in both of those metrics in this century. That&#8217;s something to keep in mind when selecting trees and shrubs for new plantings. I’m inclined to select for extreme cold hardiness, but ought to start giving heat stress more consideration.</p>
  1897.  
  1898.  
  1899.  
  1900. <h3 class="wp-block-heading">Variables</h3>
  1901.  
  1902.  
  1903.  
  1904. <p>Those who have turned the green eyes of envy on a friend&#8217;s garden should remember this: We may be growing in the same hardiness zone with the same GDD and Heat Zone as our green-thumbed neighbors. But those metrics don&#8217;t account for important variables. For example, the pavement in town can hold heat and help warm the soil earlier in the spring. And soil temperature is important in seed germination. That&#8217;s why one favorite bit of garden lore is to plant tender crops when the soil is warm enough to sit your bare butt on the ground comfortably. Or you could use your hand or a soil thermometer, but those are not as much fun as the old wives method – which you should totally do if you live in a rural area where there aren&#8217;t neighbors close enough to call the cops on a naked gardener.</p>
  1905.  
  1906.  
  1907.  
  1908. <h3 class="wp-block-heading">Microclimates</h3>
  1909.  
  1910.  
  1911.  
  1912. <p>While you are swanning about in the altogether assessing soil temperature, make a mental map of other features that influence <a href="https://planthardiness.ars.usda.gov/pages/how-to-use-the-maps">microclimates</a> – pocket areas that can be warmer or cooler than the surrounding terrain. My mother was quietly proud of the Oriental poppies she grew near the dryer vent, which created a very favorable microclimate. I learned from a neighbor to grow tomatoes in buckets along the southwest-facing wall of the house. You can find the low spots where cold air pools first without being naked. You can even alter the landscape to create advantageous microclimates or minimize characteristics you find unattractive. But in the long run, that may be like assuming you can transform a potential life partner into what you want instead of what they are. In both cases, it might be wise to spend a bit more time getting to know each other and learning to live with idiosyncrasies before hiring the bulldozer.</p>
  1913.  
  1914.  
  1915.  
  1916. <h3 class="wp-block-heading">Buyer Beware</h3>
  1917.  
  1918.  
  1919.  
  1920. <p>Being ever attracted to a good close-out sale, I once came close to buying bulbs from the big box store in town – until I read the packaging. Even at that price, I wouldn&#8217;t waste my time with a prepackaged product mix suited for Zone 7. Here in Zone 4 those bulbs were unlikely to return and multiply year after year, although I&#8217;m sure the squirrels would have enjoyed eating them.</p>
  1921.  
  1922.  
  1923.  
  1924. <h3 class="wp-block-heading">Local Knowledge</h3>
  1925.  
  1926.  
  1927.  
  1928. <p>Metrics are handy but hardly a substitute for local knowledge. I learned that lesson many years ago the expensive way. Yes, I was seduced by the glossy pictures of zone-appropriate varietals in a specialist rose catalog. They were beautiful – for two years. One hard winter, though, and they were dead to me. A few years later when my heart was somewhat recovered from the loss, I turned to the matchmaker at a nearby garden center. She hooked me up with a <a href="https://louistheplantgeek.com/rosa-rugosa-therese-bugnet/">Théresè Bugnet</a> shrub rose that&#8217;s hardy enough to withstand our occasional minus-forties temperatures <em>and</em> the nibbling rabbits. We are living happily ever after.</p>
  1929.  
  1930.  
  1931.  
  1932. <h3 class="wp-block-heading">Kissing Frogs</h3>
  1933.  
  1934.  
  1935.  
  1936. <p>In love and gardening, we make some questionable choices on the road to a happy ending. The trick is deciding when to give something more time or to just move on. Especially when you really, really, <em>really </em>want it to work out. One corner of our house, for example, has a spot that has resisted my every effort to produce food. It simply doesn&#8217;t get enough sun for most of what I grow. Oh, I had a nice container of cilantro there one summer, but one does not live by cilantro alone. I kissed that frog, and it tasted faintly like soap. I don&#8217;t doubt that my mother could have coaxed a clematis to thrive in that spot. And I certainly enjoy looking at a clematis. But I&#8217;m much more attracted to, say, beans. So I moved on, and am quite happy with absolutely nothing growing there. But as with frogs that <em>do </em>turn princely when kissed, with plants you don&#8217;t know unless you try.</p>
  1937.  
  1938.  
  1939.  
  1940. <h3 class="wp-block-heading">Patience</h3>
  1941.  
  1942.  
  1943.  
  1944. <p>Patience can be difficult for a new gardener or a gardener new to a different growing zone or soil type. One friend always says, “If you could only see it in my head.” Generally I know exactly what she meant in about five years. When she was younger, she could knock that down to three years with backbreaking labor and the generous application of greenbacks. We will not discuss the unattainable gardening ambitions in my own sordid past except to say this: As I get older and slower, I find a great deal of satisfaction in chipping away at important garden goals and leaving room for madcap ideas, big and small.</p>
  1945.  
  1946.  
  1947.  
  1948. <h3 class="wp-block-heading">Why Not?</h3>
  1949.  
  1950.  
  1951.  
  1952. <p>One year when I was away from home too much to start seeds indoors, I tossed basil seeds into a bed the first week in July. Direct sowing proved to be as effective for my needs as babying leggy seedlings through transplant shock. Another year I tested whether I could get an earlier harvest from snow peas by using cloches to create a slightly warmer microclimate. Compared to the peas planted two weeks later, there was so little difference that now I just wait. One year I might have thrust some squash seeds and just enough dirt to help with germination into bales of bad hay abandoned in a fencerow, and harvested a small but very satisfying crop without another moment of work or watering. This year, I&#8217;m going to plant a <a href="https://www.ruralsprout.com/chaos-garden/">chaos garden</a> to use up odds and ends of seed packets that are getting old. Hmong market gardeners in my area interplant different crop items in a manner I have heard confuses pests and delights pollinators. Their system looked higgledy-piggledy to my late straight-rows father but makes sense to me.&nbsp;</p>
  1953.  
  1954.  
  1955.  
  1956. <p>My dad and I both had a good laugh once over sweet corn. Friends who own a suburban garden center told us so many customers asked about “corn starts” that they decided to try selling them. Dad thought it was a joke: Why would anyone go to the trouble and expense of starting a seed you just poke into the ground? Does sweet corn even tolerate transplantation? “I never even thought to try it,” he said. We were both astounded that my friends found it profitable enough to keep selling corn starts.</p>
  1957.  
  1958.  
  1959.  
  1960. <p>I wish Dad was still here for me to tell this: I just Googled “starting sweet corn indoors”. Apparently, it&#8217;s a thing. I&#8217;m not going to try it, but I&#8217;m glad it works for others. And yet, if sweet corn can be successfully transplanted, what about lima beans?</p>
  1961.  
  1962.  
  1963.  
  1964. <p>Must be the garden fever talking.</p>
  1965.  
  1966.  
  1967.  
  1968. <hr class="wp-block-separator has-alpha-channel-opacity is-style-dots"/>
  1969.  
  1970.  
  1971.  
  1972. <p><em>Donna Kallner writes from Langlade County in rural northern Wisconsin.</em></p>
  1973. <p>The post <a href="https://dailyyonder.com/45-degrees-north-garden-fever/2024/02/23/">45 Degrees North: Garden Fever</a> appeared first on <a href="https://dailyyonder.com">The Daily Yonder</a>.</p>
  1974. ]]></content:encoded>
  1975. <wfw:commentRss>https://dailyyonder.com/45-degrees-north-garden-fever/2024/02/23/feed/</wfw:commentRss>
  1976. <slash:comments>0</slash:comments>
  1977. </item>
  1978. <item>
  1979. <title>Q&#038;A: What Was the Hillbilly Highway?</title>
  1980. <link>https://dailyyonder.com/qa-what-was-the-hillbilly-highway/2024/02/23/</link>
  1981. <comments>https://dailyyonder.com/qa-what-was-the-hillbilly-highway/2024/02/23/#respond</comments>
  1982. <dc:creator><![CDATA[Olivia Weeks]]></dc:creator>
  1983. <pubDate>Fri, 23 Feb 2024 10:59:00 +0000</pubDate>
  1984. <category><![CDATA[History]]></category>
  1985. <category><![CDATA[path finders]]></category>
  1986. <guid isPermaLink="false">https://dailyyonder.com/?p=123669</guid>
  1987.  
  1988. <description><![CDATA[<figure><img width="1024" height="576" src="https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/Untitled-design-1.png?fit=1024%2C576&amp;ssl=1" class="attachment-rss-image-size size-rss-image-size wp-post-image" alt="" decoding="async" srcset="https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/Untitled-design-1.png?w=1200&amp;ssl=1 1200w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/Untitled-design-1.png?resize=760%2C428&amp;ssl=1 760w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/Untitled-design-1.png?resize=768%2C432&amp;ssl=1 768w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/Untitled-design-1.png?resize=1024%2C576&amp;ssl=1 1024w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/Untitled-design-1.png?resize=400%2C225&amp;ssl=1 400w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/Untitled-design-1.png?resize=706%2C397&amp;ssl=1 706w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/Untitled-design-1.png?fit=1024%2C576&amp;ssl=1&amp;w=370 370w" sizes="(max-width: 34.9rem) calc(100vw - 2rem), (max-width: 53rem) calc(8 * (100vw / 12)), (min-width: 53rem) calc(6 * (100vw / 12)), 100vw" /></figure>
  1989. <p>Editor’s Note: This interview first appeared in Path Finders, an email newsletter from the Daily Yonder. Each week, Path Finders features a Q&#38;A with a rural thinker, creator, or doer. Like what you see here? You can join the mailing list at the bottom of this article and receive more conversations like this in your inbox each week. [&#8230;]</p>
  1990. <p>The post <a href="https://dailyyonder.com/qa-what-was-the-hillbilly-highway/2024/02/23/">Q&#038;A: What Was the Hillbilly Highway?</a> appeared first on <a href="https://dailyyonder.com">The Daily Yonder</a>.</p>
  1991. ]]></description>
  1992. <content:encoded><![CDATA[<figure><img width="1024" height="576" src="https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/Untitled-design-1.png?fit=1024%2C576&amp;ssl=1" class="attachment-rss-image-size size-rss-image-size wp-post-image" alt="" decoding="async" srcset="https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/Untitled-design-1.png?w=1200&amp;ssl=1 1200w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/Untitled-design-1.png?resize=760%2C428&amp;ssl=1 760w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/Untitled-design-1.png?resize=768%2C432&amp;ssl=1 768w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/Untitled-design-1.png?resize=1024%2C576&amp;ssl=1 1024w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/Untitled-design-1.png?resize=400%2C225&amp;ssl=1 400w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/Untitled-design-1.png?resize=706%2C397&amp;ssl=1 706w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/Untitled-design-1.png?fit=1024%2C576&amp;ssl=1&amp;w=370 370w" sizes="(max-width: 34.9rem) calc(100vw - 2rem), (max-width: 53rem) calc(8 * (100vw / 12)), (min-width: 53rem) calc(6 * (100vw / 12)), 100vw" /></figure>
  1993. <p><em>Editor’s Note: This interview first appeared in <a href="https://dailyyonder.com/path-finders/">Path Finders</a>, an email newsletter from the Daily Yonder. Each week, Path Finders features a Q&amp;A with a rural thinker, creator, or doer. Like what you see here? You can <a href="#signup">join the mailing list at the bottom of this article</a> and receive more conversations like this in your inbox each week.</em></p>
  1994.  
  1995.  
  1996.  
  1997. <hr class="wp-block-separator has-alpha-channel-opacity"/>
  1998.  
  1999.  
  2000.  
  2001. <p>Max Fraser is a historian who teaches at the University of Miami. His wonderful recent book <a href="https://press.princeton.edu/books/hardcover/9780691191119/hillbilly-highway"><em>The Hillbilly Highway: Transappalachia and the Making of a White Working Class</em></a>, tells the story of the eight million poor and working-class white people who fled the Upper South for the Rust Belt between roughly 1900 and 1970. </p>
  2002.  
  2003.  
  2004.  
  2005. <p>Enjoy our conversation about the creation of “Transappalachia,” the myth of innate white working-class conservatism, and the de-classing of “hillbilly music,” below.</p>
  2006.  
  2007.  
  2008.  
  2009. <hr class="wp-block-separator has-alpha-channel-opacity"/>
  2010.  
  2011.  
  2012.  
  2013. <div class="wp-block-columns is-layout-flex wp-container-core-columns-layout-4 wp-block-columns-is-layout-flex">
  2014. <div class="wp-block-column is-layout-flow wp-block-column-is-layout-flow" style="flex-basis:66.66%">
  2015. <figure class="wp-block-image size-full is-resized"><img decoding="async" width="703" height="685" src="https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/Transappalachia-cropped.jpg?resize=703%2C685&#038;ssl=1" alt="" class="wp-image-123500" style="width:517px;height:auto" srcset="https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/Transappalachia-cropped.jpg?w=703&amp;ssl=1 703w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/Transappalachia-cropped.jpg?resize=400%2C390&amp;ssl=1 400w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/Transappalachia-cropped.jpg?w=370&amp;ssl=1 370w" sizes="(max-width: 703px) 100vw, 703px" data-recalc-dims="1" /><figcaption class="wp-element-caption">A map of &#8220;Transappalachia,&#8221; provided by Fraser.</figcaption></figure>
  2016. </div>
  2017.  
  2018.  
  2019.  
  2020. <div class="wp-block-column is-layout-flow wp-block-column-is-layout-flow" style="flex-basis:33.33%">
  2021. <figure class="wp-block-image size-large is-resized"><img decoding="async" width="780" height="1170" src="https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/max-fraser-7.jpg?resize=780%2C1170&#038;ssl=1" alt="" class="wp-image-123499" style="width:288px;height:auto" srcset="https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/max-fraser-7-scaled.jpg?resize=864%2C1296&amp;ssl=1 864w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/max-fraser-7-scaled.jpg?resize=507%2C760&amp;ssl=1 507w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/max-fraser-7-scaled.jpg?resize=768%2C1151&amp;ssl=1 768w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/max-fraser-7-scaled.jpg?resize=1025%2C1536&amp;ssl=1 1025w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/max-fraser-7-scaled.jpg?resize=1366%2C2048&amp;ssl=1 1366w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/max-fraser-7-scaled.jpg?resize=1200%2C1799&amp;ssl=1 1200w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/max-fraser-7-scaled.jpg?resize=683%2C1024&amp;ssl=1 683w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/max-fraser-7-scaled.jpg?resize=1568%2C2351&amp;ssl=1 1568w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/max-fraser-7-scaled.jpg?resize=400%2C600&amp;ssl=1 400w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/max-fraser-7-scaled.jpg?resize=706%2C1058&amp;ssl=1 706w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/max-fraser-7-scaled.jpg?w=1708&amp;ssl=1 1708w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/max-fraser-7-864x1296.jpg?w=370&amp;ssl=1 370w" sizes="(max-width: 780px) 100vw, 780px" data-recalc-dims="1" /><figcaption class="wp-element-caption">Fraser is an assistant professor of American History at the University of Miami.</figcaption></figure>
  2022. </div>
  2023. </div>
  2024.  
  2025.  
  2026.  
  2027. <p><strong>Olivia Weeks, The Daily Yonder: In simplified terms: who rode the hillbilly highway, and why?</strong></p>
  2028.  
  2029.  
  2030.  
  2031. <p><strong>Max Fraser: </strong>Migrants along the hillbilly highway were generally poor and working-class whites, who hailed originally from the Upper South and who moved in great numbers to the large cities and factory towns of the industrial Midwest in search of jobs. Mostly they were small farmers, sharecroppers or tenant farmers; or else they worked in one or another form of rural industry – mining, logging, textiles, poultry processing, the kinds of low-paid work that have always proliferated in the rural Southeast. Many moved permanently, relocating to the Midwest and transforming the social, political, and cultural landscape of the region in ways that I unpack in the book. Others moved back and forth between North and South more periodically, finding work where they could and crafting lives and identities that became in a sense “transregional” in scope. All told, the scale of this population movement was so massive that in many ways it’s hard to grasp in its entirety – at least 8 million people, and quite possibly many more, made these kinds of circuits between the turn of the twentieth century and the beginning of the 1970s.</p>
  2032.  
  2033.  
  2034.  
  2035. <p>As for why: economic forces were the driving factor here. The historic under-development of the rural South, the destructive toll that resource-extractive industrialization took on traditional rural livelihoods, the dislocating effects of state-initiated modernization projects like the Tennessee Valley Authority, all combined to displace an ever-growing number of people across the broad region stretching from the Carolina Piedmont in the east to the Mississippi River in the west. As a result, what I refer to in the book as an expansive rural surplus population was created over the first half of the twentieth century. And so, as a matter of survival, for a better chance than they had at home, for their shot at the so-called American Dream – however you want to put it, millions of these rural white southerners began moving north along the hillbilly highway.</p>
  2036.  
  2037.  
  2038.  
  2039. <p><strong>DY: <strong>You write about a relative lack of cultural attention paid to Transappalachian migration, as compared to the dust bowl or the Black Great Migration. Why do you think such massive movement back and forth between Appalachia and the Rust Belt is a less well known story?</strong></strong></p>
  2040.  
  2041.  
  2042.  
  2043. <p><strong>MF:</strong> Well, as massive as the Transappalachian migration was, it was not as decisive a watershed event as the Black Great Migration, which in just fifty years transformed a population that was still largely rural and overwhelmingly southern at the beginning of the twentieth century into the most densely urbanized demographic group anywhere in the country. At the same time, migrants along the hillbilly highway were never invested with the same symbolic significance that contemporary cultural touchstones like Dorothea Lange’s photographs, Woody Guthrie’s folk ballads, or the Joad family in the hands of either John Steinbeck or John Ford gave to the Dust Bowl migrants of the 1930s – as stand-ins for the nation-at-large in a time of great collective suffering. As large or even larger than either of these two better-known twentieth century migrations, the Transappalachian migration has just never been as visible.</p>
  2044.  
  2045.  
  2046.  
  2047. <p>But I think one additional factor worth mentioning, which contributes to the relative invisibility of this migration, is something akin to what a famous work of sociology from a half century ago referred to as the “hidden injuries of class.” Part of what made and makes those other two migrations so very hyper-visible were the spectacular social catastrophes which drove them – in other words, Jim Crow and the environmental disaster that was the Dust Bowl. The Transappalachian migration, on the other hand, was largely an outgrowth of the more mundane precarity that has always defined everyday life for millions and millions of working people – the very unspectacular catastrophe Marx called the “dull compulsion of economic relations” – and which functions as something like the inalterable background scenery to life under capitalism. In whatever form it takes, this aspect of working-class life – the quotidian yet inescapable struggles of finding a job, earning a living, sustaining a family and a community – tends to be internalized as a social inevitability and as a result is often relegated to a less visible place in the culture. And so for this reason too, perhaps, the Transappalachian migration is a less well-known story in American history.</p>
  2048.  
  2049.  
  2050.  
  2051. <p><strong>DY: <strong>Where does the idea come from that white southern migrants to the North aren’t interested in workplace organization and resistance? Can you give an example of a 20th century labor action that cuts against stereotypes about “hillbilly” politics and class consciousness?</strong></strong></p>
  2052.  
  2053.  
  2054.  
  2055. <div class="wp-block-columns is-layout-flex wp-container-core-columns-layout-5 wp-block-columns-is-layout-flex">
  2056. <div class="wp-block-column is-layout-flow wp-block-column-is-layout-flow">
  2057. <p><strong>MF: </strong>In the couple decades after World War I, Midwestern employers very aggressively began to recruit white southerners to come work in northern factories, and they did so in large part because they were convinced that these rural migrants would make for an ideal workforce. </p>
  2058.  
  2059.  
  2060.  
  2061. <p>They were poor and therefore must be desperate for whatever work they could get; they were thought to have limited experience with industrial employment and, more importantly, industrial unionism; they were undeniably white and native-born, and so presumptively would more naturally ally themselves with their employers than with the more strike-prone members of the polyglot working classes. </p>
  2062. </div>
  2063.  
  2064.  
  2065.  
  2066. <div class="wp-block-column is-layout-flow wp-block-column-is-layout-flow">
  2067. <figure class="wp-block-image size-large is-resized"><img decoding="async" width="780" height="1178" src="https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/Hillbilly-Highway-Cover.jpg?resize=780%2C1178&#038;ssl=1" alt="" class="wp-image-123670" style="width:345px;height:auto" srcset="https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/Hillbilly-Highway-Cover-scaled.jpg?resize=858%2C1296&amp;ssl=1 858w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/Hillbilly-Highway-Cover-scaled.jpg?resize=503%2C760&amp;ssl=1 503w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/Hillbilly-Highway-Cover-scaled.jpg?resize=768%2C1160&amp;ssl=1 768w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/Hillbilly-Highway-Cover-scaled.jpg?resize=1017%2C1536&amp;ssl=1 1017w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/Hillbilly-Highway-Cover-scaled.jpg?resize=1356%2C2048&amp;ssl=1 1356w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/Hillbilly-Highway-Cover-scaled.jpg?resize=1200%2C1812&amp;ssl=1 1200w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/Hillbilly-Highway-Cover-scaled.jpg?resize=678%2C1024&amp;ssl=1 678w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/Hillbilly-Highway-Cover-scaled.jpg?resize=1568%2C2368&amp;ssl=1 1568w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/Hillbilly-Highway-Cover-scaled.jpg?resize=400%2C604&amp;ssl=1 400w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/Hillbilly-Highway-Cover-scaled.jpg?resize=706%2C1066&amp;ssl=1 706w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/Hillbilly-Highway-Cover-scaled.jpg?w=1695&amp;ssl=1 1695w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/Hillbilly-Highway-Cover-858x1296.jpg?w=370&amp;ssl=1 370w" sizes="(max-width: 780px) 100vw, 780px" data-recalc-dims="1" /><figcaption class="wp-element-caption">Fraser&#8217;s <em>Hillbilly Highway </em>was released last fall from Princeton University Press.</figcaption></figure>
  2068. </div>
  2069. </div>
  2070.  
  2071.  
  2072.  
  2073. <p>More often than not, these ideas stemmed from and reanimated long-standing stereotypes about southern “hillbillies” being a uniquely impoverished, degraded, and reactionary group in American society.</p>
  2074.  
  2075.  
  2076.  
  2077. <p>But time and again such notions proved to be misleading if not flat-out science fiction. One episode I write about at some length in the book was the 1936 sit-down strike at Goodyear in Akron, Ohio, which was actually the first major sit-down strike of the decade, predating the more famous General Motors strike in Flint, Michigan by roughly ten months. Rural white southerners played an absolutely critical role in that month-long strike, as well as throughout the two years of almost uninterrupted shop-floor skirmishing which followed, as the newly formed United Rubber Workers fought to secure a first union contract with the largest rubber manufacturer in the world. Goodyear was one of those employers that went out of its way to hire migrants along the hillbilly highway during these decades, placing job advertisements in regional newspapers throughout southern Appalachia and posting its labor agents deep in the decimated pockets of West Virginia coal country. By doing so, Goodyear thought it was getting a workforce full of docile and exploitable country bumpkins. The 1936 sit-down strike and its aftermath, as well as other such moments of labor upheaval I write about in the book, demonstrated just how misguided such employers were.</p>
  2078.  
  2079.  
  2080.  
  2081. <p><strong>DY: <strong>One theme that came in and out of focus throughout the book was the difference between nostalgia for the past and resistance to capitalistic forms of progress – how has country music represented both of those tendencies over time?</strong></strong></p>
  2082.  
  2083.  
  2084.  
  2085. <p><strong>MF:</strong> Country music occupies a pretty significant place in the story I tell – “Hillbilly Highway,” after all, was the name of a Steve Earle song before it was the title of my book – not least because this massive interregional migration was in large part responsible for turning country music into the dominant field of popular culture that it is today. Country music originated in the early twentieth century as a vernacular music of the rural southern working classes; not incidentally, the earliest country recordings were explicitly categorized, by the major labels and in the trade press, as “hillbilly” records. But as millions of white southerners left the region during the middle decades of the twentieth century, they carried this music with them, radically expanding the geography of country record sales and radio play while at the same time introducing the genre to middle class listeners in cities far outside the South. Before long, the “hillbilly” appellation was dropped, and the music became known by the more respectable – and generically non-descriptive – name of “country” music.</p>
  2086.  
  2087.  
  2088.  
  2089. <p>A funny thing happened, though, as country music moved from the margins to the mainstream of American popular culture. Emerging as they did right in the teeth of those life-altering economic transformations I mentioned before, the earliest country recordings managed to capture exceedingly well the everyday reality of that experience. In doing so, they often registered quite trenchant critiques of the industrial-capitalist order then remaking the southern countryside. But the more that country music reoriented itself, stylistically and thematically, to appeal to its growing national audience, the more it came to replace those earlier critical notes with an increasingly conservative language of bathetic nostalgia, which reimagined the southern countryside not as a terrain of class struggle but as an imaginary landscape that endured at some prelapsarian remove from the tensions and conflicts inherent to capitalist modernity. The transformations wrought by the hillbilly highway not only dignified country music; they also de-classed it, in irreversible and ultimately quite tragic ways. Or at least so I try to argue in the book.</p>
  2090.  
  2091.  
  2092.  
  2093. <p><strong>DY: <strong>The whole book is about the hypermobility of a specific group of people throughout the industrial U.S. While at many points white migrants from the upper South were otherized by the city folk they met in the north, at all times whiteness offers a possibility of mobility that other racial and ethnic groups don’t have. What effect does that particular form of mobility have on Transappalachian white people as a group?</strong></strong></p>
  2094.  
  2095.  
  2096.  
  2097. <p><strong>MF: </strong>This is a really critical point you raise here. Mobility had a double-meaning for many Transappalachian migrants; it both defined them as outsiders in the new communities they moved within, and granted them access to opportunities they did not have at home and privileges that were simultaneously denied to others because of race or nativity. Certain kinds of mobility that travelers along the hillbilly highway could access or at least reasonably aspire to – the upward mobility provided by a good union job in the middle of the twentieth century; or the mobility entailed in moving to the growing working-class suburbs of the postwar period – were always much more hotly contested for, if not outright denied to, the Black southerners who were also moving North in huge numbers during these same decades. </p>
  2098.  
  2099.  
  2100.  
  2101. <p>This tension between marginalization and mobility is really the central dynamic of the story I tell in <em>Hillbilly Highway</em>. Ultimately, the possibility of social mobility – the promise, or bribe, embedded in that shared whiteness – does, I think, have the effect of largely assimilating Tranasappalachian migrants into the cultural mainstream that had once rejected them by the end of the period of the migration. But the experience of marginalization nevertheless remains a powerful counterforce, and in many ways distinctively so, for this particular segment of the white working class, whose standing within the postwar social order would always remain precarious. And of course, when the industrial economy on which that social order rested began to decompose in the decades after 1960, the promise of mobility that the hillbilly highway had held out since the turn of the twentieth century would become one of the emerging Rust Belt’s many casualties.</p>
  2102.  
  2103.  
  2104.  
  2105. <p><strong>DY: <strong>What kinds of lessons did writing this book teach you about modern U.S. politics? What do you hope readers will take away?</strong></strong></p>
  2106.  
  2107.  
  2108.  
  2109. <p><strong>MF: </strong>Well, one thing I set out trying to make sense of with <em>Hillbilly Highway </em>is why right-wing populists like Donald Trump or J.D. Vance – whose poverty-shaming memoir <em>Hillbilly Elegy</em> is, among many other things, a chronicle of an upbringing along the hillbilly highway – have had so much recent success within white working-class communities across the old industrial heartland. Too often, this development is treated as something of a historic inevitability, as the almost automatic projection of a <em>natural </em>or <em>innate</em> conservatism among this population of working people, in ways that end up being perversely reminiscent of the hackneyed stereotypes about complacent hillbilly “scabs” that Midwestern employers liked to throw around back in the 1920s and 1930s. </p>
  2110.  
  2111.  
  2112.  
  2113. <p>So one lesson I hope the book gets across is that such notions flatten the actual historical experience of a large portion of this white working class in ways that can be really destructive. For one, they neglect the significance of stories like those of the hillbilly militants at Goodyear in 1936; or of the hillbilly songwriters who with their music attempted to call forth a world redeemed from the amorality of the marketplace. And at the same time, they erase what we might think of as the “deep history” of the feelings of marginalization and resentment which have generated such a powerful strain of reactionism among members of the Transappalachian white working class today. If there’s any hope of winning such voters back from the seductions of rightist demagogues and ethnonationalists like Trump and Vance, I think it comes only with a fuller understanding of the ways the hillbilly highway not only shaped the history of the twentieth century but also the political landscape of the twenty-first.</p>
  2114.  
  2115.  
  2116.  
  2117. <hr class="wp-block-separator has-alpha-channel-opacity"/>
  2118.  
  2119.  
  2120.  
  2121. <div id="signup" class="wp-block-group has-light-gray-background-color has-background is-layout-flow wp-block-group-is-layout-flow"><div class="wp-block-group__inner-container">
  2122. <div style="height:1px" aria-hidden="true" class="wp-block-spacer"></div>
  2123.  
  2124.  
  2125.  
  2126. <div class="wp-block-columns is-layout-flex wp-container-core-columns-layout-6 wp-block-columns-is-layout-flex">
  2127. <div class="wp-block-column is-layout-flow wp-block-column-is-layout-flow" style="flex-basis:33.33%">
  2128. <figure class="wp-block-image size-large"><a href="https://dailyyonder.com/contact-us/subscribe-daily-yonder/#path-finders"><img decoding="async" width="780" height="780" src="https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2021/03/path-finders-icon-edited-1296x1296.png?resize=780%2C780&#038;ssl=1" alt="" class="wp-image-70866" srcset="https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2021/03/path-finders-icon-edited.png?resize=1296%2C1296&amp;ssl=1 1296w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2021/03/path-finders-icon-edited.png?resize=760%2C760&amp;ssl=1 760w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2021/03/path-finders-icon-edited.png?resize=150%2C150&amp;ssl=1 150w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2021/03/path-finders-icon-edited.png?resize=768%2C768&amp;ssl=1 768w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2021/03/path-finders-icon-edited.png?resize=1536%2C1536&amp;ssl=1 1536w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2021/03/path-finders-icon-edited.png?resize=1200%2C1200&amp;ssl=1 1200w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2021/03/path-finders-icon-edited.png?resize=800%2C800&amp;ssl=1 800w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2021/03/path-finders-icon-edited.png?resize=400%2C400&amp;ssl=1 400w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2021/03/path-finders-icon-edited.png?resize=200%2C200&amp;ssl=1 200w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2021/03/path-finders-icon-edited.png?resize=1568%2C1568&amp;ssl=1 1568w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2021/03/path-finders-icon-edited.png?resize=300%2C300&amp;ssl=1 300w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2021/03/path-finders-icon-edited.png?resize=706%2C706&amp;ssl=1 706w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2021/03/path-finders-icon-edited.png?resize=100%2C100&amp;ssl=1 100w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2021/03/path-finders-icon-edited.png?w=1697&amp;ssl=1 1697w, https://i0.wp.com/dailyyonder.com/wp-content/uploads/2021/03/path-finders-icon-edited-1296x1296.png?w=370&amp;ssl=1 370w" sizes="(max-width: 780px) 100vw, 780px" data-recalc-dims="1" /></a></figure>
  2129. </div>
  2130.  
  2131.  
  2132.  
  2133. <div class="wp-block-column is-layout-flow wp-block-column-is-layout-flow" style="flex-basis:66.66%">
  2134. <p>This interview first appeared in <strong>Path Finders</strong>, a weekly email newsletter from the Daily Yonder. Each Monday, Path Finders features a Q&amp;A with a rural thinker, creator, or doer. Join the mailing list today, to have these illuminating conversations delivered straight to your inbox. </p>
  2135. </div>
  2136. </div>
  2137.  
  2138.  
  2139. <div
  2140. class="newspack-newsletters-subscribe "
  2141. data-success-message="Thank you for signing up!"
  2142. >
  2143. <form id="newspack-subscribe-1">
  2144. <input type="hidden" id="newspack_newsletters_subscribe" name="newspack_newsletters_subscribe" value="81d89e02a8" /><input type="hidden" name="_wp_http_referer" value="/feed/" /> <input type="hidden" name="lists[]" value="group-9a7205444f-d1c8c07805" />
  2145. <div class="newspack-newsletters-email-input">
  2146. <input
  2147. id="newspack-newsletters-subscribe-block-input-54195-email"
  2148. type="email"
  2149. name="npe"
  2150. autocomplete="email"
  2151. placeholder="Email Address"
  2152. value=""
  2153. />
  2154. <input class="submit-button has-background-color"type="submit" value="Subscribe" style="background-color: #274e13;" />
  2155. </div>
  2156. </form>
  2157. <div class="newspack-newsletters-subscribe__response">
  2158. <div class="newspack-newsletters-subscribe__icon"></div>
  2159. <div class="newspack-newsletters-subscribe__message">
  2160. </div>
  2161. </div>
  2162. </div>
  2163.  
  2164.  
  2165. <p class="has-small-font-size"><sub><em>By clicking submit, you agree to share your email address with the site owner and Mailchimp to receive marketing, updates, and other emails from the site owner. Use the unsubscribe link in those emails to opt out at any time.</em></sub></p>
  2166. </div></div>
  2167.  
  2168.  
  2169.  
  2170. <hr class="wp-block-separator has-alpha-channel-opacity"/>
  2171. <p>The post <a href="https://dailyyonder.com/qa-what-was-the-hillbilly-highway/2024/02/23/">Q&#038;A: What Was the Hillbilly Highway?</a> appeared first on <a href="https://dailyyonder.com">The Daily Yonder</a>.</p>
  2172. ]]></content:encoded>
  2173. <wfw:commentRss>https://dailyyonder.com/qa-what-was-the-hillbilly-highway/2024/02/23/feed/</wfw:commentRss>
  2174. <slash:comments>0</slash:comments>
  2175. </item>
  2176. </channel>
  2177. </rss>

If you would like to create a banner that links to this page (i.e. this validation result), do the following:

  1. Download the "valid RSS" banner.

  2. Upload the image to your own server. (This step is important. Please do not link directly to the image on this server.)

  3. Add this HTML to your page (change the image src attribute if necessary):

If you would like to create a text link instead, here is the URL you can use:

http://www.feedvalidator.org/check.cgi?url=https%3A//dailyyonder.com/feed/

Copyright © 2002-9 Sam Ruby, Mark Pilgrim, Joseph Walton, and Phil Ringnalda