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  8. <title>RSS Psychology Issues and Debates</title>
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  10. <description>Psychology Issues and Debates</description>
  11. <lastBuildDate>Wed, 15 Jul 2020 11:04:22 +0200</lastBuildDate>
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  16. <title>Society Social Issues</title>
  17. <description>Alison Powell, Assistant Professor at LSE, investigates how data and algorithms effect our daily lives, from negotiating public transport and booking restaurants, to the more serious issues of surveillance and privacy. She argues ...</description>
  18. <content:encoded><![CDATA[<img src="/img/what_are_youth_politics_with_pictures.jpg" alt="What Are Youth Politics? (with pictures)" align="left" /><p>Alison Powell, Assistant Professor at LSE, investigates how data and algorithms effect our daily lives, from negotiating public transport and booking restaurants, to the more serious issues of surveillance and privacy. She argues that there is a greater need for algorithmic accountability in order for us to understand its impact, both positive and negative, on not only our day-to-day lives, but also on citizenship and inequality in our societies. Our social world is in the midst of a turn towards data. You might not notice it, but data underpins an increasing number of everyday experiences. Particularly, data drives decisions. Some seem minor, such as day-to-day decisions that make life better. What’s the quickest way to work via public transport? How many people have rated this restaurant four stars? But although greater access to data improves individual experiences, it also has a significant impact on other, more serious decisions. Will you get a loan? How much will your insurance cost? Are you being tracked by the police? Where you will be able to live? Or even – in the age of centrally controlled ‘smart locks’ – can you open the door to your house? These decisions are driven by a proliferation of digital data produced by connected devices, sensors, and all of the parts of our everyday life that we share online. They are made, increasingly, with the help of automated calculation systems that can deal with volumes of data that are difficult for humans to manage. These processes – algorithms – can even learn from their previous decisions, making it ever easier to use ever more data to make ever better decisions. Algorithmic Authority But the data-based social world, and the ‘algorithmic authority’ that underpins it, throws up new problems for social scientists, as well as providing new contexts for our continuing interests in citizenship, participation, equality and justice. Many machine learning processes depend on creating correlations between large sets of often diverse data. The resulting inferences (rather than conclusions) are now underpinning categorisations of people, which in turn control things like what price you see for goods online (for example, if you’ve recently bought an expensive pair of headphones, some online retailers will display higher prices for trainers), or whether you are considered an insurance risk. New ‘smart’ products are constantly being developed that collect data remotely and store and manage it centrally, so the ‘smart lock’ that controls under what circumstance you can enter your house is only a step past the car that recognises its driver and configures her preferences. Frank Pasquale, professor of law at the University of Maryland, argues that data and algorithmic processes have created a ‘black box society’ where government and corporations collect increasingly detailed information about individuals – influencing recruitment for jobs, consumer prices, and relationships with law enforcement (including, for example, appearance on lists like the UK’s domestic extremism register. The problem with the black box society is not data or algorithms themselves, but the secrecy that results from massive corporate and government control of data and of the algorithms used to process it and make decisions. Pasquale discusses how this secrecy is embedded into algorithms used by big technology companies: research by Latanya Sweeney shows how people with African-American names return Google search results connecting their names to arrest records, whereas people with white-identified names did not. Even more concerning is the rampant trade in ‘runaway data’ where brokers buy and sell packages of personal data profiling web use habits, credit card purchases, and networks of relationships formed on social media. Brokers package and resell this information, micro-targeting consumers into very specific categories based on ongoing websurfing, clicks and likes.</p>]]></content:encoded>
  19. <category><![CDATA[Syndromes]]></category>
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  22. <pubDate>Wed, 15 Jul 2020 07:04:00 +0000</pubDate>
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  25. <title>best Psychology Topics</title>
  26. <description>These days, talking about the weather and your health can lead to fistfights in the back yard. A comment about the rain in Spain can turn into a fierce argument over the existence of climate change; an off-hand remark about a ...</description>
  27. <content:encoded><![CDATA[<img src="/img/psychology_topics_watch_tedcom.jpg" alt="Psychology | Topics | Watch |" align="left" /><p>These days, talking about the weather and your health can lead to fistfights in the back yard. A comment about the rain in Spain can turn into a fierce argument over the existence of climate change; an off-hand remark about a child’s cold can lead to name-calling over the anti-vaccine movement. This can lead to bad behavior. For example, have you ever worried so much about the person next to whom you might be seated at a meal that you’ve snuck into the dining room before anyone else, looked at the name cards and then changed them? No, of course not, and neither have I. Not on a regular basis. But, c’mon, haven’t you been tempted? If you know that you're going to spend three hours sitting next to a woman who holds views so conservative she makes Sarah Palin sound like Gloria Steinem, or a guy so evangelical about clean eating that he exists solely on air-ferns, sticking with the assigned seating chart is a tough thing to swallow. But since we need to exist in the world as social animals, what might neutral topics of conversation be? I asked my friends about their go-to topics and I was warned more often that I was reassured. My lovely niece Anne, director of The Battery Park City Library in Manhattan, informed me that discussing her job was off-limits because “Public librarianship is not a neutral career in terms of our stance on inclusiveness and diversity.” This explains why most people insisted we talk about five things and five things only: Children, grandchildren, pets, sports, and gardening. It turns out that I'm in trouble. While I have stepchildren, I’ve never given birth. For some folks, that knocks me out in the first round. There are no grandchildren. I like my cats but I’m not terribly interested in yours, and cats are the only pets I like. I’d have a better chance at winning “Jeopardy” if the category were particle physics than if it were sports because I believe particle physics matter. Gardening? I don't even go outside. My husband keeps making the deck larger so that I'll go further out into the yard. Here’s how I like to encourage genuine conversation without risking what my friend Ed Culver calls “weaponized glances” from others at the table: Ask people about their worst times. I'm not kidding. Ask the people sitting next to you about these five topics instead: The worst school day they ever had. The worst meal they ever cooked. The worst outfit they ever wore. The worst song they ever loved. The worst photograph anyone ever took of them. Most of the stories will end up being funny (although there's always a risk that someone was taken hostage while listening to a bad song and cooking a bad meal). Ask someone how she learned to ride a bike, cook an egg, tie her shoelaces, memorize his first line from a school play. You’ll learn something significant about someone's life-and your life will be more interesting because of it. We seem to be living in a world so fraught, so divided, so tense, and so eager to engage in belligerence instead of banter that we have more or less forfeited our willingness to address with respect and civility those whose opinions are in opposition to our own. It doesn't have to be this way. Ask a question; listen to a story; offer an anecdote; search for the connection. It's there. Our worst moments often transform themselves into our best stories because we shape them and re-create them as we form the incident into our own narrative. Comics know that time+pain=humor and that we can redeem even awful moments from the past by translating them into a shared experience. It depends on being generous enough to others to keep our stories light.</p>]]></content:encoded>
  28. <category><![CDATA[Psychological]]></category>
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  31. <pubDate>Thu, 09 Jul 2020 07:03:00 +0000</pubDate>
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  34. <title>mind body problem Psychology</title>
  35. <description>The mind is about mental processes, thought and consciousness. The body is about the physical aspects of the brain-neurons and how the brain is structured. The mind-body problem is about how these two interact. One of the central ...</description>
  36. <content:encoded><![CDATA[<img src="/img/mind_body_problem.jpg" alt="Mind-Body Problem" align="left" /><p>The mind is about mental processes, thought and consciousness. The body is about the physical aspects of the brain-neurons and how the brain is structured. The mind-body problem is about how these two interact. One of the central questions in psychology (and philosophy) concerns the mind/body problem: is the mind part of the body, or the body part of the mind? If they are distinct, then how do they interact? And which of the two is in charge? Many theories have been put forward to explain the relationship between what we call your mind (defined as the conscious thinking 'you' which experiences your thoughts) and your brain (i.e. part of your body). However, the most common explanation concerns the question of whether the mind and body are separate or the same thing. Dualism Human beings are material objects. We have weight, solidity and consist of a variety of solids, liquids and gases. However, unlike other material objects (e.g. rocks) humans also have the ability to form judgments and reason their existence. In short we have 'minds'. Typically humans are characterized as having both a mind (nonphysical) and body/brain (physical). This is known as dualism . Dualism is the view that the mind and body both exist as separate entities. Descartes / Cartesian dualism argues that there is a two-way interaction between mental and physical substances. Descartes argued that the mind interacts with the body at the pineal gland. This form of dualism or duality proposes that the mind controls the body, but that the body can also influence the otherwise rational mind, such as when people act out of passion. Most of the previous accounts of the relationship between mind and body had been uni-directional. Monism There are two basic types of monism: o Materialism is the belief that nothing exists apart from the material world (i.e. physical matter like the brain); materialist psychologists generally agree that consciousness (the mind) is the function of the brain. Mental processes can be identified with purely physical processes in the central nervous system, and that human beings are just complicated physiological organisms, no more than that. o Phenomenalism (also called Subjective Idealism ) believes that physical objects and events are reducible to mental objects, properties, events. Ultimately, only mental objects (i.e. the mind) exist. Bishop Berkeley claimed that what we think of as our body is merely the perception of mind. Before you reject this too rapidly consider the results of a recent study. Scientists asked three hemiplegic (i.e. loss of movement from one side of the body) stroke victims with damage to the right hemispheres of their brains about their abilities to move their arms. All three claimed, despite evidence to the contrary in the mirror in front of them, that they could move their right and left hands equally well. Further, two of the three stroke victims claimed that an experimental stooge who faked paralysis (i.e. lack of movement) of his left arm was able to move his arm satisfactorily. Psychology &amp; the Mind Body Debate The different approaches to psychology take contrasting views to whether the mind and body are separate or related. Thinking (having freedom of choice) is a mental event, yet can cause behavior to occur (muscles move in response to a thought). Thinking can therefore be said to make things happen, "mind moves matter". Behaviorists believe that psychology should only be concerned with "observable actions", namely stimulus and response. They believe that thought processes such as the mind cannot be studied scientifically and objectively and should therefore be ignored. Radical behaviorists believe that the mind does not even exist. The biologists who argue that the mind does not exist because there is no physical structure called the mind also follow this approach. Biologists argue that the brain will ultimately be found to be the mind. The brain with its structures, cells and neural connections will with scientific research eventually identify the mind. Since both behaviorists and biologists believe that only one type of reality exists, those that we can see, feel and touch; there approach is known as monism. Monism is the belief that ultimately the mind and the brain are the same thing. The behaviorist and biological approaches believe in materialism monism.</p>]]></content:encoded>
  37. <category><![CDATA[Emotional Problems]]></category>
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  40. <pubDate>Fri, 03 Jul 2020 07:01:00 +0000</pubDate>
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  43. <title>definition of mental Disease</title>
  44. <description>A defense asserted by an accused in a criminal prosecution to avoid liability for the commission of a crime because, at the time of the crime, the person did not appreciate the nature or quality or wrongfulness of the acts. The ...</description>
  45. <content:encoded><![CDATA[<img src="/img/criminal_responsibility_sanity_at_the_time.jpg" alt="Criminal Responsibility & Sanity at the Time of Offense" align="left" /><p>A defense asserted by an accused in a criminal prosecution to avoid liability for the commission of a crime because, at the time of the crime, the person did not appreciate the nature or quality or wrongfulness of the acts. The insanity defense is used by criminal defendants. The most common variation is cognitive insanity. Under the test for cognitive insanity, a defendant must have been so impaired by a mental disease or defect at the time of the act that he or she did not know the nature or quality of the act, or, if the defendant did know the nature or quality of the act, he or she did not know that the act was wrong. The vast majority of states allow criminal defendants to invoke the cognitive insanity defense. Another form of the insanity defense is volitional insanity, or Irresistible Impulse. A defense of irresistible impulse asserts that the defendant, although able to distinguish right from wrong at the time of the act, suffered from a mental disease or defect that made him or her incapable of controlling her or his actions. This defense is common in crimes of vengeance. For example, suppose that a child has been brutally assaulted. If an otherwise conscientious and law-abiding mother shoots the perpetrator, the mother may argue that she was so enraged that she became mentally ill and incapable of exerting self-control. Very few states allow the volitional insanity defense. The insanity defense should not be confused with Incompetency. Persons who are incompetent to stand trial are held in a mental institution until they are considered capable of participating in the proceedings.The insanity defense also should be kept separate from issues concerning mental retardation. The U.S. Supreme Court ruled in 2002 in Atkins v. Virginia, 536 U.S. 304, 122 S. Ct. 2242, 153 L. Ed. 2d 335 (2002) that the execution of mentally retarded criminals constituted "cruel and unusual punishment" and that it was prohibited by Eighth Amendment. But if a person is acquitted by reason of insanity, execution is not an option. The insanity defense reflects the generally accepted notion that persons who cannot appreciate the consequences of their actions should not be punished for criminal acts. Most states regulate the defense with statutes, but a few states allow the courts to craft the rules for its proper use. Generally, the defense is available to a criminal defendant if the judge instructs the jury that it may consider whether the defendant was insane when the crime was committed. The judge may issue this instruction if the defendant has produced sufficient evidence at trial to justify the theory. Sufficient evidence invariably includes Expert Testimony by psychologists and psychiatrists. When invoking insanity as a defense, a defendant is required to notify the prosecution. In some states, sanity is determined by the judge or jury in a separate proceeding following the determination of guilt or innocence at trial. In other states, the defense is either accepted or rejected in the verdict of the judge or jury. Even if evidence of insanity does not win a verdict of not guilty, the sentencing court may consider it as a mitigating factor. History "Complete madness" was first established as a defense to criminal charges by the common-law courts in late-thirteenth-century England. By the eighteenth century, the complete madness definition had evolved into the "wild beast" test. Under that test, the insanity defense was available to a person who was "totally deprived of his understanding and memory so as not to know what he [was] doing, no more than an infant, a brute, or a wild beast" (Feigl 1995, 161). Colin Ferguson Colin Ferguson was convicted in March 1995 for crimes associated with a massacre in Long Island, New York, on December 7, 1993. Ferguson killed six persons and injured nineteen after opening fire with an automatic pistol on a crowded commuter train. Ferguson's trial was marked with controversy. He discharged his court-appointed attorneys, who believed him mentally incompetent to stand trial, and was allowed by the judge to act as his own attorney. He dropped the insanity defense prepared by his attorneys and argued that a mysterious gunman had committed the shootings. His bizarre courtroom behavior appeared to contradict the judge's conclusion that Ferguson was competent to stand trial. Though many witnesses identified Ferguson as the gunman, he insisted a white man had taken the gun from his bag while he slept, shot the passengers, and then escaped, leaving Ferguson, who is black, to take the blame. During the trial he asserted that he had been charged with ninety-three counts only because the crime occurred in 1993. Attorneys Ronald L. Kuby and william m. kunstler, whom Ferguson had discharged, had asked the judge before trial to find that Ferguson's paranoia and delusional state made him mentally incompetent to stand trial. Yet Ferguson refused to be examined by either prosecution or defense psychiatrists, believing he was not insane. The judge allowed Ferguson to stand trial, believing he could understand the nature of the charges against him and could assist in his own defense. By 1840, most jurisdictions had refined the wildbeast test to cognitive insanity and supplemented that with irresistible impulse insanity. However, in 1843, a well-publicized assassination attempt in England caused Parliament to eliminate the irresistible impulse defense. Daniel M'Naghten, operating under the delusion that Prime Minister Robert Peel wanted to kill him, tried to shoot Peel but shot and killed Peel's secretary instead. Medical testimony indicated that M'Naghten was psychotic, and the court acquitted him by reason of insanity (M'Naghten's Case, 8 Eng. Rep. 718 [1843]). In response to a public furor that followed the decision, the House of Lords ordered the Lords of Justice of the Queen's Bench to craft a new rule for insanity in the Criminal Law. What emerged became known as the M'Naghten Rule. This rule migrated to the United States within a decade of its conception, and it stood for the better part of the next century. The intent of the M'Naghten rule was to abolish the irresistible-impulse defense and to limit the insanity defense to cognitive insanity. Under the M'Naghten rule, insanity was a defense if at the time of the committing of the act, the party accused was labouring under such a defect of reason, from a disease of the mind, as not to know the nature and quality of the act he was doing; or, if he did know it, that he did not know he was doing what was wrong. Through the first half of the twentieth century, the insanity defense was expanded again. Courts began to accept the theories of psychoanalysts, many of whom encouraged recognition of the irresistible-impulse defense. Many states enacted a combination of the M'Naghten rule supplemented with an irresistible-impulse defense, thereby covering both cognitive and volitional insanity. The insanity defense reached its most permissive standard in Durham v. United States, 214 F. 2d 862 (D.C. Cir. 1954). The Durham rule excused a defendant "if his unlawful act was the product of mental disease or mental defect." The Durham rule was lauded by the mental health community as progressive because it allowed psychologists and psychiatrists to contribute to the judicial understanding of insanity. But it was also criticized for placing too much trust in the opinions of mental health professionals. Within seven years of its creation, the rule had been explicitly rejected in 22 states. It is used only in New Hampshire.</p>]]></content:encoded>
  46. <category><![CDATA[Mental Disabilities]]></category>
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  49. <pubDate>Sat, 27 Jun 2020 06:58:00 +0000</pubDate>
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  52. <title>Psychological Difficulty</title>
  53. <description>Children with learning disabilities (LD) often have problems that go far beyond those experienced in reading, writing, math, memory, or organization. For many, strong feelings of frustration, anger, sadness, or shame can lead to ...</description>
  54. <content:encoded><![CDATA[<img src="/img/schizophrenia_chapter_ppt_download.jpg" alt="Schizophrenia Chapter ppt download" align="left" /><p>Children with learning disabilities (LD) often have problems that go far beyond those experienced in reading, writing, math, memory, or organization. For many, strong feelings of frustration, anger, sadness, or shame can lead to psychological difficulties such as anxiety, depression, or low self-esteem, as well as behavioral problems such as substance abuse or juvenile delinquency. “Unfortunately, ” says Dr. Marshall Raskind, an expert in the field of learning disabilities, “these problems can be far more devastating than the academic challenges themselves. Although the severity and duration of a child’s psychological difficulties may vary as she grows up, such issues can find their way into and through adulthood.” Several leading experts in the field of LD have researched the psychological difficulties often experienced by children with LD and have offered suggestions to parents on ways to help protect their children from developing these problems. In this overview article, we will describe in general terms what kinds of psychological problems may affect kids with LD and their possible causes. We will also provide some warning signs parents should look for and direct you to some approaches that can support your child’s psychological well-being. Forthcoming articles in this series, which are being developed over the next few months, will explore specific psychological issues that many children with LD face, such as anxiety, depression, and loneliness. Some explanations for psychological difficulties in kids with LD To be most effective in supporting your child, it can help to understand some presumed underlying reasons for the psychological and emotional challenges she may face. Although there are a number of theories on why kids with LD may develop these problems, there are two often cited explanations. First, it is not difficult to see why children with LD are at greater risk for developing psychological difficulties if one considers the repeated failure they experience as they fight their way through the educational system, which may misunderstand or ignore their needs. Despite the child’s efforts and adult promptings to “try harder, ” children with LD may receive little positive feedback. Their academic struggles and failures are often met with disapproval by teachers, peers, and parents. Such disapproval can take the form of negative labeling of a child as “slow, ” “lazy, ” or “dumb.” Rather than developing a sense of pride in their accomplishments, children with LD may end up in a quagmire of frustration and shame. Such feelings only serve to erode the development of a positive self-concept. In fact, as a result of constant struggle and failure, a negative self-image may develop even when others offer support and encouragement. Low self-esteem and a lack of confidence only serve to further interfere with learning and academic success and reinforce a cycle of failure and negativity. Research conducted by Dr. Kenneth Kavale of the University of Iowa and Dr. Steven R. Forness of the University of California at Los Angeles indicates that as many as 70% of children with LD suffer from poor self-esteem. “Over time, children with LD may just stop trying, ” Dr. Raskind says, “entering a state of ‘ learned helplessness’where they see little connection between their efforts and ultimate outcomes. ‘ Why bother?’they may ask, ‘ No matter how hard I try, I always end up failing.'” The second frequently offered reason as to why kids with LD may develop psychological problems is the social difficulties they often experience. Research by Drs. Kavale and Forness indicates that as many as 75% of kids with LD have social difficulties such as making and keeping friends. “In fact, social and psychological problems are so interconnected, ” Dr. Raskind comments, “that it may be quite impossible at times to determine which one may have caused the other. Certainly, psychological problems can have a negative effect on social interaction. Research has shown that children with learning disabilities are less accepted, and often rejected by their peers. Teachers and other adults also may tend to have negative views of children with learning disabilities.” Such social rejection can result in loss of self-esteem and negative views of oneself. In addition, social rejection can result in feelings of loneliness, which, in turn, may lead to psychological difficulties such as anxiety and depression. Psychological and related difficulties of kids with LD There are several psychological, emotional, and behavioral difficulties experienced by children with learning disabilities, according to the findings of a number of research studies. In the following list of problems experienced by kids with LD, the descriptions of research findings are carefully worded to indicate how strong the research evidence is for each problem. For example, research may only “suggest” some of the findings because there is a lack of conclusive evidence. For other problems, the word “shows” is used to describe findings because there is a group of studies that all come up with the same conclusion. Research has shown that individuals with learning disabilities may experience increased levels of anxiety. Research suggests that individuals with learning disabilities may be at greater risk for depression. Research shows that individuals with learning disabilities experience higher levels of loneliness. Research shows that individuals with learning disabilities may have a lower self-concept (self-esteem). Research shows that individuals with learning disabilities are at greater risk for substance abuse. Research suggests that individuals with learning disabilities may be at greater risk for juvenile delinquency (there is some debate here). As the parent of a child with LD, you may find this list a bit overwhelming, but don’t panic. You are probably already taking many steps in your child’s daily life — as described later in this article — to recognize, help prevent, or address psychological and behavioral issues associated with LD. How to figure out what the research means Parents need to be especially alert when they read or hear news stories that report research results. Often, in an attempt to make stories more interesting and appealing, certain information may be overemphasized or presented in a sensational way, while other, more important information may even be omitted.</p>]]></content:encoded>
  55. <category><![CDATA[Psychological]]></category>
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  58. <pubDate>Sun, 21 Jun 2020 06:51:00 +0000</pubDate>
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  61. <title>Research Projects in Psychology</title>
  62. <description>An Independent Research Project is completed in the first two years of study under the supervision of one or more faculty members. Usually, students begin a project in their first year and complete it in their second year ...</description>
  63. <content:encoded><![CDATA[<img src="/img/50_most_innovative_university_psychology_departments.jpg" alt="50 Most Innovative University Psychology Departments" align="left" /><p>An Independent Research Project is completed in the first two years of study under the supervision of one or more faculty members. Usually, students begin a project in their first year and complete it in their second year. First-Year Project At the end of the first year, students present work in progress in a poster format at the Spring Graduate Research Conference in the beginning of May. The poster should give evidence of substantial thought and careful planning, but data need not be collected at this point. In some cases, however, work presented at the end of the first year may represent a completed project. First Year Project Guidelines Second Year Project At the end of the second year, students present a completed research project in a talk format at the Spring Graduate Research Conference with a short question-and-answer session following each presentation. The project will be written up in journal article format by the end of August of the second year. The portfolio committee will judge when this part of the requirement has been satisfactorily completed. Students who fail to complete this requirement will not be allowed to take a full course load in the fall and will have to continue on special status until the write-up is completed. Second Year Project Guidelines Completion of Pre-Dissertation Requirements Students desiring a formal M.A. degree may submit their research to the University as their M.A. thesis. There will be no thesis defense. The University requirements, which are concerned primarily with formatting issues, are available in the Graduate School Office. Students entering the program with a completed M.A. will work with their portfolio committee and the program chair to decide which courses they can transfer to the program. The portfolio committee will also decide if each student needs the experience of presenting at the Spring Graduate Research Conference, and if so, whether a poster or paper presentation would be most beneficial to the student. Students may not miss the early May Graduate Research Conference deadline and must present something at the conference, unless there are extenuating circumstances requiring special status or a leave of absence. Insubstantial work at the end of the second year without approval for special status or leave will result in termination of the program at the M.A. level.</p>]]></content:encoded>
  64. <category><![CDATA[Psychological]]></category>
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  67. <pubDate>Mon, 15 Jun 2020 06:48:00 +0000</pubDate>
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  70. <title>List of All Disorders</title>
  71. <description>“ All of us at have experienced debilitating anxiety. But we’ve also overcome it and returned to normal and lasting health. Because we know the hardship anxiety unwellness can cause, we are committed to ...</description>
  72. <content:encoded><![CDATA[<img src="/img/list_of_genetic_disorders.jpg" alt="List of Genetic Disorders" align="left" /><p>“ All of us at have experienced debilitating anxiety. But we’ve also overcome it and returned to normal and lasting health. Because we know the hardship anxiety unwellness can cause, we are committed to helping others, with over 27 years of service. ” - Jim Folk, President, Over 100 anxiety symptoms and signs for anxiety, anxiety attacks (panic attacks), and other anxiety disorders including the following anxiety symptoms: Numbness and tingling Dizziness Chest pain Headaches Neck tension Stomach upset, nervous stomach Pulsing in the ear Burning skin Fear of impending doom Nausea Shortness of breath Electric shock feeling Shooting pains in the face Heart palpitations Weakness in legs Feeling like you are going crazy Inability to rest Sleep problems There are a great many more anxiety symptoms. For a with descriptions, including severe anxiety symptoms, see below. What is anxiety? Anxiety is defined as: A state of uneasiness, apprehension; as about future uncertainties. A state of apprehension, uncertainty, and fear resulting from anticipation of a realistic or fantasized threatening event or situation, often impairing physical and psychological functioning. In other words, anxiety occurs when we behave (think and act) in an apprehensive manner, such as when worrying about an event or situation. With this in mind, anxiety is not a force or 'thing' in itself. It's a state of uneasiness that results when we worry. More about this in a moment. Because imagining the future in an apprehensive manner is a behavior, it's not caused by a biological, chemical, or genetic problem with the brain. Anxiety results from a certain style of behavior. Visit our 'anxiety' page for additional information. What is anxiety disorder? Everyone experiences anxiety from time to time. This is normal. This is why anxiety is not a medical, biological, chemical, or genetic problem. Anxiety turns into a 'disorder' - disruption to normal functioning - when anxiety and its sensations and symptoms interfere with a normal lifestyle. It's important to keep in mind that anxiety disorder should NOT be equated with a medical condition or serious mental illness (when there is a medical, biological, chemical, or genetic cause). Unfortunately, the term mental illness is used to refer to any problem caused by behaving in an abnormal way (what is considered to be outside of the 'norm'). All of us have behaviors that fall outside of the norm, which is why all of us could be categorized as having some type of mental illness. While you may have or have been diagnosed as having anxiety disorder, this means you have overly anxious behaviors (tendencies). It doesn't mean you are somehow mentally deficient or have something medically, biologically, chemically, or genetically wrong. Visit our anxiety disorder page for additional information. If anxiety disorder isn't a medical, biological, chemical, or genetic problem, why does anxiety cause symptoms? That's next. What are anxiety symptoms? Behaving in an overly apprehensive manner creates the physiological, psychological, and emotional state of anxiety. Anxiety activates the stress response, which stresses the body. A body that becomes overly stressed can exhibit symptoms of stress. So anxiety symptoms are actually symptoms of stress. They are called anxiety symptoms because behaving apprehensively is the main source of the stress that overly stresses the body, which then, causes the body to exhibit symptoms. Because each body is somewhat chemically unique, the type, number, intensity, duration, and frequency of anxiety symptoms will vary from person to person. For example, one person might have just one mild or a few anxiety symptoms, whereas another person might have all anxiety symptoms and to great severity. All combinations and variations are common. Chapter 9 in the member's area of our website is our anxiety Symptoms Section. Chapter 9 includes all symptoms (not just the symptoms listed below), including in depth descriptions about how each symptom feels, what causes it, what you can do to alleviate it, and how prevalent each symptom is (the percentage of people who experience each symptom). Are anxiety disorder symptoms different from anxiety symptoms? No. Anxiety disorder symptoms and anxiety symptoms are the same. The only difference between the two would be, as anxiety and its persistence increases, so will the number, type, intensity, frequency, and duration of anxiety symptoms increase. Otherwise, they are one and the same. Anxiety symptoms in women and men The majority of anxiety symptoms in women and men are similar, but there are some anxiety symptoms differences. For example, anxiety causes stress hormones to enter the bloodstream where they travel to targeted spots in the body to bring about specific emergency response changes. These changes prepare the body for immediate action. Since stress hormones affect other hormones, women can experience a wide range of sensations and symptoms due to how stress hormones affect the hormones that affect the female menstruation cycle. Many women experience increases in anxiety related symptoms in association with their monthly cycle. Women can also experience an increase in symptoms due to the biological changes of pregnancy, postpartum recovery, and menopause. Women are also more emotionally-centered than men, so their anxiety symptoms can seem more numerous and daunting. Men also have challenges, as stress hormones also affect male hormones. Men who are more emotionally-centered can also struggle more with anxiety symptoms. For additional information, see our anxiety symptoms list below. Types of anxiety and symptoms Problematic anxiety can be experienced in a number of ways. This is why there are specific types within the Anxiety Disorder classification. But just because there are different types of anxiety disorder doesn't mean problematic anxiety has a number of different causes. The cause is the same - behavior. But some people struggle more in one area than in others. Below are the most common types of anxiety disorder. Panic Attack Disorder (PAD) - which is the same as Anxiety Attacks Anxiety attacks, also referred to as panic attacks, are episodes of high intensity fear and anxiety. Panic attacks often occur suddenly and 'out of the blue.' Sometimes the cause of a panic attack is obvious, such as when you feel in immediate danger with no escape. But at other times, panic attacks can seem to occur without reason. Panic attacks and their symptoms can last from just a few moments to hours. During the attack, most people feel an incredible amount of fear, trepidation, and foreboding, which is often accompanied by a strong urge to escape, a feeling that you are about to lose control, and for many, that they may even die.</p>]]></content:encoded>
  73. <category><![CDATA[Disorders]]></category>
  74. <link></link>
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  76. <pubDate>Tue, 09 Jun 2020 06:47:00 +0000</pubDate>
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  78. <item>
  79. <title>Psychiatric Problems and Solutions</title>
  80. <description>If one has to describe mental illness in one word, it is a diversion from the natural balance of the mental state. And this diversion can lead to a number of mental disorders. The most common mental disorders reported include: 1 ...</description>
  81. <content:encoded><![CDATA[<img src="/img/wwwpsychologicalsolutionsformecom_psychological_solutions.jpg" alt=" | Psychological solutions" align="left" /><p>If one has to describe mental illness in one word, it is a diversion from the natural balance of the mental state. And this diversion can lead to a number of mental disorders. The most common mental disorders reported include: 1. Anxiety Disorders Anxiety can be a 24-hour panic and angst or frequent occurrences of panics and anxiety when certain situations surface. It is accompanied by abnormal sweating and/or rapid heartbeat. Under this condition, the person does not have a control on his response to the specific situation. He might as well realize the repercussions of his behaviour, but that doesn't stop him from proceeding with it. The most common types of anxiety disorders include post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), Panic Disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), social anxiety disorder, generalized anxiety disorder and specific phobias. 2. Mood Disorders If you experience long regular periods of acute sadness or tremendous happiness, you are possibly suffering from Mood disorder. Also termed as affective disorders, Mood disorders isn't one where there are short mood swings. More often than not, the mood fluctuations stay for an extended period of time and the enduring will experience the extremes of either state. This disorder includes chronic depression, mania, and bipolar disorder. 3. Psychotic Disorders If there is a form of mental illness that takes maximum toll on your body and mind, it is Psychotic disorder. As the name suggests, it deeply affects the psyche of a person and he can experience, anxiety disorders, mood disorders, loneliness, in addition to more disturbing symptoms like schizophrenia, which is the most likely result of psychotic disorder. 4. Eating Disorders This is the most common disorder where patients consume food in unusual quantity. They either eat very less, or eat a lot. Apart from affecting their weight, it also has a considerable effect on their behaviour and interpersonal relationships. Most common eating disorders include anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, obesity, etc. 5. Addiction Disorders Another disorder that you don't have to go looking for. You may encounter people with uncontrollable urges- be it an urge to smoke very often or an addiction towards a person. This disorder can have serious psychic repercussions. The addiction disorders include antisocial personality disorder, obsessive-compulsive personality disorder, and paranoid personality disorder. Solutions for Such Disorders Psychotherapies When it comes to psychological issues, nothing works better than talk therapy, which forms the core of these psychotherapies. By talking to them, one can identify the reasons that may be causing those disorders. Some of the most workable psychotherapies include cerebral therapy, interpersonal therapy, and social rhythm therapy. Medications Psychotherapy can be followed by taking medicines. There are various medicines available in the market that relieve the symptoms of disorders and help soothing down the patients. Some of the most prescribed medicines include fluoxetine, olanzapine, paroxetine, carbamazepine, risperidone, sertraline, etc. Mental illnesses are not uncommon. And they can cause a multitude of problems. Thus, identifying them and treating them is extremely important.</p>]]></content:encoded>
  82. <category><![CDATA[Emotional Problems]]></category>
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  85. <pubDate>Tue, 02 Jun 2020 21:06:00 +0000</pubDate>
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  87. <item>
  88. <title>Topics in Psychology research</title>
  89. <description>Welcome to the Cyberlab for Psychological Research! A Guide to Research Methods &amp;amp; Topics in Psychology UPDATED FALL 2006 This web site is designed for anyone interested in learning various aspects of research methods in ...</description>
  90. <content:encoded><![CDATA[<img src="/img/psychology_the_latest_news_on_psychology.jpg" alt="Psychology | The Latest News on Psychology" align="left" /><p>Welcome to the Cyberlab for Psychological Research! A Guide to Research Methods &amp; Topics in Psychology UPDATED FALL 2006 This web site is designed for anyone interested in learning various aspects of research methods in psychology, particularly students of Frostburg State University and the University of MD system of schools. A special welcome to AP Psychology students! On the left hand side of each page contains a list of links. Most of these links constitute tutorials on topics related to research in psychology. An explanation of each tutorial is listed below their link. The tutorials are listed in a logical order in relation to the other tutorials; however, they may be viewed alone as well. The "Activities &amp; Quizzes" link contains on-line activities that apply aspects of these tutorials. Professors may use these activities and quizzes to accompany classes - no extra work needed. The specifics of the activities will change in order that they may be re-used with each new class.</p>]]></content:encoded>
  91. <category><![CDATA[Psychological]]></category>
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  94. <pubDate>Wed, 27 May 2020 21:04:00 +0000</pubDate>
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  97. <title>Problem solving in Cognitive Psychology</title>
  98. <description>To show that solving insight problems involves restructuring, psychologists created a number of problems that were more difficult to solve for participants provided with previous experiences, since it was harder for them to ...</description>
  99. <content:encoded><![CDATA[<img src="/img/problem_solving_in_cognitive_psychology.jpg" alt="Problem solving in cognitive psychology - Professional Writing" align="left" /><p>To show that solving insight problems involves restructuring, psychologists created a number of problems that were more difficult to solve for participants provided with previous experiences, since it was harder for them to change the representation of the given situation (see Fixation). Sometimes given hints may lead to the insight required to solve the problem. And this is also true for involuntarily given ones. For instance it might help you to solve a memory game if someone accidentally drops a card on the floor and you look at the other side. Although such help is not obviously a hint, the effect does not differ from that of intended help. For non-insight problems the opposite is the case. Solving arithmetical problems, for instance, requires schemas, through which one can get to the solution step by step. Fixation [edit] Sometimes, previous experience or familiarity can even make problem solving more difficult. This is the case whenever habitual directions get in the way of finding new directions – an effect called fixation. Functional fixedness [edit] Functional fixedness concerns the solution of object-use problems. The basic idea is that when the usual way of using an object is emphasised, it will be far more difficult for a person to use that object in a novel manner. An example for this effect is the candle problem: Imagine you are given a box of matches, some candles and tacks. On the wall of the room there is a cork-board. Your task is to fix the candle to the cork-board in such a way that no wax will drop on the floor when the candle is lit. – Got an idea? Explanation: The clue is just the following: when people are confronted with a problem and given certain objects to solve it, it is difficult for them to figure out that they could use them in a different (not so familiar or obvious) way. In this example the box has to be recognised as a support rather than as a container. A further example is the two-string problem: Knut is left in a room with a chair and a pair of pliers given the task to bind two strings together that are hanging from the ceiling. The problem he faces is that he can never reach both strings at a time because they are just too far away from each other. What can Knut do? Solution: Knut has to recognise he can use the pliers in a novel function – as weight for a pendulum. He can bind them to one of the :strings, push it away, hold the other string and just wait for the first one moving towards him. If necessary, Knut can even climb on the chair, but he is not that small, we suppose . . . Mental fixedness [edit] Functional fixedness as involved in the examples above illustrates a mental set - a person’s tendency to respond to a given task in a manner based on past experience. Because Knut maps an object to a particular function he has difficulties to vary the way of use (pliers as pendulum's weight). One approach to studying fixation was to study wrong-answer verbal insight problems. It was shown that people tend to give rather an incorrect answer when failing to solve a problem than to give no answer at all. A typical example: People are told that on a lake the area covered by water lilies doubles every 24 hours and that it takes 60 days to cover the whole lake. Then they are asked how many days it takes to cover half the lake. The typical response is '30 days' (whereas 59 days is correct). These wrong solutions are due to an inaccurate interpretation, hence representation, of the problem. This can happen because of sloppiness (a quick shallow reading of the problem and/or weak monitoring of their efforts made to come to a solution). In this case error feedback should help people to reconsider the problem features, note the inadequacy of their first answer, and find the correct solution. If, however, people are truly fixated on their incorrect representation, being told the answer is wrong does not help. In a study made by P.I. Dallop and R.L. Dominowski in 1992 these two possibilities were contrasted. In approximately one third of the cases error feedback led to right answers, so only approximately one third of the wrong answers were due to inadequate monitoring.</p>]]></content:encoded>
  100. <category><![CDATA[Emotional Problems]]></category>
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  103. <pubDate>Thu, 21 May 2020 21:04:00 +0000</pubDate>
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