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  11. <title>Wild About Utah</title>
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  14. <description>A Utah Public Radio production featuring contributors who share a love of nature, preservation and education</description>
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  30. <item>
  31. <title>A New Beginning</title>
  32. <link>https://wildaboututah.org/a-new-beginning/</link>
  33. <comments>https://wildaboututah.org/a-new-beginning/#respond</comments>
  34. <dc:creator><![CDATA[Josh Boling]]></dc:creator>
  35. <pubDate>Mon, 25 May 2020 13:41:08 +0000</pubDate>
  36. <category><![CDATA[Birds]]></category>
  37. <guid isPermaLink="false">https://wildaboututah.org/?p=10649</guid>
  38.  
  39. <description><![CDATA[<p>The snow is melting down from the high country; the rivers, creeks, and streams are swollen with runoff and sediment; wildflower blooms are hitting their stride; and schools are officially offline. Summer has arrived ahead of its solstice again. How do we begin to navigate this new beginning in a time of extremely abnormal circumstances? &#8230; </p>
  40. <p class="link-more"><a href="https://wildaboututah.org/a-new-beginning/" class="more-link">Continue reading<span class="screen-reader-text"> "A New Beginning"</span></a></p>
  41. <p>The post <a rel="nofollow" href="https://wildaboututah.org/a-new-beginning/">A New Beginning</a> appeared first on <a rel="nofollow" href="https://wildaboututah.org">Wild About Utah</a>.</p>
  42. ]]></description>
  43. <content:encoded><![CDATA[<p><figure id="attachment_10651" aria-describedby="caption-attachment-10651" style="width: 250px" class="wp-caption alignright"><a href="https://www.nps.gov/media/photo/gallery-item.htm?pg=4913675&amp;id=326b4e8f-faf6-4259-af79-889f9635a94f&amp;gid=CF41B3F2-A93D-4F38-A482-CD02DD7488BD"><img src="https://wildaboututah.org/wp-content/uploads/nps.turner.social.distancing.326b4e8f-faf6-4259-af79-889f9635a94fMdResProxy.250x301.jpg" alt="A New Beginning: Keep Your Social Distance and Keep Wildlife Wild Chart NPS/Matt Turner" title="Click to view larger source image with US NPS Office of Communications: Keep Your Social Distance and Keep Wildlife Wild Chart NPS/Matt Turner" width="250" height="301" class="size-full wp-image-10651" /></a><figcaption id="caption-attachment-10651" class="wp-caption-text">Keep Your Social Distance and Keep Wildlife Wild Chart<br />NPS/Matt Turner</p>
  44. <p><a href="https://www.nps.gov/state/ut/index.htm" target="newWindow" rel="noopener noreferrer">National Parks and Monuments in Utah</a></p>
  45. <p><a href="https://stateparks.utah.gov/parks/" target="newWindow" rel="noopener noreferrer">State Parks in Utah</a></p>
  46. <p><a href="https://www.bcutah.org/brigham-city-parks--recreation-information.htm" target="newWindow" rel="noopener noreferrer">Brigham City, UT Parks</a><br />
  47. <a href="https://www.loganutah.org/government/departments/parks_and_recreation/departmental_info/facilities.php" target="newWindow" rel="noopener noreferrer">Logan UT Parks</a><br />
  48. <a href="https://www.ogdencity.com/1140/Parks-Map" target="newWindow" rel="noopener noreferrer">Ogden, UT Parks</a><br />
  49. <a href="https://orem.org/parks-guide/" rel="noopener noreferrer">Orem, UT Parks</a><br />
  50. <a href="https://www.provo.org/departments/parks/park-info" target="newWindow" rel="noopener noreferrer">Provo, UT Parks</a><br />
  51. <a href="https://www.sandy.utah.gov/407/Parks-and-Recreation" target="newWindow" rel="noopener noreferrer">Sandy City, UT Parks</a><br />
  52. <a href="https://www.sgcity.org/parkstrailsandcemetery/cityparks" target="newWindow" rel="noopener noreferrer">St George, UT Parks</a><br />
  53. <a href="https://gis.wjordan.com/park-and-trail/" target="newWindow" rel="noopener noreferrer">West Jordan, UT Parks</a><br />
  54. <a href="https://www.wvc-ut.gov/214/City-Parks" target="newWindow" rel="noopener noreferrer">West Valley City, UT Parks</a></p>
  55. <p></figcaption></figure>The snow is melting down from the high country; the rivers, creeks, and streams are swollen with runoff and sediment; wildflower blooms are hitting their stride; and schools are officially offline. Summer has arrived ahead of its solstice again. How do we begin to navigate this new beginning in a time of extremely abnormal circumstances?</p>
  56. <p>The hashtag “#StayHome had its moment…[b]ut quarantine fatigue is real,” writes Julia Marcus, professor of population medicine at Harvard Medical School. Americans are going to head for the outdoors, now; and in places like Utah, we feel we’ve been isolated from our playgrounds and sacred spaces for far too long. But how do we venture safely into the back of beyond, or, for that matter, the hidden wild spaces of our cities?</p>
  57. <p>Experts at the Cleveland Clinic tell us that “it’s important to remember that the same rules of social distancing that you follow indoors still apply while outdoors.” For the most part, this should be relatively easy to achieve. Personally, I follow the parking rule: if I can’t find a spot to park my car at the trailhead or my blanket at the park at least six feet away from others, I’ll head somewhere else. </p>
  58. <p>The Guardian Newspaper recently surveyed a group of experts on the pros and cons of wearing masks outdoors. The answer was not a blanket “yes” or “no” to the question of outdoor mask-wearing; but there are considerations individuals should make when considering the outdoor space they will be using and whether or not they should wear a mask. First, it’s important to note that viral shedding is more prevalent when taking deeper, harder breaths—as one does climbing a steep switchback or running along a trail. More droplets; more virus, they say. Experts recommend at least doubling the social distance when exercising outdoors and forgoing the trail altogether if you’re feeling ill. Even for those without symptoms, considering a mask is important. Asymptomatic spread is a known possibility, and “the purpose of the mask is more to prevent you from spreading the virus as opposed to keeping you from getting it,” said one expert to The Guardian. </p>
  59. <p>Preliminary studies have shown that if we follow these guidelines when recreating outdoors and use common sense strategies to limit exposure to those outside of our household, we’re at a relatively low risk of contracting the virus. The New York Times reports that “one study of 1,245 coronavirus cases across China found that only two came from outdoors transmission.”</p>
  60. <p>As a backcountry enthusiast, the current pandemic has challenged me to rethink my recreation. I can no longer call up a buddy and set up a car shuttle for a 15-mile ridge walk or a leisurely paddle down the river. I’ve had to find the quiet spaces between neighborhoods while the snow melts and the curve flattens. But, in the process, I’ve been reminded of how to stretch a half-mile of trail into a half-day adventure, of the sounds of nature when man-made noise is absent, and of the care we have for one another’s safety when a family walks single file on the sidewalk past me. </p>
  61. <p>I’m Josh Boling, and I’m Wild About Utah</p>
  62. <p><span style="font-family: Verdana; font-size: 10pt;"><span style="color: #2a7f55; font-weight: bold;">Credits:</span></span></p>
  63. <p>Photos: Courtesy NPS/Matt Turner<br />
  64. Sound: Courtesy &amp; Copyright Kevin Colver <br />
  65. Text: A New Beginning: Josh Boling, 2018</p>
  66. <p><span style="font-family: Verdana; font-size: 10pt;"><span style="color: #2a7f55; font-weight: bold;">Additional Reading</span></span></p>
  67. <p>Coronavirus (COVID-19), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, <a href="https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/index.html" target="newWindow" rel="noopener noreferrer">https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/index.html</a></p>
  68. <p>Coronavirus, State of Utah, <a href="https://coronavirus.utah.gov/" target="newWindow" rel="noopener noreferrer">https://coronavirus.utah.gov/</a></p>
  69. <p>McGregor, Nick, Want to Get Outside During COVID-19? Here&#8217;s How To Do It Safely, University of Utah Health, <a href="https://healthcare.utah.edu/healthfeed/postings/2020/04/exercise-during-covid19.php" target="newWindow" rel="noopener noreferrer">https://healthcare.utah.edu/healthfeed/postings/2020/04/exercise-during-covid19.php</a></p>
  70. <p>Sullivan, Peter, Evidence mounts that outside is safer when it comes to COVID-19, The Hill (Capitol Hill Publishing Corp., A Subsidiary of News Communications, Inc.), May 6, 2020, <a href="https://thehill.com/policy/healthcare/496483-evidence-mounts-that-outside-is-safer-when-it-comes-to-covid-19" target="newWindow" rel="noopener noreferrer">https://thehill.com/policy/healthcare/496483-evidence-mounts-that-outside-is-safer-when-it-comes-to-covid-19</a></p>
  71. <p>Kaufman, Kenn, As Coronavirus Sows Turmoil and Fear, Seeking Solace in Nature&#8217;s Calendar, Audubon Magazine, March 30, 2020, <a href="https://www.audubon.org/news/as-coronavirus-sows-turmoil-and-fear-seeking-solace-natures-calendar" target="newWindow" rel="noopener noreferrer">https://www.audubon.org/news/as-coronavirus-sows-turmoil-and-fear-seeking-solace-natures-calendar</a></p>
  72. <p>The post <a rel="nofollow" href="https://wildaboututah.org/a-new-beginning/">A New Beginning</a> appeared first on <a rel="nofollow" href="https://wildaboututah.org">Wild About Utah</a>.</p>
  73. ]]></content:encoded>
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  76. </item>
  77. <item>
  78. <title>Black Bear Country</title>
  79. <link>https://wildaboututah.org/black-bear-country/</link>
  80. <dc:creator><![CDATA[Mary Heers]]></dc:creator>
  81. <pubDate>Mon, 18 May 2020 13:41:03 +0000</pubDate>
  82. <category><![CDATA[Mammals]]></category>
  83. <category><![CDATA[People]]></category>
  84. <category><![CDATA[Bear]]></category>
  85. <category><![CDATA[Black Bear]]></category>
  86. <category><![CDATA[camping]]></category>
  87. <category><![CDATA[Food]]></category>
  88. <category><![CDATA[people]]></category>
  89. <guid isPermaLink="false">https://wildaboututah.org/?p=10615</guid>
  90.  
  91. <description><![CDATA[<p>As I hopped out of my car to take a short hike up Cache Valley’s Dry Canyon Trail I was surprised to see the Utah Department of Wildlife Resources had posted a picture of a black bear. “Bear Country,” it said. “Store food safely and keep campsites clean.” I’ve never seen a black bear in &#8230; </p>
  92. <p class="link-more"><a href="https://wildaboututah.org/black-bear-country/" class="more-link">Continue reading<span class="screen-reader-text"> "Black Bear Country"</span></a></p>
  93. <p>The post <a rel="nofollow" href="https://wildaboututah.org/black-bear-country/">Black Bear Country</a> appeared first on <a rel="nofollow" href="https://wildaboututah.org">Wild About Utah</a>.</p>
  94. ]]></description>
  95. <content:encoded><![CDATA[<p><figure id="attachment_10631" aria-describedby="caption-attachment-10631" style="width: 250px" class="wp-caption alignright"><a href="https://wildaboututah.org/wp-content/uploads/heers.mary_.bear_.country.jpg"><img src="https://wildaboututah.org/wp-content/uploads/heers.mary_.bear_.country.250x333.jpg" alt="Black Bear Country: Bear Country Sign, Utah DWR Courtesy Mary Heers, Photographer" title="Bear Country Sign, Utah DWR Courtesy Mary Heers, Photographer"
  96. width="250" height="333" class="size-full wp-image-10631" srcset="https://wildaboututah.org/wp-content/uploads/heers.mary_.bear_.country.250x333.jpg 250w, https://wildaboututah.org/wp-content/uploads/heers.mary_.bear_.country.250x333-225x300.jpg 225w" sizes="(max-width: 250px) 100vw, 250px" /></a><figcaption id="caption-attachment-10631" class="wp-caption-text">Bear Country Sign, Utah DWR<br />Courtesy Mary Heers, Photographer</figcaption></figure>As I hopped out of my car to take a short hike up Cache Valley’s Dry Canyon Trail I was surprised to see the Utah Department of Wildlife Resources had posted a picture of a black bear. “Bear Country,” it said. “Store food safely and keep campsites clean.” I’ve never seen a black bear in Utah but a quick check of the DNR website confirmed that as of last count, July of last year, there were 4,000 black bears in Utah. In winter the bears stay out of site. But by May they are coming out of hibernation looking for food and very hungry.</p>
  97. <p><figure id="attachment_10619" aria-describedby="caption-attachment-10619" style="width: 250px" class="wp-caption alignright"><a href="https://wildaboututah.org/wp-content/uploads/fws.blackbear.sitting.bender.jpg"><img src="https://wildaboututah.org/wp-content/uploads/fws.blackbear.sitting.bender.250x364.jpg" alt="Black Bear Country: Black Bear Sitting Photo Courtesy US FWS Mike Bender, Photographer" title="Black Bear Sitting Photo Courtesy US FWS Mike Bender, Photographer"  width="250" height="364" class="size-full wp-image-10619" srcset="https://wildaboututah.org/wp-content/uploads/fws.blackbear.sitting.bender.250x364.jpg 250w, https://wildaboututah.org/wp-content/uploads/fws.blackbear.sitting.bender.250x364-206x300.jpg 206w" sizes="(max-width: 250px) 100vw, 250px" /></a><figcaption id="caption-attachment-10619" class="wp-caption-text">Black Bear Sitting<br />Photo Courtesy US FWS<br />Mike Bender, Photographer</figcaption></figure>Now I’ve always envied the bears ability to go to sleep fat in the fall and wake up thin in the spring. For me this would be the ultimate diet plan. But on further investigation I found that hibernating bears are not simply sleeping. They do slow down. The heart drops from 50 beats a minute to less than ten. Its breathing slows to once every 45 seconds. The body temperature drops almost ten degrees. The bears do not get up at night to pee. Amazingly, the bear does not eat, drink, urinate or defecate for months.</p>
  98. <p>People who study bears tell us that keeping this hibernating metabolism going takes 4,000 calories a day. So having burned through their fat reserve the bear comes out of hibernation in the spring very Interested in food. The problem occurs when bears discover human food because once having tasted it they want more.</p>
  99. <p><figure id="attachment_10641" aria-describedby="caption-attachment-10641" style="width: 250px" class="wp-caption alignright"><a href="https://wildaboututah.org/wp-content/uploads/fws.blackbear.young_.maslowski-s.jpg"><img src="https://wildaboututah.org/wp-content/uploads/fws.blackbear.young_.maslowski.250x375.jpg" alt="Young Male Blackbear Climbing Tree Courtesy US FWS Steve Maslowski, Photographer" title="Young Male Blackbear Climbing Tree Courtesy US FWS Steve Maslowski, Photographer" width="250" height="375" class="size-full wp-image-10641" srcset="https://wildaboututah.org/wp-content/uploads/fws.blackbear.young_.maslowski.250x375.jpg 250w, https://wildaboututah.org/wp-content/uploads/fws.blackbear.young_.maslowski.250x375-200x300.jpg 200w" sizes="(max-width: 250px) 100vw, 250px" /></a><figcaption id="caption-attachment-10641" class="wp-caption-text">Young Male Blackbear Climbing Tree<br />Courtesy US FWS<br />Steve Maslowski, Photographer</figcaption></figure>My daughter once told me about a camping trip she had taken in the Wind Rivers where a bear came into their campsite at midnight. She and her friends jumped out of their tents and saw the bear climb the tree where they had hung their food. For four hours the bear worked at getting that food. Finally, the tree branch broke and the food bag crashed to the ground. The bear ate their bagels, every single chocolate covered espresso bean, everything except the jalapeno crème cheese.</p>
  100. <p>I took one last look at the poster at the trailhead. The small print said, “Learn to live with bears.” I thought some people learned more slowly than others. I remembered a trip I had taken to Yellowstone National Park and reassured my out of town guest that the National Park Service had solved the problem with bears. To my chagrin when we were checking in the camp host told us that they were having trouble with the bears. “It’s toothpaste,” the lady said, “They like the sweet taste of toothpaste.” I wasn’t worried until the next morning when my guest confessed she had remembered her toothpaste was still in her jacket inside the tent. “Ah, let the bear make its choice,” she sighed as she drifted off to sleep. No bear came into the campsite that night.</p>
  101. <p>Sometimes you just get lucky.</p>
  102. <p>This is Mary Heers and I am Wild About Utah.</p>
  103. <p><span style="font-family: Verdana; font-size: 10pt;"><span style="color: #2a7f55; font-weight: bold;">Credits:</span></span><br />
  104. Photos: Bear Country Sign: Courtesy Mary Heers, Photographer<br />
  105. &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; Sitting Bear: Courtesy US FWS, Mike Bender, Photographer<br />
  106. &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; Climbing Bear: Courtesy US FWS, Steve Maslowski, Photographer<br />
  107. Audio: Friend Weller and technical engineers J. Chase and K.W. Baldwin<br />
  108. Text: Mary Heers</p>
  109. <p><span style="font-family: Verdana; font-size: 10pt;"><span style="color: #2a7f55; font-weight: bold;">Additional Reading</span></span></p>
  110. <p>Larese-Casanova, Mark, Blackbears, Wild About Utah, 23 June 2011, <a href="https://wildaboututah.org/blackbears/" target="newWindow" rel="noopener noreferrer">https://wildaboututah.org/blackbears/</a></p>
  111. <p>Leavitt, Shauna, Orphaned Bear Cub Rehabilitation, Wild About Utah, 14 August 2017, <a href="https://wildaboututah.org/orphaned-bear-cub-rehabilitation/" target="newWindow" rel="noopener noreferrer">https://wildaboututah.org/orphaned-bear-cub-rehabilitation/</a></p>
  112. <p>Greene, Jack, Bears, Wild About Utah, 22 October 2018, <a href="https://wildaboututah.org/bears/" target="newWindow" rel="noopener noreferrer">https://wildaboututah.org/bears/</a></p>
  113. <p>Burt, W. H. and R. P. Grossenheider. 1980. A field guide to the mammals. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston. 289 pp. <a href="https://www.amazon.com/Mammals-Peterson-Guides-William-1990-04-30/dp/B01K0R5D3G" target="newWindow" rel="noopener noreferrer">https://www.amazon.com/Mammals-Peterson-Guides-William-1990-04-30/dp/B01K0R5D3G</a></p>
  114. <p>Safety in Bear Country <a href="http://wildlife.utah.gov/dwr/learn-more/bear-safety.html" target="newWindow" rel="noopener noreferrer">http://wildlife.utah.gov/dwr/learn-more/bear-safety.html</a></p>
  115. <p>Utah Division of Wildlife Resources Utah Conservation Data Center <a href="http://dwrcdc.nr.utah.gov/rsgis2/Search/Display.asp?FlNm=ursuamer" target="newWindow" rel="noopener noreferrer">http://dwrcdc.nr.utah.gov/rsgis2/Search/Display.asp?FlNm=ursuamer</a></p>
  116. <p>Venefica, Avia Native American Bear Meaning, Whats Your Sign, <a href="https://www.whats-your-sign.com/native-american-bear-meaning.html" target="newWindow" rel="noopener noreferrer">https://www.whats-your-sign.com/native-american-bear-meaning.html</a></p>
  117. <p>Welker, Glenn, Native American Bear Stories, Indigenous People, last updated 06/11/2016, <a href="http://www.indigenouspeople.net/bear.htm" target="newWindow" rel="noopener noreferrer">http://www.indigenouspeople.net/bear.htm</a></p>
  118. <p>Gates, Chuck, The bear truth: Utah&#8217;s black bears pose little danger to humans, Deseret News, Oct 15, 2009, <a href="https://www.deseretnews.com/article/705336743/The-bear-truth-Utahs-black-bears-pose-little-danger-to-humans.html" target="newWindow" rel="noopener noreferrer">https://www.deseretnews.com/article/705336743/The-bear-truth-Utahs-black-bears-pose-little-danger-to-humans.html</a></p>
  119. <p>Black Bear &#8211; Ursus americanus, Utah Species, Utah Division of Wildlife Resources, <a href="http://fieldguide.wildlife.utah.gov/?Species=Ursus%20americanus" target="newWindow" rel="noopener noreferrer">http://fieldguide.wildlife.utah.gov/?Species=Ursus%20americanus</a></p>
  120. <p>Black Bear, Ursus americanus, Utah Conservation Data Center, Utah Division of Wildlife Resources, <a href="https://dwrcdc.nr.utah.gov/rsgis2/search/Display.asp?FlNm=ursuamer" target="newWindow" rel="noopener noreferrer">https://dwrcdc.nr.utah.gov/rsgis2/search/Display.asp?FlNm=ursuamer</a></p>
  121. <p><a href="" target="newWindow" rel="noopener noreferrer"></a></p>
  122. <p><a href="" target="newWindow" rel="noopener noreferrer"></a></p>
  123. <p><a href="" target="newWindow" rel="noopener noreferrer"></a></p>
  124. <p><!-- /wp:paragraph --></p>
  125. <p>The post <a rel="nofollow" href="https://wildaboututah.org/black-bear-country/">Black Bear Country</a> appeared first on <a rel="nofollow" href="https://wildaboututah.org">Wild About Utah</a>.</p>
  126. ]]></content:encoded>
  127. </item>
  128. <item>
  129. <title>Evening Grosbeaks</title>
  130. <link>https://wildaboututah.org/evening-grosbeaks/</link>
  131. <dc:creator><![CDATA[Jack Greene]]></dc:creator>
  132. <pubDate>Mon, 11 May 2020 13:41:06 +0000</pubDate>
  133. <category><![CDATA[Birds]]></category>
  134. <guid isPermaLink="false">https://wildaboututah.org/?p=10602</guid>
  135.  
  136. <description><![CDATA[<p>The stunningly beautiful evening grosbeaks are mystery birds that come pouring from the canyons to invade our urban areas on a daily cycle- an eruptive population here in Cache Valley. I always hear their loud chirp notes high above, often beyond sight. They alight in towering trees where they feed and converse with chirps and &#8230; </p>
  137. <p class="link-more"><a href="https://wildaboututah.org/evening-grosbeaks/" class="more-link">Continue reading<span class="screen-reader-text"> "Evening Grosbeaks"</span></a></p>
  138. <p>The post <a rel="nofollow" href="https://wildaboututah.org/evening-grosbeaks/">Evening Grosbeaks</a> appeared first on <a rel="nofollow" href="https://wildaboututah.org">Wild About Utah</a>.</p>
  139. ]]></description>
  140. <content:encoded><![CDATA[<p><figure id="attachment_10608" aria-describedby="caption-attachment-10608" style="width: 250px" class="wp-caption alignright"><a href="https://wildaboututah.org/wp-content/uploads/pixabay-alain-audet-evening-grosbeak-bird-602705_960_720.jpg"><img src="https://wildaboututah.org/wp-content/uploads/pixabay-alain-audet-evening-grosbeak-bird-602705_250x164.jpg" alt="Evening Grosbeak Courtesy Pixabay Alain Audet, Photographer" width="250" height="164" class="size-full wp-image-10608" /></a><figcaption id="caption-attachment-10608" class="wp-caption-text">Evening Grosbeak<br />Courtesy Pixabay<br />Alain Audet, Photographer</figcaption></figure>The stunningly beautiful evening grosbeaks are mystery birds that come pouring from the canyons to invade our urban areas on a daily cycle- an eruptive population here in Cache Valley. I always hear their loud chirp notes high above, often beyond sight. They alight in towering trees where they feed and converse with chirps and trills all the while. Highly social, evening grosbeaks are unlike their four solitary grosbeak cousins. </p>
  141. <p>Their behaviors leave me puzzled. &#8211; Why this daily ritual of flying back and forth from rural to urban? Where and when do they nest? Do they nest close together given their flock behavior? Are they urban or rural nesters? I was able to find some answers, but there are yet many gaps in on their behaviors and highly variable populations. </p>
  142. <p>The Evening Grosbeaks were of much interest from the late 1800s to the mid-1900s, resulting from its eastward range expansion. Comparatively few recent studies have been conducted other than breeding ecology and behavior in Colorado during the 90’s. They were formerly restricted to the western United States but have expanded their range eastward across the country, perhaps a result of the establishment of box elder trees in eastern cities with abundant seeds that persist through the winter, and outbreaks of eastern forest insects which they feast on.</p>
  143. <p><figure id="attachment_10610" aria-describedby="caption-attachment-10610" style="width: 250px" class="wp-caption alignright"><a href="https://wildaboututah.org/wp-content/uploads/fws.gentry.george.evening.grosbeak.jpg"><img src="https://wildaboututah.org/wp-content/uploads/fws.gentry.george.evening.grosbeak.250x312.jpg" alt="Evening Grosbeak Courtesy US FWS George Gentry, Photographer" width="250" height="312" class="size-full wp-image-10610" srcset="https://wildaboututah.org/wp-content/uploads/fws.gentry.george.evening.grosbeak.250x312.jpg 250w, https://wildaboututah.org/wp-content/uploads/fws.gentry.george.evening.grosbeak.250x312-240x300.jpg 240w" sizes="(max-width: 250px) 100vw, 250px" /></a><figcaption id="caption-attachment-10610" class="wp-caption-text">Evening Grosbeak<br />Courtesy US FWS<br />George Gentry, Photographer</figcaption></figure>As is the case with many irruptive, nomadic species, it is difficult to determine their true population. Unfortunately, this bird has almost disappeared from the east once again, and has all but disappeared in the Appalachian Mountains and has suffered heavy declines elsewhere. A focus on understanding what is driving population trends is needed for developing conservation strategies to help it recover. </p>
  144. <p>Potential causes of the Evening Grosbeak&#8217;s decline are tar sands mining, which has destroyed large swaths of its Canadian boreal forest breeding habitat. Pesticides used to control spruce budworm, an important food for Evening Grosbeak, may also be a factor. Large numbers are killed by window collisions, and cars during winter, when they gather on roadsides to pick up road salt and grit.</p>
  145. <p>During the breeding season, their behavior is quite secretive, and courtship occurs without elaborate song or display. This secretiveness makes it difficult to study this species&#8217; life history. They breed in high altitude and high latitude various forest types throughout North America. Nests are typically located high up in trees, on horizontal branches well out from the trunk. The female builds the nest, which is a loose saucer of roots and twigs lined with fine grass, moss, rootlets, needles, and lichen. Both parents, generally monogamous, help feed the young. They forage in treetops for insect larvae during the summer, buds in spring, and seeds, berries, and small fruits in winter. They sport heavy, strong beaks which can crack open the toughest shells, including cherry pits- a favorite. Evening Grosbeaks are known to snip off the twigs of Sugar Maple trees and sipping the sweet sap- yum! </p>
  146. <p>As birders and citizen scientists, we must document all we can to supply the much needed dearth of data on this marvelous bird, and report it to www.ebird.org</p>
  147. <p>This is Jack Greene for Bridgerland Audubon- and I’m wild about Utah and its evening grosbeaks! </p>
  148. <p><span style="font-family: Verdana; font-size: 10pt;"><span style="color: #2a7f55; font-weight: bold;">Credits:</span></span></p>
  149. <p>Pictures: Courtesy Pixabay, Alain<br />
  150. Courtesy US FWS,<br />
  151. Text: Jack Greene, Bridgerland Audubon Society</p>
  152. <p><span style="font-family: Verdana; font-size: 10pt;"><span style="color: #2a7f55; font-weight: bold;">Additional Reading:</span></span></p>
  153. <p>Evening Grosbeak, All About Birds, Cornell Lab of Ornithology, Cornell University, <a href="https://www.allaboutbirds.org/guide/Evening_Grosbeak" target="newWindow" rel="noopener noreferrer">https://www.allaboutbirds.org/guide/Evening_Grosbeak</a></p>
  154. <p>Evening Grosbeak, <i>Coccothraustes vespertinus</i>, Birdweb.com, Seattle Audubon Society, <a href="http://www.birdweb.org/birdweb/bird/evening_grosbeak" target="newWindow" rel="noopener noreferrer">http://www.birdweb.org/birdweb/bird/evening_grosbeak</a></p>
  155. <p>Evening Grosbeak, <i>Coccothraustes vespertinus</i>, eBird.org, <a href="https://ebird.org/species/evegro" target="newWindow" rel="noopener noreferrer">https://ebird.org/species/evegro</a></p>
  156. <p>The post <a rel="nofollow" href="https://wildaboututah.org/evening-grosbeaks/">Evening Grosbeaks</a> appeared first on <a rel="nofollow" href="https://wildaboututah.org">Wild About Utah</a>.</p>
  157. ]]></content:encoded>
  158. </item>
  159. <item>
  160. <title>Reseeding Great Salt Lake’s wetlands after Phragmites</title>
  161. <link>https://wildaboututah.org/reseeding-great-salt-lakes-wetlands-after-phragmites/</link>
  162. <dc:creator><![CDATA[Shauna Leavitt]]></dc:creator>
  163. <pubDate>Mon, 04 May 2020 13:41:07 +0000</pubDate>
  164. <category><![CDATA[Flora]]></category>
  165. <category><![CDATA[Invasive Species]]></category>
  166. <category><![CDATA[Plants]]></category>
  167. <category><![CDATA[fragmightes(sp)]]></category>
  168. <category><![CDATA[fragmites(sp)]]></category>
  169. <category><![CDATA[fringed willowherb]]></category>
  170. <category><![CDATA[golden dock]]></category>
  171. <category><![CDATA[nodding beggartick]]></category>
  172. <category><![CDATA[Pfragmites(sp)]]></category>
  173. <category><![CDATA[Phragmites]]></category>
  174. <guid isPermaLink="false">https://wildaboututah.org/?p=10503</guid>
  175.  
  176. <description><![CDATA[<p>The Great Salt Lake provides approximately 75% of Utah’s wetlands, and is a resting area along the Pacific- Americas flyway. Migratory birds rely on the lake as a stopping spot for rest and nutrition which they obtain from the variety of native plant communities. These communities are at constant risk from the invasive reed Phragmites &#8230; </p>
  177. <p class="link-more"><a href="https://wildaboututah.org/reseeding-great-salt-lakes-wetlands-after-phragmites/" class="more-link">Continue reading<span class="screen-reader-text"> "Reseeding Great Salt Lake’s wetlands after Phragmites"</span></a></p>
  178. <p>The post <a rel="nofollow" href="https://wildaboututah.org/reseeding-great-salt-lakes-wetlands-after-phragmites/">Reseeding Great Salt Lake’s wetlands after Phragmites</a> appeared first on <a rel="nofollow" href="https://wildaboututah.org">Wild About Utah</a>.</p>
  179. ]]></description>
  180. <content:encoded><![CDATA[<p><figure id="attachment_10518" aria-describedby="caption-attachment-10518" style="width: 250px" class="wp-caption alignright"><a href="https://wildaboututah.org/wp-content/uploads/kettenring.karin_.phragmites.4.australis.glswetlands-s.jpg"><img src="https://wildaboututah.org/wp-content/uploads/kettenring.karin_.phragmites.4.australis.glswetlands.250x188.jpg" alt="Reseeding Great Salt Lake’s wetlands: A dense stand of Phragmites australis in the Great Salt Lake wetlands Courtesy &amp; &copy; Karin Kettenring" title="A dense stand of Phragmites australis in the Great Salt Lake wetlands Courtesy &amp; &copy; Karin Kettenring" width="250" height="188" class="size-full wp-image-10518" /></a><figcaption id="caption-attachment-10518" class="wp-caption-text">A dense stand of Phragmites australis<br />in the Great Salt Lake wetlands<br />Courtesy &amp; &copy; Karin Kettenring<br />
  181. &nbsp;<br />
  182. &nbsp;<br />
  183. <a href="https://wildaboututah.org/wp-content/uploads/kettenring.karin_.phragmites.3.gslwetlands-s.jpg"><img src="https://wildaboututah.org/wp-content/uploads/kettenring.karin_.phragmites.3.gslwetlands.250x167.jpg" alt="Birds take flight in the Great Salt Lake wetlands Courtesy &amp; &copy; Karin Kettenring" title="Birds take flight in the Great Salt Lake wetlands Courtesy &amp; &copy; Karin Kettenring"  width="250" height="167" class="size-full wp-image-10516" /></a> Birds take flight<br />in the Great Salt Lake wetlands<br />Courtesy &amp; &copy; Karin Kettenring<br />
  184. &nbsp;<br />
  185. &nbsp;<br />
  186. <a href="https://wildaboututah.org/wp-content/uploads/kettenring.karin_.phragmites.5.cranney-s.jpg"><img src="https://wildaboututah.org/wp-content/uploads/kettenring.karin_.phragmites.5.cranney.250x167.jpg" alt="Wetland manager &amp; former student in the Kettenring Lab, Chad Cranney in a stand of Phragmites australis Courtesy &amp; &copy; Karin Kettenring" title="Wetland manager &amp; former student in the Kettenring Lab, Chad Cranney in a stand of Phragmites australis Courtesy &amp; &copy; Karin Kettenring" width="250" height="167" class="size-full wp-image-10520" /></a> Wetland manager &amp; former student<br />in the Kettenring Lab, Chad Cranney<br />in a stand of Phragmites australis<br />Courtesy &amp; &copy; Karin Kettenring<br />
  187. &nbsp;<br />
  188. &nbsp;<br />
  189. <a href="https://wildaboututah.org/wp-content/uploads/robinson.rae_.phragmites.1.farmingtonbaywma-s.jpg"><img src="https://wildaboututah.org/wp-content/uploads/robinson.rae_.phragmites.1.farmingtonbaywma.250x333.jpg" alt="Rae Robinson stands in the wetlands at Farmington Bay Waterfowl Management Area, Courtesy &amp; &copy; Rae Robinson" title="Rae Robinson stands in the wetlands at Farmington Bay Waterfowl Management Area, Courtesy &amp; &copy; Rae Robinson" width="250" height="333" class="size-medium wp-image-10508" srcset="https://wildaboututah.org/wp-content/uploads/robinson.rae_.phragmites.1.farmingtonbaywma.250x333.jpg 250w, https://wildaboututah.org/wp-content/uploads/robinson.rae_.phragmites.1.farmingtonbaywma.250x333-225x300.jpg 225w" sizes="(max-width: 250px) 100vw, 250px" /></a> Rae Robinson stands in the wetlands<br />at Farmington Bay Waterfowl Management Area,<br />Courtesy &amp; &copy; Rae Robinson<br />
  190. &nbsp;<br />
  191. &nbsp;<br />
  192. <a href="https://wildaboututah.org/wp-content/uploads/robinson.rae_.phragmites.8.seeds-s.jpg"><img src="https://wildaboututah.org/wp-content/uploads/robinson.rae_.phragmites.8.seeds_.250x333.jpg" alt="Seeds of several native wetland plant species Courtesy &amp; &copy; Rae Robinson" title="Seeds of several native wetland plant species Courtesy &amp; &copy; Rae Robinson" width="250" height="333" class="size-medium wp-image-10514" srcset="https://wildaboututah.org/wp-content/uploads/robinson.rae_.phragmites.8.seeds_.250x333.jpg 250w, https://wildaboututah.org/wp-content/uploads/robinson.rae_.phragmites.8.seeds_.250x333-225x300.jpg 225w" sizes="(max-width: 250px) 100vw, 250px" /></a> Seeds of several native wetland plant species<br />Courtesy &amp; &copy; Rae Robinson<br />
  193. &nbsp;<br />
  194. &nbsp;<br />
  195. <a href="https://wildaboututah.org/wp-content/uploads/kettenring.karin_.phragmites.7.hydroseeding.fbwma-s.jpg"><img src="https://wildaboututah.org/wp-content/uploads/kettenring.karin_.phragmites.7.hydroseeding.fbwma_.250x188.jpg" alt="Experimental hydroseeding at Farmington Bay Waterfowl Management Area Courtesy &amp; &copy; Karin Kettenring 8. Seeds of several native wetland plant" title="Experimental hydroseeding at Farmington Bay Waterfowl Management Area Courtesy &amp; &copy; Karin Kettenring 8. Seeds of several native wetland plant" width="250" height="188" class="size-full wp-image-10522" /></a> Experimental hydroseeding<br />at Farmington Bay Waterfowl Management Area<br />Courtesy &amp; &copy; Karin Kettenring<br />8. Seeds of several native wetland plant<br />
  196. &nbsp;<br />
  197. &nbsp;<br />
  198. <a href="https://wildaboututah.org/wp-content/uploads/robinson.rae_.phragmites.6.usugreenhouse-s.jpg"><img src="https://wildaboututah.org/wp-content/uploads/robinson.rae_.phragmites.6.usugreenhouse.250x333.jpg" alt="Native wetland plant species grow in the USU greenhouse in February 2020 Courtesy &amp; &copy; Rae Robinson" title="Native wetland plant species grow in the USU greenhouse in February 2020 Courtesy &amp; &copy; Rae Robinson" width="250" height="333" class="size-full wp-image-10512" srcset="https://wildaboututah.org/wp-content/uploads/robinson.rae_.phragmites.6.usugreenhouse.250x333.jpg 250w, https://wildaboututah.org/wp-content/uploads/robinson.rae_.phragmites.6.usugreenhouse.250x333-225x300.jpg 225w" sizes="(max-width: 250px) 100vw, 250px" /></a> Native wetland plant species<br />grow in the USU greenhouse<br />in February 2020<br />Courtesy &amp; &copy; Rae Robinson<br />
  199. &nbsp;<br />
  200. &nbsp;<br />
  201. <a href="https://wildaboututah.org/wp-content/uploads/robinson.rae_.phragmites.2.howardsloughwma-s.jpg"><img src="https://wildaboututah.org/wp-content/uploads/robinson.rae_.phragmites.2.howardsloughwma.250x188.jpg" alt="Revegetation field plots at Howard Slough Waterfowl Management Area in June 2019, Courtesy &amp; &copy; Rae Robinson" title="Revegetation field plots at Howard Slough Waterfowl Management Area in June 2019, Courtesy &amp; &copy; Rae Robinson" width="250" height="188" class="size-full wp-image-10510" /></a> Revegetation field plots<br />at Howard Slough Waterfowl Management Area<br />in June 2019,<br />Courtesy &amp; &copy; Rae Robinson</figcaption></figure>The Great Salt Lake provides approximately 75% of Utah’s wetlands, and is a resting area along the Pacific- Americas flyway.   Migratory birds rely on the lake as a stopping spot for rest and nutrition which they obtain from the variety of native plant communities.  These communities are at constant risk from the invasive reed Phragmites australis which is taking over native wetland plant communities.</p>
  202. <p>This invasive species, also known as common reed, is particularly harmful because it forms monocultures that outcompete native plant communities, diminishing quality of habitat for animal species, leaving nothing but dense tall reeds which grow 5-15 feet high.</p>
  203. <p>Phragmites has spread throughout the wetlands of the Great Salt Lake, Utah and North America.</p>
  204. <p>For the past decade, Karin Kettenring, professor of wetland ecology in the Department of Watershed Sciences at USU and her research team have been searching for the best methods for removing Phragmites such as grazing, mowing, or using herbicides on the invasive reed.  Now they are expanding their research to find ways to restore the native wetland plant communities once Phragmites is removed.  </p>
  205. <p>Rae Robinson, a second-year master’s student, joined Kettenring’s research team to study native plant revegetation in Great Salt Lake wetlands.</p>
  206. <p>Robinson explains, “The unfortunate part of this is native plant communities often do not return [after Phragmites has been removed] so we need to reintroduce these plants.  This is where my Master’s research picks up. We are investigating: what native species to include in these revegetation seed mixes, in what proportions, and in what sowing density.”</p>
  207. <p>In the summer of 2019, Robinson teamed up with the Utah Division of Forestry, Fires &#038; State Lands and Utah Division of Wildlife Resources to begin a large-scale revegetation project in an effort to find the best methods for reseeding native plant species in Great Salt Lake wetlands. </p>
  208. <p>Hydroseed was applied &#8212; a mixture of water, seed, and tackifier.  The tackifier is a botanical glue used to help the seeds stay in place, it stabilizes the soil so the seeds have a much better chance of sprouting and growing.</p>
  209. <p>During July and August, Robinson returned to the sites to assess the success of the seeding. </p>
  210. <p>Robinson explains, “It is reasonable to think that seeding density would automatically mean a high chance of seeds taking root, but this is not always the case. At one location, a high seeding density leads to greater establishment of native species, but at another spot it does not. We are finding in seed-based restoration there is a lot of plant mortality, or loss.  We are asking:  Why is that? What causes this failure in restoration?  And what are the best ways to establish diverse native plant communities?”</p>
  211. <p>During the winter months Robinson evaluated some new species in the USU greenhouse – these are potential candidates for restoration that might perform better than the species tested in 2019. Results of this preliminary greenhouse trial suggest that nodding (Bag-er-tick) beggartick, golden dock, and fringed willowherb may grow more readily than the previous species evaluated. These three species will be included in experimental revegetation mixes this summer.</p>
  212. <p>The end goal of Robinson’s research is to determine best practices for seed-based revegetation in wetlands and provide better information for wetland managers faced with the challenge of restoring native plant communities.<br />
  213. The restoration of native plant communities in Great Salt Lake wetlands will improve the quality of habitat for birds and enhance the many ecosystem services these wetlands provide.</p>
  214. <p>This is Shauna Leavitt and I&#8217;m Wild About Utah.</p>
  215. <p><span style="font-family: Verdana; font-size: 10pt;"><span style="color: #2a7f55; font-weight: bold;">Credits:</span></span><br />
  216. Photos: Courtesy &amp; Copyright © Rae Robinson, Courtesy &amp; &copy; Karin Kettenring<br />
  217. Text: Shauna Leavitt, <a href="https://qcnr.usu.edu/research/centers/fish_wildlife_research">Utah Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit, Quinney College of Natural Resources, Utah State University</a></p>
  218. <p><span style="font-family: Verdana; font-size: 10pt;"><span style="color: #2a7f55; font-weight: bold;">Sources &amp; Additional Reading</span></span></p>
  219. <p>Leavitt, Shauna, Our Invasive Phragmites, Wild About Utah, March 11, 2019, <a href="https://wildaboututah.org/our-invasive-phragmites/" target="newWindow" rel="noopener noreferrer">https://wildaboututah.org/our-invasive-phragmites/</a></p>
  220. <p>Leavitt, Shauna, The Invasive Phragmites, Wild About Utah, April 16, 2018, <a href="https://wildaboututah.org/invasive-phragmites/" target="newWindow" rel="noopener noreferrer">https://wildaboututah.org/invasive-phragmites/</a></p>
  221. <p>Rupp, Larry, et al, Phragmites Control at the Urban/Rural Interface, Utah State University Extension, September, 2014, <a href="https://digitalcommons.usu.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1688&#038;context=extension_curall" target="newWindow" rel="noopener noreferrer">https://digitalcommons.usu.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1688&#038;context=extension_curall</a></p>
  222. <p>Larese-Casanova, Mark, Phragmites-Utah’s Grassy Invader, Wild About Utah, August 23, 2012, <a href="https://wildaboututah.org/phragmites-utahs-grassy-invader/" target="newWindow" rel="noopener noreferrer">https://wildaboututah.org/phragmites-utahs-grassy-invader/</a></p>
  223. <p>Muffoletto, Mary-Ann, Mighty Phragmites: USU Researcher Studies Wetlands Invader, Utah State University Extension, June 18, 2009, <a href="https://digitalcommons.usu.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1688&#038;context=extension_curall" target="newWindow" rel="noopener noreferrer">https://digitalcommons.usu.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1688&#038;context=extension_curall</a></p>
  224. <p>Common Reed, Phragmites australis, Utah State University Extension, <a href="https://extension.usu.edu/rangeplants/grasses-and-grasslikes/common-reed" target="newWindow" rel="noopener noreferrer">https://extension.usu.edu/rangeplants/grasses-and-grasslikes/common-reed</a></p>
  225. <p>Duncan, Brittany L., et al., Cattle grazing for invasive Phragmites australis(common reed) management in Northern Utah wetlands, Utah State University Extension, <a href="https://digitalcommons.usu.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=3038&#038;context=extension_curall" target="newWindow" rel="noopener noreferrer">https://digitalcommons.usu.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=3038&#038;context=extension_curall</a></p>
  226. <p>The post <a rel="nofollow" href="https://wildaboututah.org/reseeding-great-salt-lakes-wetlands-after-phragmites/">Reseeding Great Salt Lake’s wetlands after Phragmites</a> appeared first on <a rel="nofollow" href="https://wildaboututah.org">Wild About Utah</a>.</p>
  227. ]]></content:encoded>
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