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  11. <title>Wild About Utah</title>
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  13. <link>http://wildaboututah.org</link>
  14. <description>A weekly nature series produced by Utah Public Radio in cooperation with Stokes Nature Center, Bridgerland Audubon Society, Utah Master Naturalists Program and the Quinney College of Natural Resources at Utah State University.</description>
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  23. <title>Wild About Utah</title>
  24. <link>http://wildaboututah.org</link>
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  28. <item>
  29. <title>Orphaned Bear Cub Rehabilitation</title>
  30. <link>http://wildaboututah.org/orphaned-bear-cub-rehabilitation/</link>
  31. <pubDate>Mon, 14 Aug 2017 13:41:55 +0000</pubDate>
  32. <dc:creator><![CDATA[Shauna Leavitt]]></dc:creator>
  33. <category><![CDATA[Mammals]]></category>
  34. <category><![CDATA[Vertebrates]]></category>
  35. <category><![CDATA[bear cubs]]></category>
  36. <category><![CDATA[Black Bear]]></category>
  37.  
  38. <guid isPermaLink="false">http://wildaboututah.org/?p=7378</guid>
  39. <description><![CDATA[<p>New research reveals that orphaned cubs will likely avoid humans if properly rehabilitated. Sadly each year, there are orphaned bear cubs in Utah. Some lose their mothers to forest fires, while others are orphaned by vehicle-bear collisions or other human-related conflicts. If the orphaned cubs are too young to survive on their own and the &#8230; </p>
  40. <p class="link-more"><a href="http://wildaboututah.org/orphaned-bear-cub-rehabilitation/" class="more-link">Continue reading<span class="screen-reader-text"> "Orphaned Bear Cub Rehabilitation"</span></a></p>
  41. <p>The post <a rel="nofollow" href="http://wildaboututah.org/orphaned-bear-cub-rehabilitation/">Orphaned Bear Cub Rehabilitation</a> appeared first on <a rel="nofollow" href="http://wildaboututah.org">Wild About Utah</a>.</p>
  42. ]]></description>
  43. <content:encoded><![CDATA[<figure id="attachment_6897" style="width: 250px" class="wp-caption alignright"><a href="https://wildlife.utah.gov/blog/2016/bear-cubs-head-back-to-the-wild/" target="newWindow"><img class="size-full wp-image-6897" src="http://wildaboututah.org/wp-content/uploads/myers.patrick.rehab_.bear_.cubs_.250x224.jpg" alt="Orphaned Cub: Bear Cubs in an Enclosure One of the facility’s natural climbing structures, and some of the conspecific interactions that took place in the pens. myers.patrick.rehab.bear.cubs.250x224" width="250" height="224" /></a><figcaption class="wp-caption-text">Bear Cubs in an Enclosure One of the facility’s natural climbing structures, and some of the conspecific interactions that took place in the pens.</figcaption></figure>
  44. <p><i>New research reveals that orphaned cubs will likely avoid humans if properly rehabilitated.</i></p>
  45. <p>Sadly each year, there are orphaned bear cubs in Utah. Some lose their mothers to forest fires, while others are orphaned by vehicle-bear collisions or other human-related conflicts.</p>
  46. <p>If the orphaned cubs are too young to survive on their own and the Utah Division of Wildlife Resources (DWR) finds them before they perish they can be rehabilitated and have a good chance of surviving.</p>
  47. <p>With the help of USU’s Dr. Julie Young a U.S. Department of Agriculture wildlife biologist and associate professor in the Quinney College of Natural Resources, who has expertise in managing carnivores in captivity, DWR was able to help build appropriate enclosures for the rehabilitation of the cubs.</p>
  48. <p>Young helped built these temporary homes at the USDA National Wildlife Research Center’s Predator Research Facility in Millville, Utah.</p>
  49. <p>To ensure the enclosures met the basic needs of cubs the researchers contacted approximately a dozen rehab facilities around the US and Canada to find out “HOW” to rehab bears.<br />
  50. Interestingly, there were large differences in responses.</p>
  51. <p>According to Young, “A few consistent traits did emerge. Bears get easily bored, they like to play and investigate everything. So, we made sure the pens had lots of enrichment items and activities and everything was extremely sturdy since bears are very strong even as babies!</p>
  52. <p>“Because they were being released back into the wild, we wanted to do as much as we could to give them natural surroundings &#8211; like logs, twigs, etc.</p>
  53. <p>We scattered nuts and berries around so the cubs could learn to forage.”<br />
  54. One fun thing about bears &#8211; is they love water! The cubs spent a lot of time in their huge tubs or playing in the water fountain meant for drinking.</p>
  55. <p>Dr. Young’s graduate student, Patrick Myers, recently completed a study of the orphaned cub rehabilitation which contributed to DWR’s Bear Management Plan to “maintain a healthy bear population…while considering human safety.”<br />
  56. Myers began his work in the summer of 2014 when DWR brought six orphaned cubs to the Millville bear rehabilitation site.<br />
  57. Throughout the rehabilitation, there was very little human contact to ensure the bears did not become familiar with humans. This was tough since cubs are cute and people wanted to see them. However, they remained firm and did not allow visiting hours. They removed as many human sights, sounds and odors as possible by keeping noise to a minimum, and since bears have extremely good noses they eliminated as many human smells as possible no perfumes or scented lotions were allowed.</p>
  58. <p>At feeding time they fed the cubs from behind a blind, or put them in one pen while they cleaned and left food in the other. The researchers never went in the same pen as the cubs.</p>
  59. <figure id="attachment_6899" style="width: 250px" class="wp-caption alignright"><a href="https://wildlife.utah.gov/blog/2016/bear-cubs-head-back-to-the-wild/" target="newWindow"><img class="size-full wp-image-6899" src="http://wildaboututah.org/wp-content/uploads/myers.patrick.release.team_.250x166.jpg" alt="Loading two immobilized and recently collared cubs into their enclosures for transport to their release locations. myers.patrick.release.team.250x166" width="250" height="166" /></a><figcaption class="wp-caption-text">Loading two immobilized and recently collared cubs into their enclosures for transport to their release locations.</figcaption></figure>
  60. <p>Myer’s research was unique. In addition to the regular food and development regiments, the cubs went through numerous behavioral tests to determine if they were bold, shy or somewhere in between when introduced to novel stimulus.</p>
  61. <p>Consistent test results were the key in determining what type of animal personalities the cubs had.<br />
  62. One test included placing the cubs in a new enclosure with the same layout as their previous one. The shy cubs responded by hugging the walls and cautiously moving around while the bold cubs began exploring immediately with little signs of fear.</p>
  63. <p>Once Myers classified the bears, and the cubs were old enough, the research team released the young bears to remote locations throughout Utah.</p>
  64. <figure id="attachment_6895" style="width: 250px" class="wp-caption alignright"><img class="size-full wp-image-6895" src="http://wildaboututah.org/wp-content/uploads/myers.patrick.den_.check_.250x188.jpg" alt="Patrick Myers has immobilized and extracted one of the bears from her den in early spring of 2016 to assess her health and the fit of her collar; this was in the Lake Canyon area, southwest of Duchesne. myers.patrick.den.check.250x188" width="250" height="188" /><figcaption class="wp-caption-text">Patrick Myers has immobilized and extracted one of the bears from her den in early spring of 2016 to assess her health and the fit of her collar; this was in the Lake Canyon area, southwest of Duchesne.</figcaption></figure>
  65. <p>Myers monitored the bears throughout 2015 until they emerged from their dens in the spring of 2016.<br />
  66. “The bears were fitted with expandable GPS collars so they would grow when the cubs did and so Myers could watch their movement from a computer. Myers went to check out dens once they left them, to be sure their habitat choices were appropriate based on bear biology.</p>
  67. <p>Young explains, “We went with UDWR and checked on the two females their second denning season in the wild &#8211;and they looked great!”</p>
  68. <p>Myers and Young were pleased to see that even though the cubs had been in close proximity to the smell of humans for many months; neither the bold nor the shy bears sought humans once they released them. They all had healthy responses to their natural habitat and behaved much like young bears not orphaned. They searched for dens almost immediately, and remained in the remote locations.</p>
  69. <p>Although this is a small study, the initial results show that orphaned cubs, whether shy or bold, will likely avoid humans and retain their natural instincts if property rehabilitated.</p>
  70. <p>This may be a useful management practice for restoring bears where populations are dwindling and habitat is ideal.</p>
  71. <p>This is Shauna Leavitt for Wild About Utah.</p>
  72. <p><span style="font-family: Verdana; font-size: 10pt;"><span style="color: #2a7f55; font-weight: bold;">Credits:</span></span><br />
  73. Photo: Courtesy Utah Division of Wildlife Resources<br />
  74. Text: Shauna Leavitt</p>
  75. <p><span style="font-family: Verdana; font-size: 10pt;"><span style="color: #2a7f55; font-weight: bold;">Sources &amp; Additional Reading</span></span></p>
  76. <p>USDA APHIS National Wildlife Research Center, <a href="https://www.aphis.usda.gov/aphis/ourfocus/wildlifedamage/programs/nwrc" target="newWindow">https://www.aphis.usda.gov/aphis/ourfocus/wildlifedamage/programs/nwrc</a></p>
  77. <p>Bear denning in the south Book Cliffs, Utah Division of Wildlife Resources, <a href="https://wildlife.utah.gov/blog/2013/bear-denning-in-the-south-book-cliffs/" target="newWindow">https://wildlife.utah.gov/blog/2013/bear-denning-in-the-south-book-cliffs/</a></p>
  78. <p>“Can you help me? There’s a bear on my boat.”, Utah Division of Wildlife Resources, <a href="https://wildlife.utah.gov/blog/2013/can-you-help-me-theres-a-bear-on-my-boat/" target="newWindow">https://wildlife.utah.gov/blog/2013/can-you-help-me-theres-a-bear-on-my-boat/</a></p>
  79. <p>The post <a rel="nofollow" href="http://wildaboututah.org/orphaned-bear-cub-rehabilitation/">Orphaned Bear Cub Rehabilitation</a> appeared first on <a rel="nofollow" href="http://wildaboututah.org">Wild About Utah</a>.</p>
  80. ]]></content:encoded>
  81. </item>
  82. <item>
  83. <title>Old Ephraim, The Infamous Northern Utah Grizzly</title>
  84. <link>http://wildaboututah.org/old-ephraim-the-infamous-northern-utah-grizzly/</link>
  85. <pubDate>Mon, 07 Aug 2017 13:41:05 +0000</pubDate>
  86. <dc:creator><![CDATA[Josh Bolling]]></dc:creator>
  87. <category><![CDATA[Mammals]]></category>
  88. <category><![CDATA[Vertebrates]]></category>
  89. <category><![CDATA[Endangered Species Act]]></category>
  90. <category><![CDATA[Grizzly Bear]]></category>
  91.  
  92. <guid isPermaLink="false">http://wildaboututah.org/?p=7381</guid>
  93. <description><![CDATA[<p>It took all of Frank Clark’s seven steel-ball cartridges to bring down Old Ephraim, the infamous Grizzly Bear that, for many years in the early 20th century, plagued the shepherds of the Northern Wasatch Mountains. The date was August 21st, 1923, when Clark, a Logan Canyon sheepman, was roused from his slumber by the gruffs &#8230; </p>
  94. <p class="link-more"><a href="http://wildaboututah.org/old-ephraim-the-infamous-northern-utah-grizzly/" class="more-link">Continue reading<span class="screen-reader-text"> "Old Ephraim, The Infamous Northern Utah Grizzly"</span></a></p>
  95. <p>The post <a rel="nofollow" href="http://wildaboututah.org/old-ephraim-the-infamous-northern-utah-grizzly/">Old Ephraim, The Infamous Northern Utah Grizzly</a> appeared first on <a rel="nofollow" href="http://wildaboututah.org">Wild About Utah</a>.</p>
  96. ]]></description>
  97. <content:encoded><![CDATA[<p><figure id="attachment_7396" style="width: 250px" class="wp-caption alignright"><a href="http://wildaboututah.org/wp-content/uploads/Boling.OldEphriam.DSCF8550.jpg"><img src="http://wildaboututah.org/wp-content/uploads/Boling.OldEphriam.DSCF8550.250x333.jpg" alt="Old Ephraim, the Infamous Northern Utah Grizzly: Old Ephriam&#039;s Grave Marker, The height of the the old grizzley Courtesy &amp; Copyright Josh boling" title="Old Ephriam&#039;s Grave Marker, The height of the the old grizzley Courtesy &amp; Copyright Josh boling" width="250" height="333" class="size-full wp-image-7396" srcset="http://wildaboututah.org/wp-content/uploads/Boling.OldEphriam.DSCF8550.250x333.jpg 250w, http://wildaboututah.org/wp-content/uploads/Boling.OldEphriam.DSCF8550.250x333-225x300.jpg 225w" sizes="(max-width: 250px) 100vw, 250px" /></a><figcaption class="wp-caption-text">Old Ephriam&#8217;s Grave Marker,<br />The height of the the old grizzley<br />Courtesy &#038; Copyright Josh boling</figcaption></figure>It took all of Frank Clark’s seven steel-ball cartridges to bring down Old Ephraim, the infamous Grizzly Bear that, for many years in the early 20th century, plagued the shepherds of the Northern Wasatch Mountains. The date was August 21st, 1923, when Clark, a Logan Canyon sheepman, was roused from his slumber by the gruffs and bellows of the half-ton brown bear stuck in a trap that Clark had set down in the wallows the bear frequented. Hours later, after a thrilling chase and several charges from the massive, male Grizzly, the hunt was over and the last of Utah’s Great Bears had departed.</p>
  98. <p>The Land of Deseret was once home to a robust population of Grizzly Bears. Indeed, present-day Utah sat very near the geographic center of their historical home range which once extended as far south as Central Mexico and eastward into the prairies of Minnesota and other midwestern states. When the Mormon Pioneers arrived in Salt Lake Valley, the surrounding mountains- and a majority of other ranges throughout the West- still harbored many Grizzlies. In fact, Brigham Young himself, along with early LDS leader Heber C. Kimball, was once chased up a cliff by an angry mother Grizz protecting her cubs.</p>
  99. <p><figure id="attachment_7392" style="width: 250px" class="wp-caption alignright"><a href="http://wildaboututah.org/wp-content/uploads/Boling.OldEphriam.DSCF8553.jpg"><img src="http://wildaboututah.org/wp-content/uploads/Boling.OldEphriam.DSCF8553.250x188.jpg" alt="Marker Detail Old Ephriam&#039;s Grave Courtesy &amp; Copyright Josh boling" title="Marker Detail Old Ephriam&#039;s Grave Courtesy &amp; Copyright Josh boling" width="250" height="188" class="size-full wp-image-7392" /></a><figcaption class="wp-caption-text">Marker Detail<br />Old Ephriam&#8217;s Grave<br />Courtesy &#038; Copyright Josh boling</figcaption></figure>However, between the Saints’ arrival to the Salt Lake Valley in 1847 and Frank Clark’s killing of Old Ephraim in 1923, the Grizzly Bear was eliminated from 95% of its original home range, including Utah. Today, grizzlies roam a mere 2% of their historical range in the contiguous United States, driven from all but a few remote wildernesses in the far reaches of the Northern Rockies. As more and more settlers moved westward across the New Frontier in the latter decades of the 19th century into the early 20th century, competition for resources became stiff between humans and their ursine counterparts. As apex predators, grizzly bears pursue many of the same foods we humans do, including domestic stock, like sheep. For this reason, it’s clear why local stockmen held Old Ephraim in such contempt. What made him so notorious, though, was his remarkable intelligence.</p>
  100. <p><figure id="attachment_7394" style="width: 250px" class="wp-caption alignright"><a href="http://wildaboututah.org/wp-content/uploads/Boling.OldEphriam.DSCF8551.jpg"><img src="http://wildaboututah.org/wp-content/uploads/Boling.OldEphriam.DSCF8551.250x188.jpg" alt="Nephi J. Bott&#039;s Poem At Old Ephriam&#039;s Grave Courtesy &amp; Copyright Josh boling" title="Nephi J. Bott&#039;s Poem At Old Ephriam&#039;s Grave Courtesy &amp; Copyright Josh boling" width="250" height="188" class="size-full wp-image-7394" /></a><figcaption class="wp-caption-text">Nephi J. Bott&#8217;s Poem<br />At Old Ephriam&#8217;s Grave<br />Courtesy &#038; Copyright Josh boling</figcaption></figure>Grizzlies are famously smart and are even thought to possess self-awareness. Their potential for understanding is comparable to that of the higher primates in the Animal Kingdom, which stands to reason why they are such cunning hunters. Grizzly Bears have even been known to cover their own tracks or conceal themselves with trees and rocks when either hunting or hiding, giving biologists reason to believe that these incredible animals are even capable of forethought. Perhaps, that’s why it took Frank Clark over a decade to even get a good look at Old Ephraim, much less a clear shot at him. The mighty grizzly had time and again removed Clark’s traps from his wallowing holes, discarding them elsewhere without even setting them off. However, despite his amazing intelligence and ability to adapt- or, perhaps because of them- Old Ephraim ultimately met his end that August morning in 1923.</p>
  101. <p>Even after having, quote, “sworn eternal vengeance on bears,” Frank Clark ultimately professed regret for having to kill Old Ephraim; and it’s a sentiment that’s well-circulated and gaining steam here in the west, now nearly a century removed from Ephraim’s death. In 1975, as a result of their dismal population levels in the contiguous United States and high mortality rates even in protected areas such as Yellowstone National Park, the Grizzly Bear was listed as “Threatened” under the Endangered Species Act. As of June 2017, however, that listing was revoked for the populations in and around Yellowstone National Park due to the Bear’s remarkable recovery from a mere 136 individuals in 1975 to approximately 700 today. It seems we have begun to amend our relationship with these animals; but there is more to be done in the interest of Grizzly Bears. Several recovery and reintroduction plans are currently being considered, and reflect a brighter future for Grizzly Bears in the lower 48. But, what about here in Utah?</p>
  102. <p><figure id="attachment_7390" style="width: 250px" class="wp-caption alignright"><a href="http://wildaboututah.org/wp-content/uploads/Boling.OldEphriam.DSCF8554.jpg"><img src="http://wildaboututah.org/wp-content/uploads/Boling.OldEphriam.DSCF8554.250x188.jpg" alt="Forest Service Marker Old Ephriam&#039;s Grave Courtesy &amp; Copyright Josh boling" title="Forest Service Marker Old Ephriam&#039;s Grave Courtesy &amp; Copyright Josh boling" width="250" height="188" class="size-full wp-image-7390" /></a><figcaption class="wp-caption-text">Forest Service Marker<br />Old Ephriam&#8217;s Grave<br />Courtesy &#038; Copyright Josh boling</figcaption></figure>The Great Bear’s return to the Beehive state is entirely possible but, as the Ogden Standard Examiner reported early last year, not very likely. “Although grizzlies are established in Montana, Idaho and Wyoming,” the article states, “Utah is not a part of the government’s recovery plan for the animal.” There are probably many reasons for this, not least of which is the relatively high population densities adjacent to the best of Utah’s potential Grizzly habitat. Right now, there are just too many people for the bears to be able to ramble unimpeded by the things and interests of humans. “But that’s not to say that some rogue bear might not roam across state lines one day,” states the Standard’s article.</p>
  103. <p>I, for one, hope they make their way back.</p>
  104. <p>Writing and reading for Wild About Utah, I&#8217;m Josh Boling.</p>
  105. <p><span style="font-family: Verdana; font-size: 10pt;"><span style="color: #2a7f55; font-weight: bold;">Credits:</span></span><br />
  106. Photo: Courtesy &#038; Copyright 2017 Josh Boling<br />
  107. Text: Josh Boling</p>
  108. <p><span style="font-family: Verdana; font-size: 10pt;"><span style="color: #2a7f55; font-weight: bold;">Sources &#038; Additional Reading</span></span></p>
  109. <p>The Bear Facts Old Ephriam, Holly Strand, June 17, 2008, <a href="http://wildaboututah.org/the-bear-facts-old-ephriam/">http://wildaboututah.org/the-bear-facts-old-ephriam/</a></p>
  110. <p>Old Ephriam, Utah State University, University Libraries, Digital Collections, <a href="http://digital.lib.usu.edu/cdm/landingpage/collection/Ephraim" target="newWindow">http://digital.lib.usu.edu/cdm/landingpage/collection/Ephraim</a></p>
  111. <p>Old Ephraim: Utah’s most legendary bear, Lynn Arave, Standard Examiner, July 16, 2015, <a href="http://www.standard.net/Ogden-Area-History-Bin/2015/07/16/July-17-history-bin" target="newWindow">http://www.standard.net/Ogden-Area-History-Bin/2015/07/16/July-17-history-bin</a> </p>
  112. <p>Final resting spot of legendary grizzly &#8216;Old Ephraim&#8217; worth a trip, Kate DuHadway, Herald Journal, Jul 9, 2011, <a href="http://news.hjnews.com/news/final-resting-spot-of-legendary-grizzly-old-ephraim-worth-a/article_0e974452-a9d3-11e0-8c09-001cc4c002e0.html" target="newWindow">http://news.hjnews.com/news/final-resting-spot-of-legendary-grizzly-old-ephraim-worth-a/article_0e974452-a9d3-11e0-8c09-001cc4c002e0.html</a> </p>
  113. <p>The post <a rel="nofollow" href="http://wildaboututah.org/old-ephraim-the-infamous-northern-utah-grizzly/">Old Ephraim, The Infamous Northern Utah Grizzly</a> appeared first on <a rel="nofollow" href="http://wildaboututah.org">Wild About Utah</a>.</p>
  114. ]]></content:encoded>
  115. </item>
  116. <item>
  117. <title>Butterflies</title>
  118. <link>http://wildaboututah.org/butterflies-2/</link>
  119. <pubDate>Mon, 31 Jul 2017 13:41:25 +0000</pubDate>
  120. <dc:creator><![CDATA[Jack Greene]]></dc:creator>
  121. <category><![CDATA[Insects]]></category>
  122. <category><![CDATA[Invertebrates]]></category>
  123.  
  124. <guid isPermaLink="false">http://wildaboututah.org/?p=7372</guid>
  125. <description><![CDATA[<p>A few months ago, on a trail run in the Bear River range in Northern Utah, I became engulfed in a cloud of butterflies beyond anything I had experienced before. Milbert’s totiseshells and Swallowtails were the primary species. This is the year of the butterfly. I have seen many eruptive populations both in Northern and &#8230; </p>
  126. <p class="link-more"><a href="http://wildaboututah.org/butterflies-2/" class="more-link">Continue reading<span class="screen-reader-text"> "Butterflies"</span></a></p>
  127. <p>The post <a rel="nofollow" href="http://wildaboututah.org/butterflies-2/">Butterflies</a> appeared first on <a rel="nofollow" href="http://wildaboututah.org">Wild About Utah</a>.</p>
  128. ]]></description>
  129. <content:encoded><![CDATA[<figure id="attachment_7373" style="width: 250px" class="wp-caption alignright"><a href="http://wildaboututah.org/wp-content/uploads/smith-needhams.tiger_.swallowtail.butterfly-2.jpg"><img class="size-full wp-image-7373" src="http://wildaboututah.org/wp-content/uploads/smith-needhams.tiger_.swallowtail.butterfly-2.250x270.jpg" alt="Tiger Swallowtail, Papilio rutulus Lucas, Courtesy &amp; Copyright Shalayne Smith-Needham, Photographer" width="250" height="270" /></a><figcaption class="wp-caption-text">Tiger Swallowtail, Papilio rutulus Lucas,<br />Courtesy &amp; Copyright Shalayne Smith-Needham, Photographer</figcaption></figure>
  130. <p>A few months ago, on a trail run in the Bear River range in Northern  Utah, I became engulfed in a cloud of butterflies beyond anything I had experienced before.  Milbert’s  totiseshells and Swallowtails were the primary species. This is the year of the butterfly.  I have seen many eruptive populations both in Northern and Southern Utah. Especially in the tortoiseshell family in the North and bumper crops of Field Crescents at Cedar Breaks National Monument in the south.</p>
  131. <p>This has given me pause to reflect on how climate change may be influencing their populations. As I described in an earlier Wild About Utah reading, over half of Utah bird species are showing considerable stress from a changing climate.  Might the same be occurring for the Lepidopterans, or butterflies?</p>
  132. <p>Many studies have shown that that butterflies are among the species that have responded the most to climate change, usually in the form of northward or elevation range shifts. There are many documented instances of disruption of essential interactions of butterflies with their food plants. Recently, a number of researchers have warned, that the common biological effect of shifting towards earlier time to reproduction can have multiple and cascading effects. Species lacking adaptability may have reduced fitness, increased mortality and disrupt a whole food web which had evolved to thrive when there was a synchronous timing of resources that can no more be found. Climate change can also effect flight times of butterflies. The warmer temperatures will result in more generations of multiple brooded species. But how this will effect egg laying periods and other life traits that are determined by photoperiodism is unknown. </p>
  133. <p>With a warming climate, butterflies at the highest elevation site are appearing with increasing frequency. Those that normally breed at 7000 feet now breed at 9000 feet. This upslope movement can cause a time lag problem because plants move more slowly than butterflies. If butterflies don’t have the plant resources they need, they cannot breed at these higher elevations. This may explain the low numbers of butterflies I’ve noted in my outings at Tony Grove lake in recent years.</p>
  134. <p>In order for conservation plans to be developed, there is a pressing need for a better understanding of how climate effects Lepidopterans and their essential interactions. There is much we still don’t know. With more information, on these intricacies, we can better design more effective plans. </p>
  135. <p>A month ago, I found myself in England assisting a team of Darby University faculty and students for pollinator research which included butterflies and moths.  European scientists are well ahead of the US in the understanding of patterns of butterfly response to climate change. We must step up to the challenge if we and future generations are to continue enjoying butterflies for years to come.</p>
  136. <p>Later this month I will be leading a butterfly field trip to Tony Grove lake followed by joining a University of Washington PhD student on Mount Rainier to study butterfly populations.   …my small contribution towards maintaining healthy numbers of these marvelous creatures that brighten our day and make significant contributions towards maintaining ecosystem stability. </p>
  137. <p>This is Jack Greene writing and reading for Wild About Utah.</p>
  138. <p><span style="font-family: Verdana; font-size: 10pt;"><span style="color: #2a7f55; font-weight: bold;">Credits:</span></span></p>
  139. <p>Pictures: Courtesy &#038; Copyright Shalayne Smith-Needham, Utah Public Radio<br />
  140. Text: Jack Greene, Bridgerland Audubon Society</p>
  141. <p><span style="font-family: Verdana; font-size: 10pt;"><span style="color: #2a7f55; font-weight: bold;">Additional Reading:</span></span></p>
  142. <p>Denali&#8217;s Butterflies &#8211; Denali National Park &#038; Preserve, https://www.nps.gov/dena/learn/nature/denalibutterflies.htm</p>
  143. <p>Crescent (Phyciodes sp.) Butterflies, Lee Metcalf National Wildlife Refuge, Montana, US FWS, https://www.fws.gov/nwrs/threecolumn.aspx?id=2147574863</p>
  144. <p><a href="http://www.butterflywebsite.com/" target="newWindow">http://www.butterflywebsite.com/</a></p>
  145. <p><a href="http://monarchwatch.org" target="newWindow">http://monarchwatch.org</a></p>
  146. <p>All About Butterflies, Enchanted Learning, <a href="http://www.zoomwhales.com/subjects/butterfly/allabout/" target="newWindow">http://www.zoomwhales.com/subjects/butterfly/allabout/</a></p>
  147. <p>Andrea Liberatore, Monarch Butterflies, Wild About Utah, 13 Sept 2012, <a href="http://wildaboututah.org/monarch-butterflies/" target="newWindow">http://wildaboututah.org/monarch-butterflies/</a> </p>
  148. <p>Jack Greene, Butterflies, Wild About Utah, 4 July 2016, <a href="http://wildaboututah.org/butterflies/" target="newWindow">http://wildaboututah.org/butterflies/</a> </p>
  149. <p>Andrea Liberatore, Insect Mimicry and Camouflage, Wild About Utah, 31 July 2014, <a href="http://wildaboututah.org/insect-mimicry/" target="newWindow">http://wildaboututah.org/insect-mimicry/</a> </p>
  150. <p>Bugguide, Department of Entomology, Iowa State University,<br />
  151. Species Phyciodes pulchella &#8211; Field Crescent, <a href="http://bugguide.net/node/view/24562" target="newWindow">http://bugguide.net/node/view/24562</a><br />
  152. Species Aglais milberti &#8211; Milbert&#8217;s Tortoiseshell &#8211; Hodges#4433, <a href="http://bugguide.net/node/view/30387" target="newWindow">http://bugguide.net/node/view/30387</a><br />
  153. Family Papilionidae &#8211; Swallowtails, Parnassians, <a href="http://bugguide.net/index.php?q=search&#038;keys=swallowtail" target="newWindow">http://bugguide.net/index.php?q=search&#038;keys=swallowtail</a></p>
  154. <p>The post <a rel="nofollow" href="http://wildaboututah.org/butterflies-2/">Butterflies</a> appeared first on <a rel="nofollow" href="http://wildaboututah.org">Wild About Utah</a>.</p>
  155. ]]></content:encoded>
  156. </item>
  157. <item>
  158. <title>Build a Certified Wildlife Habitat at Home</title>
  159. <link>http://wildaboututah.org/build-community-wildlife-habitats/</link>
  160. <pubDate>Mon, 17 Jul 2017 13:41:42 +0000</pubDate>
  161. <dc:creator><![CDATA[Ron Hellstern]]></dc:creator>
  162. <category><![CDATA[Amphibians]]></category>
  163. <category><![CDATA[Arachnids]]></category>
  164. <category><![CDATA[Biome]]></category>
  165. <category><![CDATA[Birds]]></category>
  166. <category><![CDATA[Citizen Science]]></category>
  167. <category><![CDATA[Flora]]></category>
  168. <category><![CDATA[Fungi]]></category>
  169. <category><![CDATA[Habitats]]></category>
  170. <category><![CDATA[Insects]]></category>
  171. <category><![CDATA[Invertebrates]]></category>
  172. <category><![CDATA[Mammals]]></category>
  173. <category><![CDATA[People]]></category>
  174. <category><![CDATA[Plants]]></category>
  175. <category><![CDATA[Reptiles]]></category>
  176. <category><![CDATA[Trees]]></category>
  177. <category><![CDATA[Vertebrates]]></category>
  178. <category><![CDATA[Worms]]></category>
  179. <category><![CDATA[backyards]]></category>
  180. <category><![CDATA[Landscape]]></category>
  181.  
  182. <guid isPermaLink="false">http://wildaboututah.org/?p=7352</guid>
  183. <description><![CDATA[<p>Most people appreciate viewing impressive forms of wildlife, such as Desert Bighorn Sheep in Zion, or Wolves and Grizzlies in Yellowstone, but they may not completely understand the quiet contributions that are being made to earth’s ecosystems every day by the small creatures around our own neighborhoods. These little ones help us in many unseen &#8230; </p>
  184. <p class="link-more"><a href="http://wildaboututah.org/build-community-wildlife-habitats/" class="more-link">Continue reading<span class="screen-reader-text"> "Build a Certified Wildlife Habitat at Home"</span></a></p>
  185. <p>The post <a rel="nofollow" href="http://wildaboututah.org/build-community-wildlife-habitats/">Build a Certified Wildlife Habitat at Home</a> appeared first on <a rel="nofollow" href="http://wildaboututah.org">Wild About Utah</a>.</p>
  186. ]]></description>
  187. <content:encoded><![CDATA[<p><figure id="attachment_7359" style="width: 250px" class="wp-caption alignright"><a href="http://wildaboututah.org/wp-content/uploads/hellstern.community.wildlife.habitat.IMG_5563-e1500594835492.jpg"><img src="http://wildaboututah.org/wp-content/uploads/hellstern.community.wildlife.habitat.IMG_5563.250x375.jpg" alt="Build Community Wildlife Habitats Ron Hellstern See also: http://www.nwf.org/Home/Garden-For-Wildlife.aspx" width="250" height="375" class="size-full wp-image-7359" srcset="http://wildaboututah.org/wp-content/uploads/hellstern.community.wildlife.habitat.IMG_5563.250x375.jpg 250w, http://wildaboututah.org/wp-content/uploads/hellstern.community.wildlife.habitat.IMG_5563.250x375-200x300.jpg 200w" sizes="(max-width: 250px) 100vw, 250px" /></a><figcaption class="wp-caption-text">Build Community Wildlife Habitats<br />Ron Hellstern<br />See also:<br />http://www.nwf.org/Home/Garden-For-Wildlife.aspx</figcaption></figure>Most people appreciate viewing impressive forms of wildlife, such as Desert Bighorn Sheep in Zion, or Wolves and Grizzlies in Yellowstone, but they may not completely understand the quiet contributions that are being made to earth’s ecosystems every day by the small creatures around our own neighborhoods.   These little ones help us in many unseen ways. </p>
  188. <p>It is estimated that one third of the food that humans eat has been provided by small pollinators such as Hummingbirds, Butterflies, and Bees.  Having these creatures in our own yards can produce hours of entertainment, and education, as we observe them working feverishly among our flowers, shrubs and trees.</p>
  189. <p>Many citizens, and cities, are diligent in providing beautiful landscaped areas for these pollinators to gain nourishment as they work to increase the production of flowers and fruits.</p>
  190. <p>A couple of quick tips as you decide to help these workaholic animals:<br />
  191. You can make your own hummingbird food by mixing one cup of sugar to four cups of water. Never put food coloring in hummingbird feeders.  It can be harmful to them, and the red color of the feeder will automatically attract them.  You should also use native, fertile plants in your landscaping design.  And, unless you have a severe allergic reaction to bee stings, be assured that they are far more interested in gathering pollen than sacrificing their life to sting someone.  Most people can work right alongside bees in their flower gardens.  Wasps are another story.</p>
  192. <p>So, as you design, or alter, your property to be more usable by pollinators and songbirds you can be rewarded by the National Wildlife Federation through their Wildlife Habitat Certification program.  If you provide food, water, shelter and a place to raise young…you are eligible to have your yard certified.  Remember, we’re not talking about Mountain Lions and Elk, just pollinators and songbirds.  If you have a birdfeeder, birdbath, and shrubs or trees you qualify.</p>
  193. <p>Nobody inspects your property.  Go to  their website at (www.nwf.org) and complete the simple application listed under Garden for Wildlife and, for a one-time fee of only $20, they will send you a personal certificate for your home, and a one year subscription to the National Wildlife magazine.  They also have metal signs that you can post to show others that you care about wildlife. Once you see the value in this, encourage neighbors to do the same.  In fact, you can have portions of your entire community certified as wildlife habitat as did Nibley City in Cache County.  They were the first city in Utah to do so by certifying 100 properties, and they are ready to help others around the State to join them in this rewarding effort.</p>
  194. <p>Next time you’re in the grocery store, or harvesting from your own garden, remember that a lot of that food would not exist without our diligent pollinators. </p>
  195. <p>This is Ron Hellstern for Wild About Utah</p>
  196. <hr style="height:10px;border:none;color:#2a7f55;background-color:#2a7f55;" />
  197. <p><span style="font-family: Verdana; font-size: 10pt;"><span style="color: #2a7f55; font-weight: bold;">Additional Reading</span></span></p>
  198. <p>Certify Your Wildlife Habitat, National Wildlife Federation, Accessed 20 July 2017, <a href="http://www.nwf.org/Home/Garden-For-Wildlife.aspx" target="newWindow">http://www.nwf.org/Home/Garden-For-Wildlife.aspx</a><br />
  199. Certify: <a href="http://www.nwf.org/Garden-For-Wildlife/Certify.aspx" target="newWindow">http://www.nwf.org/Garden-For-Wildlife/Certify.aspx</a></p>
  200. <p>Creating Landscapes for Wildlife&#8230; A Guide for Backyards in Utah, Written by Sue Nordstrom and Illustrated by Kathlyn Collins Department of Landscape Architecture and Environmental Planning, Utah State University with Margy Halpin, Utah Division of Wildlife Resources; Second Printing 2001,<br />
  201. Updated for the Utah Division of Wildlife Resources, by Frank Howe, DWR Avian coordinator; Ben Franklin, DWR–Utah Natural Heritage Program botanist; Randy Brudnicki, DWR publications editor; and landscape planning illustrations by Stephanie Duer.,<br />
  202. Published by:<br />
  203. State of Utah Natural Resources, Division of Wildlife Resources,<br />
  204. Utah State University Cooperative Extension Service and<br />
  205. Utah State University Department of Landscape Architecture and Environmental Planning;<br />
  206. 1991 updated 2001 <a href="http://digitallibrary.utah.gov/awweb/awarchive?type=file&#038;item=10215" target="newWindow">http://digitallibrary.utah.gov/awweb/awarchive?type=file&#038;item=10215</a></p>
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  211. <p>The post <a rel="nofollow" href="http://wildaboututah.org/build-community-wildlife-habitats/">Build a Certified Wildlife Habitat at Home</a> appeared first on <a rel="nofollow" href="http://wildaboututah.org">Wild About Utah</a>.</p>
  212. ]]></content:encoded>
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  217.  
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