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  7. <title type="text">Rad Geek People&#039;s Daily</title>
  8. <subtitle type="text">official state media for a secessionist republic of one</subtitle>
  9.  
  10. <updated>2017-12-31T16:26:38Z</updated>
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  17. <link rel="license" type="text/html" href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/" /> <entry>
  18. <author>
  19. <name>Rad Geek</name>
  20. <uri>http://radgeek.com/</uri>
  21. </author>
  22. <title type="html"><![CDATA[What I&#8217;m Reading: Doomsday prepper sends all of his food to Puerto Rico]]></title>
  23. <link rel="alternate" type="text/html" href="http://radgeek.com/gt/2017/10/07/what-im-reading-doomsday-prepper-sends-all-of-his-food-to-puerto-rico/" />
  24. <id>http://radgeek.com/?p=9137</id>
  25. <updated>2017-10-08T03:25:51Z</updated>
  26. <published>2017-10-08T03:25:51Z</published>
  27. <category scheme="http://radgeek.com?taxonomy=category" term="Misc" label="Misc"/>
  28. <summary type="html"><![CDATA[]]></summary>
  29. <content type="html" xml:base="http://radgeek.com/gt/2017/10/07/what-im-reading-doomsday-prepper-sends-all-of-his-food-to-puerto-rico/"><![CDATA[<div style="background-color: #ddd; border-radius: 5px; padding: 0.5em 1.0em; margin: 1.0em 3.0em;">
  30. <h3 style="font-size: 90%; text-transform: uppercase; margin: 0em; padding-bottom: 0.5em; text-align: center;">Shared Article  from SFGate</h3>
  31. <div style="float: left; margin-right: 10px; min-height: 156px;"><a href="http://www.sfgate.com/news/article/Doomsday-prepper-sends-all-of-his-food-to-Puerto-12259015.php"><img src="http://ww4.hdnux.com/photos/66/44/30/14304771/3/rawImage.jpg" style="max-width: 200px; height: auto;" /></a></div>
  32. <p style="margin: 0em; font-size: 1.1em;"><strong><a href="http://www.sfgate.com/news/article/Doomsday-prepper-sends-all-of-his-food-to-Puerto-12259015.php">Doomsday prepper sends all of his food to Puerto Rico</a></strong></p>
  33. <p style="margin: 0em;">MEDFORD, N.J. (AP) - A New Jersey man who spent decades preparing his home for doomsday is donating all of his stored food to families affected by Hur…</p>
  34. <p style="margin: 0em; "><span style="color: #666; font-size: 90%; text-transform: uppercase;">sfgate.com</span></p>
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  37.  
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  41. </entry>
  42. <entry>
  43. <author>
  44. <name>Rad Geek</name>
  45. <uri>http://radgeek.com/</uri>
  46. </author>
  47. <title type="html"><![CDATA[Fue el estado]]></title>
  48. <link rel="alternate" type="text/html" href="http://radgeek.com/gt/2017/09/26/fue-el-estado/" />
  49. <id>http://radgeek.com/?p=8934</id>
  50. <updated>2017-09-26T15:21:25Z</updated>
  51. <published>2017-09-26T15:21:25Z</published>
  52. <category scheme="http://radgeek.com?taxonomy=category" term="Misc" label="Misc"/>
  53. <summary type="html"><![CDATA[.&#160;.&#160;. In Mexico City and the surrounding areas, the response of the state has caused exasperation and anger. Outside the capital, in smaller towns in the state of Puebla, for example, no official help has arrived at all; citizens are left to coordinate relief themselves. But in parts of Mexico City where massive volunteer efforts [&#8230;]]]></summary>
  54. <content type="html" xml:base="http://radgeek.com/gt/2017/09/26/fue-el-estado/"><![CDATA[<div style="background-color: #ddd; border-radius: 5px; padding: 0.5em 1.0em; margin: 1.0em 3.0em;">
  55. <h3 style="font-size: 90%; text-transform: uppercase; margin: 0em; padding-bottom: 0.5em; text-align: center;">Shared Article  from NACLA</h3>
  56. <div style="float: left; margin-right: 10px; min-height: 156px;"><a href="https://nacla.org/news/2017/09/23/mexico-solidarity-versus-state"><img src="https://nacla.org/sites/default/files/styles/650px_wide/public/news-stories/DKYGOsAVwAA7DAN.jpg?itok=31vpTQUL" style="max-width: 200px; height: auto;" /></a></div>
  57. <p style="margin: 0em; font-size: 1.1em;"><strong><a href="https://nacla.org/news/2017/09/23/mexico-solidarity-versus-state">In Mexico, Solidarity Versus the State</a></strong></p>
  58. <p style="margin: 0em;">Many in Mexico think the government and political parties are hampering aid efforts.</p>
  59. <p style="margin: 0em; "><span style="color: #666; font-size: 90%; text-transform: uppercase;">Christy Thornton @ nacla.org</span></p>
  60. <br style="clear: both" />
  61. </div>
  62.  
  63.  
  64.  
  65. <blockquote>
  66.  <p><ins class="ellipsis editorial" title="[Elision by the editor.]">.&#160;.&#160;.</ins> In Mexico City and the surrounding areas, the response of the state has caused exasperation and anger. Outside the capital, in smaller towns in the state of Puebla, for example, no official help has arrived at all; citizens are left to coordinate relief themselves. But in parts of Mexico City where massive volunteer efforts got underway immediately after the quake—such as in the central neighborhoods of Condesa and La Roma, where multiple buildings collapsed—the military later arrived and cordoned off damaged blocks, kicking out volunteers and refusing to provide further information. This has created what one journalist called a “struggle” between the military and civilians, many of whom argue that the army and marines, with their heavy equipment and top-down approach, care little about finding survivors and have done nothing to communicate with those looking for their loved ones. The marines are also coming under blame—together with the PRI-aligned Televisa television network—for stoking the false story of “Frida Sofia,” the non-existent student who was supposedly trapped in a collapsed elementary school.</p>
  67.  
  68.  <p>Elsewhere, aid collected by volunteer groups is being channeled by a state agency known as the DIF, which is headed by the first lady and the wife of the interior minister, and is nominally responsible for family welfare programs. That is, rather than distributing government aid, the agency appears to be appropriating aid collected by citizens in order to distribute it under their banner. A widely circulating video showed aid trucks arriving in Morelos from the state of Michoacán forcibly diverted by police from their intended destination to the DIF headquarters, where huge stores of supplies sat undistributed, officials said, because they did not have bags. <ins class="ellipsis editorial" title="[Elision by the editor.]">.&#160;.&#160;.</ins></p>
  69.  
  70.  <p>&#8211;Christy Thornton, <a href="https://nacla.org/news/2017/09/23/mexico-solidarity-versus-state">In Mexico, Solidarity Versus the State</a> (23 Sep. 2017)</p>
  71. </blockquote>
  72.  
  73. ]]></content>
  74. </entry>
  75. <entry>
  76. <author>
  77. <name>Rad Geek</name>
  78. <uri>http://radgeek.com/</uri>
  79. </author>
  80. <title type="html"><![CDATA[Anarchy, Swamp, and Utopia]]></title>
  81. <link rel="alternate" type="text/html" href="http://radgeek.com/gt/2017/09/23/anarchy-swamp-and-utopia/" />
  82. <id>http://radgeek.com/?p=8808</id>
  83. <updated>2017-09-23T13:55:24Z</updated>
  84. <published>2017-09-23T13:55:24Z</published>
  85. <category scheme="http://radgeek.com?taxonomy=category" term="Lazy Linking" label="Lazy Linking"/>
  86. <category scheme="http://radgeek.com?taxonomy=post_tag" term="Great Dismal Swamp" label="Great Dismal Swamp"/>
  87. <category scheme="http://radgeek.com?taxonomy=post_tag" term="history" label="history"/>
  88. <category scheme="http://radgeek.com?taxonomy=post_tag" term="Maroon communities" label="Maroon communities"/>
  89. <category scheme="http://radgeek.com?taxonomy=post_tag" term="North Carolina" label="North Carolina"/>
  90. <category scheme="http://radgeek.com?taxonomy=post_tag" term="Slavery" label="Slavery"/>
  91. <summary type="html"><![CDATA[]]></summary>
  92. <content type="html" xml:base="http://radgeek.com/gt/2017/09/23/anarchy-swamp-and-utopia/"><![CDATA[<div style="background-color: #ddd; border-radius: 5px; padding: 0.5em 1.0em; margin: 1.0em 3.0em;">
  93. <h3 style="font-size: 90%; text-transform: uppercase; margin: 0em; padding-bottom: 0.5em; text-align: center;">Shared Article  from Reason.com</h3>
  94. <div style="float: left; margin-right: 10px; min-height: 156px;"><a href="http://reason.com/blog/2016/09/08/anarchy-swamp-and-utopia"><img src="https://d1ai9qtk9p41kl.cloudfront.net/assets/db/14733572181003.jpg" style="max-width: 200px; height: auto;" /></a></div>
  95. <p style="margin: 0em; font-size: 1.1em;"><strong><a href="http://reason.com/blog/2016/09/08/anarchy-swamp-and-utopia">Anarchy, Swamp, and Utopia</a></strong></p>
  96. <p style="margin: 0em;">Archeologists offer a new look at a secretive settlement of runaway slaves.</p>
  97. <p style="margin: 0em; "><span style="color: #666; font-size: 90%; text-transform: uppercase;">Jesse Walker @ reason.com</span></p>
  98. <br style="clear: both" />
  99. </div>
  100.  
  101.  
  102.  
  103. ]]></content>
  104. </entry>
  105. <entry>
  106. <author>
  107. <name>Rad Geek</name>
  108. <uri>http://radgeek.com/</uri>
  109. </author>
  110. <title type="html"><![CDATA[Aspirational History and the Color of American Citizenship]]></title>
  111. <link rel="alternate" type="text/html" href="http://radgeek.com/gt/2017/09/22/aspirational-history-and-the-color-of-american-citizenship/" />
  112. <id>http://radgeek.com/?p=8919</id>
  113. <updated>2017-12-31T16:26:38Z</updated>
  114. <published>2017-09-22T18:10:19Z</published>
  115. <category scheme="http://radgeek.com?taxonomy=category" term="Immigration" label="Immigration"/>
  116. <category scheme="http://radgeek.com?taxonomy=category" term="Politics" label="Politics"/>
  117. <category scheme="http://radgeek.com?taxonomy=category" term="Race" label="Race"/>
  118. <category scheme="http://radgeek.com?taxonomy=post_tag" term="E. J. Dionne" label="E. J. Dionne"/>
  119. <category scheme="http://radgeek.com?taxonomy=post_tag" term="Fresh Air" label="Fresh Air"/>
  120. <category scheme="http://radgeek.com?taxonomy=post_tag" term="history" label="history"/>
  121. <category scheme="http://radgeek.com?taxonomy=post_tag" term="NPR" label="NPR"/>
  122. <category scheme="http://radgeek.com?taxonomy=post_tag" term="Prerequisite cases" label="Prerequisite cases"/>
  123. <category scheme="http://radgeek.com?taxonomy=post_tag" term="Race" label="Race"/>
  124. <summary type="html"><![CDATA[There&#8217;s a new political book out by E.J. Dionne, Norm Orenstein and Thomas E. Mann, called One Nation After Trump. Dionne and Orenstein went on Fresh Air the other day to talk about their book, their take and their hopes for a better political climate. Terry Gross asked them to speak a bit about one [&#8230;]]]></summary>
  125. <content type="html" xml:base="http://radgeek.com/gt/2017/09/22/aspirational-history-and-the-color-of-american-citizenship/"><![CDATA[<p class="first">There&#8217;s a new political book out by E.J. Dionne, Norm Orenstein and Thomas E. Mann, called <cite>One Nation After Trump</cite>. <a href="http://www.npr.org/2017/09/19/552054040/could-the-trump-presidency-lead-to-an-era-of-democratic-renewal">Dionne and Orenstein went on <cite>Fresh Air</cite> the other day</a> to talk about their book, their take and their hopes for a better political climate. Terry Gross asked them to speak a bit about one of the themes of their book &#8212; that part of what&#8217;s notable and different about Donald Trump and the political movement behind him, as opposed to past waves of right-wing politics, is the extent to which they have <q>embraced ideas from the European far right.</q></p>
  126.  
  127. <p>That much is certainly true, and it&#8217;s worth noting. But what&#8217;s harder to go along with is Dionne&#8217;s effort to pivot from the influence of the <em>European</em> far right, into a countervailing political appeal to <em>American</em> <q>patriotism.</q> Here&#8217;s what Dionne says:</p>
  128.  
  129. <blockquote>
  130.  <p><strong>DIONNE:</strong> The idea that Bannon and Trump have imported ideas from the European far-right comes from the notion that there&#8217;s been a great historical difference between what it meant to be an American and what it meant to be a citizen in many European countries. <ins class="ellipsis editorial" title="[Elision by the editor.]">.&#160;.&#160;.</ins> American citizenship has always been based on a commitment to ideas. It didn&#8217;t matter where you were from. It didn&#8217;t matter what the color of your skin was <ins class="ellipsis editorial" title="[Elision by the editor.]">.&#160;.&#160;.</ins>&#160;.</p>
  131.  
  132.  <p>&#8211;E.J. Dionne, interviewed by Terry Gross. <a href="http://www.npr.org/2017/09/19/552054040/could-the-trump-presidency-lead-to-an-era-of-democratic-renewal"><cite class="article">Could The Trump Presidency Lead To An Era Of Democratic Renewal?</cite></a><br><cite>Fresh Air</cite>, NPR, 19 September 2017</p>
  133. </blockquote>
  134.  
  135. <p>This is just wrong. It would have been nice, and better for America and the entire world, if it had been true, but it&#8217;s flat-footedly and literally mistaken. In 1790, when Congress passed the first Naturalization Act in the U.S., the language of that act directly stated that it did matter what the color of your skin was: you had to be a <a href="http://legallywhite.fair-use.org/wiki/naturalization-act-of-1790/"><q>free white person</q></a> to qualify for naturalized American citizenship:</p>
  136.  
  137. <blockquote>
  138.  <p>Section 1. Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That any alien, <strong>being a free white person,</strong> who shall have resided within the limits and under the jurisdiction of the United States for the term of two years, may be admitted to become a citizen thereof, on application to any common law court of record, in any one of the states wherein he shall have resided for the term of one year at least, and making proof to the satisfaction of such court, that he is a person of good character, and taking the oath or affirmation prescribed by law, to support the constitution of the United States, which oath or affirmation such court shall administer; <ins class="ellipsis editorial" title="[Elision by the editor.]">.&#160;.&#160;.</ins></p>
  139.  
  140.  <p class="attribution">&#8212;&#8201;<a href="http://rs6.loc.gov/cgi-bin/ampage?collId=llsl&#038;fileName=001/llsl001.db&#038;recNum=226"><cite class="article">An Act to establish an uniform Rule of Naturalization</cite></a> (March 26, 1790)<br><cite>United States Statutes at Large</cite>, First Congress, Second Session, 103ff. (Source: <a href="http://legallywhite.fair-use.org/wiki/naturalization-act-of-1790/">Legally White: Naturalization Act of 1790</a>)</p>
  141. </blockquote>
  142.  
  143. <p>Whiteness was a condition not only for naturalization, but for both the rights and obligations of citizenship more broadly, at the federal level and at the state level. Skin color prerequisites, nearly identical to the federal prerequisite, were written even more pervasively into the state constitutions and legal codes of antebellum Southern states. For example, in Alabama, the same formulas made white skin color an explicit prerequisite for <a href="http://legallywhite.fair-use.org/wiki/alabama-constitution-of-1819article-iii-section-5">the franchise</a> and for <a href="http://legallywhite.fair-use.org/wiki/alabama-constitution-of-1819article-iii-section-4">political office</a>. At the federal level, to take another example, <a href="http://legallywhite.fair-use.org/wiki/uniform-militia-act-of-1792/">in 1792 Congress said that the color of your skin (as well as your gender and citizenship) mattered to your eligibility, and obligation, to serve in the militia</a>:</p>
  144.  
  145. <blockquote>
  146.  <p>Section 1. Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That <strong>each and every free able-bodied white male citizen</strong> of the respective states, resident therein, who is or shall be of the age of eighteen years, and under the age of forty-five years (except as is herein after excepted) shall severally and respectively be enrolled in the militia by the captain or commanding officer of the company, within whose bounds such citizen shall reside, and that within twelve months after the passing of this act. </p>
  147.  
  148.  <p class="attribution">&#8212;&#8201;<a href="https://en.wikisource.org/wiki/United_States_Statutes_at_Large/Volume_1/2nd_Congress/1st_Session/Chapter_33"><cite class="article">An Act more effectually to provide for the National Defence by establishing an Uniform Militia throughout the United States</cite></a> (May 8, 1792)<br><cite>United States Statutes at Large</cite>, First Congress, Second Session, 271-274. (Source: <a href="http://legallywhite.fair-use.org/wiki/uniform-militia-act-of-1792/">Legally White: Uniform Militia Act of 1792</a>)</p>
  149. </blockquote>
  150.  
  151. <p>Every amendment to the Naturalization Act passed from 1790 up until 1952 repeated the <q>free white person</q> formula, or a close variation on it. In 1870, in the wake of Emancipation and Reconstruction, there was a debate in the Senate over whether to remove the racial prerequisite from citizenship; but in the end the Reconstruction drive to wipe out the racial-law legacy of slavery ran up against the rising nativist sentiment against Chinese immigration in the West. And in the event, <a href="https://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Naturalization_Act_of_1870_(US)">the bill that they passed</a> never struck out the racial prerequisite; it just added <a href="https://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Naturalization_Act_of_1870_(US)"><q>aliens of African nativity and &#8230; persons of African descent</q></a> as a second racial category that could be admitted. For the next 80 years, a series of <q>prerequisite cases</q> in the federal courts &#8212; beginning with <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/In_re_Ah_Yup"><cite>In Re Ah Yup</cite></a> &#8212; repeatedly affirmed that skin color absolutely did matter to a person&#8217;s eligibility for American citizenship; the difficult issue that they then litigated over and over again were the sometimes porous or uncertain legal and social boundaries of just whose color counted as <q>white</q> enough for government work. (For example, Chinese and Japanese immigrants did not; <a href="https://tshaonline.org/handbook/online/articles/pqitw">Mexican immigrants did</a>. For many immigrant groups, including Arabs and South Asians, different courts made numerous, sometimes inconsistent rulings. A good, standard reference on this series of cases is Ian F. Haney-Lopez&#8217;s <cite><a href="https://www.goodreads.com/book/show/404348.White_by_Law">White By Law: The Legal Construction of Race</a></cite>.) Gradually Congress added more racial groups in addition to white and black, but this basic framework &#8212; of a limited number of racial categories allowed to become naturalized citizens, and everyone else ruled <q>ineligible to citizenship</q> &#8212; remained the core of American naturalization law until racial bars were finally repealed by the <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Immigration_and_Nationality_Act_of_1952">Immigration and Nationality Act in 1952</a>.</p>
  152.  
  153. <p>There is no question that for the first century and a half of its existence, the United States government was explicitly a <em>racial state</em>, and that race and skin color were explicit conditions on citizenship and political participation. This shouldn&#8217;t be surprising: before the Civil War, the United States was a slaveholding nation. After the Civil War, immigration exclusion and Jim Crow increasingly reinscribed systems of racial categorization into the law.</p>
  154.  
  155. <p>I hope it should go without saying that this is not any kind of argument <em>in favor of</em> race or skin color as a condition of citizenship. The fact that the United States had a long tradition of racially discriminatory citizenship laws isn&#8217;t any reason to think kindly of the traditional, white supremacist approach. It&#8217;s a reason to think worse of the United States government, and to be much more skeptical of traditional American patriotism. Whatever deeper values Dionne may think were present in the American system, at some other level, and however much he may think that the old racial prerequisite law was an aberration or an inconsistency, there is no way that you can reasonably pretend that <q>It didn&#8217;t matter what the color of your skin was</q> without substituting a sort of aspirational self-identity for the much messier historical fact.</p>
  156.  
  157. ]]></content>
  158. </entry>
  159. <entry>
  160. <author>
  161. <name>Rad Geek</name>
  162. <uri>http://radgeek.com/</uri>
  163. </author>
  164. <title type="html"><![CDATA[Rad Geek status update (19 Sep 2017, 5:28am)]]></title>
  165. <link rel="alternate" type="text/html" href="http://radgeek.com/gt/2017/09/19/radgeek-status-update-20170919052826/" />
  166. <id>http://radgeek.com/?p=8900</id>
  167. <updated>2017-09-19T10:28:26Z</updated>
  168. <published>2017-09-19T10:28:26Z</published>
  169. <category scheme="http://radgeek.com?taxonomy=category" term="Misc" label="Misc"/>
  170. <summary type="html"><![CDATA[]]></summary>
  171. <content type="html" xml:base="http://radgeek.com/gt/2017/09/19/radgeek-status-update-20170919052826/"><![CDATA[<div style="background-color: #ddd; border-radius: 5px; padding: 0.5em 1.0em; margin: 1.0em 3.0em;">
  172. <h3 style="font-size: 90%; text-transform: uppercase; margin: 0em; padding-bottom: 0.5em; text-align: center;">Shared Article  from Prudentia</h3>
  173. <div style="float: left; margin-right: 10px; min-height: 156px;"><a href="http://www.deirdremccloskey.org/editorials/marx.php"><img src="http://www.deirdremccloskey.org/images/backgrounds/pru_b.jpg" style="max-width: 200px; height: auto;" /></a></div>
  174. <p style="margin: 0em; font-size: 1.1em;"><strong><a href="http://www.deirdremccloskey.org/editorials/marx.php">Getting it Right, or Left: Marxism and Competition </a></strong></p>
  175. <p style="margin: 0em;">It's educational to keep friends around who disagree with you. ... Disagreeing, if not disagreeable, friends make you a better person and a better sci…</p>
  176. <p style="margin: 0em; "><span style="color: #666; font-size: 90%; text-transform: uppercase;">Deirdre McCloskey @ deirdremccloskey.org</span></p>
  177. <br style="clear: both" />
  178. </div>
  179.  
  180.  
  181.  
  182. ]]></content>
  183. </entry>
  184. <entry>
  185. <author>
  186. <name>Rad Geek</name>
  187. <uri>http://radgeek.com/</uri>
  188. </author>
  189. <title type="html"><![CDATA[Rad Geek status update (17 Sep 2017, 8:12pm)]]></title>
  190. <link rel="alternate" type="text/html" href="http://radgeek.com/gt/2017/09/17/radgeek-status-update-20170917201249/" />
  191. <id>http://radgeek.com/?p=8897</id>
  192. <updated>2017-09-18T01:12:49Z</updated>
  193. <published>2017-09-18T01:12:49Z</published>
  194. <category scheme="http://radgeek.com?taxonomy=category" term="Misc" label="Misc"/>
  195. <summary type="html"><![CDATA[A.: Probably not.]]></summary>
  196. <content type="html" xml:base="http://radgeek.com/gt/2017/09/17/radgeek-status-update-20170917201249/"><![CDATA[<div style="background-color: #ddd; border-radius: 5px; padding: 0.5em 1.0em; margin: 1.0em 3.0em;">
  197. <h3 style="font-size: 90%; text-transform: uppercase; margin: 0em; padding-bottom: 0.5em; text-align: center;">Shared Article  from latimes.com</h3>
  198. <div style="float: left; margin-right: 10px; min-height: 156px;"><a href="http://www.latimes.com/opinion/op-ed/la-oe-walker-second-civil-war-20170820-story.html"><img src="http://www.trbimg.com/img-59975cb0/turbine/la-oe-walker-second-civil-war-20170820" style="max-width: 200px; height: auto;" /></a></div>
  199. <p style="margin: 0em; font-size: 1.1em;"><strong><a href="http://www.latimes.com/opinion/op-ed/la-oe-walker-second-civil-war-20170820-story.html">Are we headed for a second civil war?</a></strong></p>
  200. <p style="margin: 0em;">A near-future war with two clear sides is about as likely as a war with the Moon.</p>
  201. <p style="margin: 0em; "><span style="color: #666; font-size: 90%; text-transform: uppercase;">latimes.com</span></p>
  202. <br style="clear: both" />
  203. </div>
  204.  
  205.  
  206.  
  207. <p>A.: Probably not.</p>
  208.  
  209. ]]></content>
  210. </entry>
  211. <entry>
  212. <author>
  213. <name>Rad Geek</name>
  214. <uri>http://radgeek.com/</uri>
  215. </author>
  216. <title type="html"><![CDATA[Network Effects]]></title>
  217. <link rel="alternate" type="text/html" href="http://radgeek.com/gt/2017/08/30/network-effects/" />
  218. <id>http://radgeek.com/?p=8885</id>
  219. <updated>2017-08-30T23:45:17Z</updated>
  220. <published>2017-08-30T23:45:17Z</published>
  221. <category scheme="http://radgeek.com?taxonomy=category" term="Misc" label="Misc"/>
  222. <category scheme="http://radgeek.com?taxonomy=post_tag" term="Competition" label="Competition"/>
  223. <category scheme="http://radgeek.com?taxonomy=post_tag" term="Economics" label="Economics"/>
  224. <category scheme="http://radgeek.com?taxonomy=post_tag" term="Monopoly" label="Monopoly"/>
  225. <category scheme="http://radgeek.com?taxonomy=post_tag" term="MySpace" label="MySpace"/>
  226. <category scheme="http://radgeek.com?taxonomy=post_tag" term="Social networking" label="Social networking"/>
  227. <summary type="html"><![CDATA[Ten years ago, in the coercive market power of insurmountable natural monopolies&#8230; I met a traveller from an antique land, Who said&#8211;&#8220;Two vast and linkless walls of text Stand in the desert . . . Near them, on the sand, Half sunk a shattered visage lies, whose frown, And wrinkled lip, and sneer of cold [&#8230;]]]></summary>
  228. <content type="html" xml:base="http://radgeek.com/gt/2017/08/30/network-effects/"><![CDATA[<p class="first">Ten years ago, in the coercive market power of insurmountable natural monopolies&#8230;</p>
  229.  
  230. <div style="background-color: #ddd; border-radius: 5px; padding: 0.5em 1.0em; margin: 1.0em 3.0em;">
  231. <h3 style="font-size: 90%; text-transform: uppercase; margin: 0em; padding-bottom: 0.5em; text-align: center;">Shared Article  from the Guardian</h3>
  232. <div style="float: left; margin-right: 10px; min-height: 156px;"><a href="https://www.theguardian.com/technology/2007/feb/08/business.comment"><img src="https://assets.guim.co.uk/images/2170b16eb045a34f8c79761b203627b4/fallback-logo.png" style="max-width: 200px; height: auto;" /></a></div>
  233. <p style="margin: 0em; font-size: 1.1em;"><strong><a href="https://www.theguardian.com/technology/2007/feb/08/business.comment">Victor Keegan: Will MySpace ever lose its monopoly?</a></strong></p>
  234. <p style="margin: 0em;">[8 Feb. 2007.] Rupert Murdoch's influence could eventually extend in ways that would make his grip on satellite television seem parochial, says Victor…</p>
  235. <p style="margin: 0em; "><span style="color: #666; font-size: 90%; text-transform: uppercase;">Victor Keegan @ theguardian.com</span></p>
  236. <br style="clear: both" />
  237. </div>
  238.  
  239.  
  240.  
  241. <p>I met a traveller from an antique land,<br />
  242. Who said&#8211;&#8220;Two vast and linkless walls of text<br />
  243. Stand in the desert . . . Near them, on the sand,<br />
  244. Half sunk a shattered visage lies, whose frown,<br />
  245. And wrinkled lip, and sneer of cold command,<br />
  246. Tell that its photographer well those passions read<br />
  247. Which yet survive, stamped on these lifeless things,<br />
  248. The hand that mocked them, and the heart that fed;<br />
  249. And in the blurb these words appear:<br />
  250. <em>My name is MYSPACE, Site of Sites;</em><br />
  251. <em>Look on my Networks, ye Mighty, and despair!</em><br />
  252. Nothing beside remains. Round the decay<br />
  253. Of that colossal Wreck, boundless and bare<br />
  254. Some retired indie band&#8217;s demo track begins to play&#8230;.&#8221;</p>
  255.  
  256. <p><figure>
  257. <a href="http://radgeek.com/gt/2017/08/30/network-effects/600x600/" rel="attachment wp-att-8886"><img src="http://radgeek.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/600x600.jpg" alt="" width="600" height="600" class="alignnone size-full wp-image-8886" srcset="http://radgeek.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/600x600.jpg 600w, http://radgeek.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/600x600-150x150.jpg 150w, http://radgeek.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/600x600-300x300.jpg 300w" sizes="(max-width: 600px) 100vw, 600px" /></a>
  258. </figure></p>
  259.  
  260. ]]></content>
  261. </entry>
  262. <entry>
  263. <author>
  264. <name>Rad Geek</name>
  265. <uri>http://radgeek.com/</uri>
  266. </author>
  267. <title type="html"><![CDATA[Link: Restating the Obvious: An Open Letter from the Libertarian Movement]]></title>
  268. <link rel="alternate" type="text/html" href="http://radgeek.com/gt/2017/08/12/link-restating-the-obvious-an-open-letter-from-the-libertarian-movement/" />
  269. <id>http://radgeek.com/?p=8878</id>
  270. <updated>2017-08-12T20:30:31Z</updated>
  271. <published>2017-08-12T20:30:31Z</published>
  272. <category scheme="http://radgeek.com?taxonomy=category" term="Misc" label="Misc"/>
  273. <summary type="html"><![CDATA[]]></summary>
  274. <content type="html" xml:base="http://radgeek.com/gt/2017/08/12/link-restating-the-obvious-an-open-letter-from-the-libertarian-movement/"><![CDATA[<div style="background-color: #ddd; border-radius: 5px; padding: 0.5em 1.0em; margin: 1.0em 3.0em;">
  275. <h3 style="font-size: 90%; text-transform: uppercase; margin: 0em; padding-bottom: 0.5em; text-align: center;">Shared Article  from Liberty Against Fascism</h3>
  276. <div style="float: left; margin-right: 10px; min-height: 156px;"><a href="https://libertyagainstfascism.wordpress.com/2017/08/12/restating-the-obvious-an-open-letter-from-the-libertarian-movement/"><img src="https://libertyagainstfascism.files.wordpress.com/2017/08/cropped-anti-nazi-sticker-never-again-sticker.jpg?w=200" style="max-width: 200px; height: auto;" /></a></div>
  277. <p style="margin: 0em; font-size: 1.1em;"><strong><a href="https://libertyagainstfascism.wordpress.com/2017/08/12/restating-the-obvious-an-open-letter-from-the-libertarian-movement/">Restating the Obvious: An Open Letter from the Libertarian Movem…</a></strong></p>
  278. <p style="margin: 0em;">Today (August 12th, 2017), the “Unite the Right” rally is scheduled to proceed in Charlottesville, VA. The “Right” being united there isn’t …</p>
  279. <p style="margin: 0em; "><span style="color: #666; font-size: 90%; text-transform: uppercase;">
  280. View all posts by libertyagainstfascism @ libertyagainstfascism.wordpress.com</span></p>
  281. <br style="clear: both" />
  282. </div>
  283.  
  284.  
  285.  
  286. ]]></content>
  287. </entry>
  288. <entry>
  289. <author>
  290. <name>Rad Geek</name>
  291. <uri>http://radgeek.com/</uri>
  292. </author>
  293. <title type="html"><![CDATA[11:02 A.M., August 9, 1945. Nagasaki, Japan.]]></title>
  294. <link rel="alternate" type="text/html" href="http://radgeek.com/gt/2017/08/09/1102-am-august-9-1945-nagasaki-japan-2/" />
  295. <id>http://radgeek.com/?p=8875</id>
  296. <updated>2017-08-09T10:13:42Z</updated>
  297. <published>2017-08-09T10:11:05Z</published>
  298. <category scheme="http://radgeek.com?taxonomy=category" term="Politics" label="Politics"/>
  299. <category scheme="http://radgeek.com?taxonomy=category" term="Smash the State" label="Smash the State"/>
  300. <category scheme="http://radgeek.com?taxonomy=category" term="Terror" label="Terror"/>
  301. <category scheme="http://radgeek.com?taxonomy=category" term="The Long Memory" label="The Long Memory"/>
  302. <category scheme="http://radgeek.com?taxonomy=category" term="World War II" label="World War II"/>
  303. <category scheme="http://radgeek.com?taxonomy=post_tag" term="Atomic bomb" label="Atomic bomb"/>
  304. <category scheme="http://radgeek.com?taxonomy=post_tag" term="Japan" label="Japan"/>
  305. <category scheme="http://radgeek.com?taxonomy=post_tag" term="Nagasaki" label="Nagasaki"/>
  306. <category scheme="http://radgeek.com?taxonomy=post_tag" term="War" label="War"/>
  307. <summary type="html"><![CDATA[Found in a house near Sanno Shinto Shrine in Sakamoto-machi, about one kilometer from the hypocenter. The clock was shattered by the blast, and its hands stopped at 11:02-the moment of the explosion. The Nagasaki Atomic Bomb Museum Seventy-two years ago today, at 11:02 in the morning, without warning, Major Charles Sweeney flew a U.S. [&#8230;]]]></summary>
  308. <content type="html" xml:base="http://radgeek.com/gt/2017/08/09/1102-am-august-9-1945-nagasaki-japan-2/"><![CDATA[<p><figure>
  309. <img src="http://dulceetdecorumest.org/wp-content/uploads/2006/08/tokei.jpg" alt="Here is a shattered wall clock, with the hands stopped at 11:02 A.M." />
  310. </figure></p>
  311.  
  312. <blockquote>
  313.  <p>Found in a house near Sanno Shinto Shrine in Sakamoto-machi, about one kilometer from the hypocenter. The clock was shattered by the blast, and its hands stopped at 11:02-the moment of the explosion.</p>
  314.  
  315.  <p class="signature"><a href="http://www.city.nagasaki.lg.jp/peace/english/record/photo/part_2_02.html">The Nagasaki Atomic Bomb Museum</a></p>
  316. </blockquote>
  317.  
  318. <p class="first">Seventy-two years ago today, at 11:02 in the morning, without warning, <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charles_Sweeney">Major Charles Sweeney</a> flew a U.S. B-29 bomber over the city of <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nagasaki">Nagasaki</a> and dropped an atomic bomb. The thing about Nagasaki is that it wasn&#8217;t even supposed to be bombed that day. Sweeney was acting on orders from <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Curtis_LeMay">General Curtis LeMay</a>, the head of the XXI Bomber Command, and at the command of <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_L._Stimson">Secretary of War Henry L. Stimson</a>, and <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Harry_S._Truman">President Harry S. Truman</a>. A U.S. bomber had already <a href="http://radgeek.com/gt/2017/08/06/815am-70-years-140000-souls/">dropped a uranium bomb on Hiroshima</a> only three days before; the atomic fires annihilated 90% of the city and devoured 140,000 lives. On August 9, while the Japanese government was still gathering information about what had happened at Hiroshima, while the Imperial council was still in session and still debating the question of surrender, before any decision was announced, the U.S. Army flew out a second bomber mission. The intended target was <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kokura">Kokura</a>, but when Sweeney reached Kokura at 9:44am, he couldn&#8217;t see his target. He couldn&#8217;t see it because the U.S. had firebombed another nearby city, <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bombing_of_Yawata">Yawata</a>, the day before: the smoke from the city burning hid Kokura from his sight. So Sweeney flew on to his secondary target &#8212; to Nagasaki. Clouds also hid the target in Nagasaki, but the plane was low on fuel and could not fly on to any other targets. So, at 11:02 in the morning, the plane&#8217;s bombadier, Captain Kermit Beahan, dropped a 10,200 pound plutonium bomb (nicknamed <q>Fat Man</q>) over this tourist destination, industrial center and sea-port in southwestern Japan with a population of about 230,000.</p>
  319.  
  320. <p>The bomb exploded about 500 yards above Nagasaki.</p>
  321.  
  322. <p><figure>
  323. <div><img src="http://radgeek.com/gt/2010/08/Nagasaki-mushroom-cloud-from-the-ground.jpg" alt="Here is a mushroom cloud, seen from the ground, towering into the sky over a bridge in Nagasaki." /></div>
  324. <div><img alt="Here is a city street completely reduced to rubble, with fires smoldering in the background and smoke hanging in the air. A single Shinto gateway remains standing over the rubble." src="http://radgeek.com/gt/2006/08/09/NagasakiFires.jpg" /></div>
  325. <p class="signature"><a href="http://www.exploratorium.edu/nagasaki/journey/journey6.html">Photo by Yosuke Yamahata</a></p>
  326. </figure></p>
  327.  
  328. <blockquote>
  329.  <p>Known as Urakami, the district around the hypocenter (ground zero) area had been populated for centuries by Japanese people of the Roman Catholic faith. At the time of the bombing, between 15,000 and 16,000 Catholics &#8211; the majority of the approximately 20,000 people of that faith in Nagasaki and about half of the local population &#8211; lived in the Urakami district. It is said that about 10,000 Catholics were killed by the atomic bomb. Although traditionally a rustic isolated suburb, the Urakami district was chosen as the site for munitions factories in the 1920s, after which time the population soared and an industrial zone quickly took shape. The district was also home to the Nagasaki Medical College and a large number of other schools and public buildings. The industrial and school zones of the Urakami district lay to the east of the Urakami River, while the congested residential district of Shiroyama stretched to the hillsides on the west side of the river.</p>
  330.  
  331.  <p><img class="illustration" src="http://dulceetdecorumest.org/wp-content/uploads/2006/07/IwakawaMachi.jpg" alt="" /> It was over this section of Nagasaki that the second atomic bomb exploded at 11:02 a.m., August 9, 1945. The damages inflicted on Nagasaki by the atomic bombing defy description. The 20 machi or neighborhoods within a one kilometer radius of the atomic bombing were completely destroyed by the heat flash and blast wind generated by the explosion and then reduced to ashes by the subsequent fires. About 80% of houses in the more than 20 neighborhoods between one and two kilometers from the hypocenter collapsed and burned, and when the smoke cleared the entire area was strewn with corpses. This area within two kilometers of the hypocenter is referred to as the <q>hypocenter zone.</q></p>
  332.  
  333.  <p>The destruction caused by the atomic bomb is analyzed as follows in Nagasaki Shisei Rokujugonenshi Kohen [History of Nagasaki City on the 65th Anniversary of Municipal Incorporation, Volume 2] published in 1959. The area within one kilometer of the hypocenter: Almost all humans and animals died instantly as a result of the explosive force and heat generated by the explosion. Wooden structures, houses and other buildings were pulverized. In the hypocenter area the debris was immediately reduced to ashes, while in other areas raging fires broke out almost simultaneously. Gravestones toppled and broke. Plants and trees of all sizes were snapped off at the stems and left to burn facing away from the hypocenter.</p>
  334.  
  335.  <p>The area within two kilometers: Some humans and animals died instantly and a majority suffered injuries of varying severity as a result of the explosive force and heat generated by the explosion. About 80% of wooden structures, houses and other buildings were destroyed, and the fires spreading from other areas burned most of the debris. Concrete and iron poles remained intact. Plants were partially burned and killed.</p>
  336.  
  337.  <p>The area between three and four kilometers: Some humans and animals suffered injuries of varying severity as a result of debris scattered by the blast, and others suffered burns as a result of radiant heat. Things black in color tended to catch fire. Most houses and other buildings were partially destroyed, and some buildings and wooden poles burned. The remaining wooden telephone poles were scorched on the side facing the hypocenter.</p>
  338.  
  339.  <p>The area between four and eight kilometers: Some humans and animals suffered injuries of varying severity as a result of debris scattered by the blast, and houses were partially destroyed or damaged. The area within 15 kilometers: The impact of the blast was felt clearly, and windows, doors and paper screens were broken. Wall clock found in Sakamoto-machi about 1 km from the hypocenter. The hands stopped at the moment of the explosion: 11:02 a.m.</p>
  340.  
  341.  <p>The injuries inflicted by the atomic bomb resulted from the combined effect of blast wind, heat rays (radiant heat) and radiation and surfaced in an extremely complex pattern of symptoms. The death toll within a distance of one kilometer from the hypocenter was 96.7% among people who suffered burns, 96.9% among people who suffered other external injuries, and 94.1% among people who suffered no apparent injuries. These data show that the deaths occurring immediately after the atomic bombing were due not only to burns and external injuries but also to severe radiation-induced injuries. The late medical effects of atomic bomb exposure include <q>keloid</q> scars, atomic bomb cataracts, leukemia and other cancers and microcephaly (small head syndrome) due to intrauterine exposure. Although aware that the atomic bomb had the power to instantly kill or injure all people within a radius of four kilometers, the authorities were unable to determine the death toll and number of injuries in Nagasaki. Still today there is no accurate data on the number of people who died. A variety of factors contributed to this lack of information, such as the paralysis of administrative functions in the aftermath of the bombing and the inability of the postwar government to initiate a proper investigation. Another obstacle was the enduring nature of disorders related to atomic bomb exposure. A progressive increase can be expected, therefore, at whatever point in time calculations are made. There are countless cases of people who suffered injuries on August 9 and died after fleeing to areas outside Nagasaki city and prefecture, only to be registered as dying of causes other than the atomic bombing. Because of the lack of knowledge about radioactive contamination, meanwhile, many radiation deaths were attributed to diseases. The Nagasaki municipal government officially adopted the figure of <q>more than 70,000</q> deaths on the basis of information from population surveys and the estimate made by the Nagasaki City Atomic Bomb Records Preservation Committee in July 1950. Said the committee in its report: <q>73,884 people were killed and 74,909 injured, and 17,358 of the deaths were confirmed by post-mortem examination soon after the atomic bombing.</q></p>
  342.  
  343.  <p class="signature"><a href="http://www.city.nagasaki.lg.jp/peace/english/record/photo/part_2_01.html">The Nagasaki Atomic Bomb Museum</a></p>
  344. </blockquote>
  345.  
  346. <p>About 24 hours before the incineration of Nagasaki, U.S. planes had begun dropping leaflets all over Japan, threatening more destruction like the <a href="http://radgeek.com/gt/2017/08/06/815am-72-years-140000-souls/">massacre of Hiroshima</a> two days before. But they named no targets that might be evacuated. Shortly before these leaflets were dropped, Harry Truman also publicly declared his aims: <q>It was to spare the Japanese people from utter destruction that the ultimatum of July 26 was issued at Potsdam. Their leaders promptly rejected that ultimatum. If they do not now accept our terms, they may expect a rain of ruin from the air the likes of which has never been seen on this earth.</q> The leaflets themselves read:</p>
  347.  
  348. <blockquote>
  349.  <p><strong>TO THE JAPANESE PEOPLE:</strong></p>
  350.  
  351.  <p>America asks that you take immediate heed of what we say on this leaflet.</p>
  352.  
  353.  <p>We are in possession of the most destructive explosive ever devised by man. A single one of our newly developed atomic bombs is actually the equivalent in explosive power to what 2000 of our giant B-29s can carry on a single mission. This awful fact is one for you to ponder and we solemnly assure you it is grimly accurate.</p>
  354.  
  355.  <p>We have just begun to use this weapon against your homeland. If you still have any doubt, make inquiry as to what happened to Hiroshima when just one atomic bomb fell on that city.</p>
  356.  
  357.  <p>Before using this bomb to destroy every resource of the military by which they are prolonging this useless war, we ask that you now petition the Emperor to end the war. Our president has outlined for you the thirteen consequences of an honorable surrender. We urge that you accept these consequences and begin the work of building a new, better and peace-loving Japan.</p>
  358.  
  359.  <p>You should take steps now to cease military resistance. Otherwise, we shall resolutely employ this bomb and all our other superior weapons to promptly and forcefully end the war. </p>
  360. </blockquote>
  361.  
  362. <p>These leaflets did not reach Nagasaki at all until August 10, the day <em>after</em> it was destroyed.</p>
  363.  
  364. <p>The purpose of this massacre was to achieve victory through catastrophic bloodshed and terror. LeMay, when asked about his bombing campaigns, stated <q>There are no innocent civilians, so it doesn&#8217;t bother me so much to be killing innocent bystanders.</q> (He also mused, later, <q>I suppose if I had lost the war, I would have been tried as a war criminal.</q>) The interim committee deciding to drop the bomb stated, on May 31, 1945, <q>that we could not give the Japanese any warning</q> before the atomic bombing of Hiroshima. Of course, no specific warning was given to the civilians of Nagasaki, either, at any point. The point of the bombing was to kill as many people as possible while wiping two cities off of the face of the earth.</p>
  365.  
  366. <p>The massacres at Nagasaki and <a href="http://radgeek.com/gt/2013/08/06/815am-4/">Hiroshima</a> were at the end of a half-year long terror-bombing campaign that included the <a href="http://www.commondreams.org/headlines02/0310-01.htm"><q>Operation Meetinghouse</q> firebombing of Tokyo</a> in March 1945, which killed 100,000 civilians over a single night, and the low-altitude firebombing of over 60 other Japanese cities. The 74,000 souls who died at Nagasaki were among some 800,000-1,000,000 civilians killed by months of low-altitude firebombing, <q>conventional</q> high explosives, and atomic bombs over the course of 6 months. Seventy years ago today also, in a <a href="https://secure.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/wiki/File:Trumann_hiroshima.ogg">radio address, President Harry S. Truman</a> said: <q>Having found the bomb, we have used it. . . We wished in this first attack to avoid, insofar as possible, the killing of civilians. . . . We have used it in order to shorten the agony of war.</q> </p>
  367.  
  368. <p>After the war, Truman defended his decision to annihilate two industrial metropolises with atomic weapons, and to kill a quarter of a million civilians within only 72 hours, by claiming that it was the only way to coerce the political goal of an unconditional surrender from the Japanese government, and to reduce the number of U.S. soldiers who might be killed in combat.</p>
  369.  
  370. <h3>Also.</h3>
  371.  
  372. <ul>
  373. <li><a href="http://radgeek.com/gt/2017/08/06/815am-70-years-140000-souls/">GT 2017-08-06: 8:15am. 70 years. 140,000 souls.</a></li>
  374. <li><a href="http://radgeek.com/gt/2005/08/09/a_day">GT 2005-08-09: A day that will live in infamy</a></li>
  375. <li><a href="http://libertarianstandard.com/2013/08/06/hiroshima-nagasaki-and-the-u-s-terror-state/">Anthony Gregory, <cite class="article">Hiroshima, Nagasaki, and the U.S. Terror State,</cite></a> <cite>The Libertarian Standard</cite> (August 6, 2013)</li>
  376. <li><a href="http://original.antiwar.com/Ralph-2/2009/08/05/hiroshima-and-nagasaki/">Ralph Raico, <cite class="article">Hiroshima and Nagasaki</cite></a>, <cite>Antiwar.com</cite> (August 5, 2009).</li>
  377. <li><a href="http://dulceetdecorumest.org/tag/Nagasaki/">Artefacts tagged <q>Nagasaki</q> at <cite>Dulce Et Decorum Est</cite></a></li>
  378. <li><a href="http://www.city.nagasaki.lg.jp/peace/english/abm/">Nagasaki Atomic Bomb Museum</a>, city of Nagasaki, Japan</li>
  379. <li><a href="http://www.exploratorium.edu/nagasaki/"><q>Remembering Nagasaki,</q></a> photography by Yosuke Yamahata, at the Exploratorium</li>
  380. </ul>
  381.  
  382. ]]></content>
  383. <link href="https://secure.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/wiki/File:Trumann_hiroshima.ogg" rel="enclosure" length="217" type="audio/ogg" />
  384. </entry>
  385. <entry>
  386. <author>
  387. <name>Rad Geek</name>
  388. <uri>http://radgeek.com/</uri>
  389. </author>
  390. <title type="html"><![CDATA[8:15am. 72 years, 140,000 souls.]]></title>
  391. <link rel="alternate" type="text/html" href="http://radgeek.com/gt/2017/08/06/815am-72-years-140000-souls/" />
  392. <id>http://radgeek.com/?p=8870</id>
  393. <updated>2017-08-06T13:31:07Z</updated>
  394. <published>2017-08-06T13:31:07Z</published>
  395. <category scheme="http://radgeek.com?taxonomy=category" term="Politics" label="Politics"/>
  396. <category scheme="http://radgeek.com?taxonomy=category" term="Smash the State" label="Smash the State"/>
  397. <category scheme="http://radgeek.com?taxonomy=category" term="Terror" label="Terror"/>
  398. <category scheme="http://radgeek.com?taxonomy=post_tag" term="Dulce Et Decorum Est" label="Dulce Et Decorum Est"/>
  399. <category scheme="http://radgeek.com?taxonomy=post_tag" term="Hiroshima" label="Hiroshima"/>
  400. <category scheme="http://radgeek.com?taxonomy=post_tag" term="Japan" label="Japan"/>
  401. <category scheme="http://radgeek.com?taxonomy=post_tag" term="War" label="War"/>
  402. <summary type="html"><![CDATA[Donated by Kazuo Nikawa 1,600m from the hypocenter Kan-on Bridge Kengo Nikawa (then, 59) was exposed to the bomb crossing the Kan-on Bridge by bike going from his home to his assigned building demolition site in the center of the city. He suffered major burns on his right shoulder, back, and head and took refuge [&#8230;]]]></summary>
  403. <content type="html" xml:base="http://radgeek.com/gt/2017/08/06/815am-72-years-140000-souls/"><![CDATA[<div class="figure">
  404. <img src="http://dulceetdecorumest.org/wp-content/uploads/2006/08/HiroshimaPocketWatch.jpg" alt="Here is a pocket watch, stopped at 8:15am." />
  405. </div>
  406.  
  407. <blockquote>
  408.  <p>Donated by Kazuo Nikawa<br />
  409.  1,600m from the hypocenter<br />
  410.  Kan-on Bridge</p>
  411.  
  412.  <p>Kengo Nikawa (then, 59) was exposed to the bomb crossing the Kan-on
  413.  Bridge by bike going from his home to his assigned building demolition site in
  414.  the center of the city. He suffered major burns on his right shoulder, back,
  415.  and head and took refuge in Kochi-mura Saiki-gun. He died on August 22.
  416.  Kengo was never without this precious watch given him by his son, Kazuo.</p>
  417.  
  418.  <p class="attribution">&#8212;&#8201;<a href="http://www.pcf.city.hiroshima.jp/virtual/cgi-bin/museum.cgi?no=0002a&amp;l=e">Hiroshima Peace Memorial Museum</a></p>
  419. </blockquote>
  420.  
  421. <div class="figure">
  422. <audio controls>
  423. <source src="http://radgeek.com/gt/2010/08/Oppenheimer.ogg" type="audio/ogg" />
  424. <source src="http://radgeek.com/gt/2006/08/09/Oppenheimer.mp3" type="audio/mpeg" />
  425. <object width="300" height="42">
  426. <param name="src" value="http://radgeek.com/gt/2006/08/09/Oppenheimer.mp3">
  427. <param name="autoplay" value="false">
  428. <param name="controller" value="true">
  429. </object>
  430. </audio>
  431. <p><a href="http://radgeek.com/gt/2006/08/09/Oppenheimer.mp3">Jocelyn Pook (1997), &#8220;Oppenheimer&#8221;</a></p>
  432. </div>
  433.  
  434. <p class="first">Seventy-two years ago today, on August 6, 1945, between 8:15 and 8:16 in the morning, the American B-29 bomber <q><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Enola_Gay">Enola Gay</a></q> dropped an atomic bomb over <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hiroshima">Hiroshima, Japan</a>. The government of the United States chose Hiroshima as their target because it was still standing. For half a year, the U.S. government had waged a war of unrelenting, devastating low-altitude firebombing of cities throughout the Japanese home island. Within six months, the firebombing had killed hundreds of thousands of Japanese civilians. The firebombing had destroyed over 60 Japanese cities. Hiroshima was still mostly undamaged. They believed that would make it a good place to test the effects of the new atom bomb. So Hiroshima became the first city ever attacked with nuclear weapons in the history of the world. It would not be the last.</p>
  435.  
  436. <p>On a bright August morning, without warning, the bomber dropped its atom bomb over the densely-populated center of the city. It exploded about 2,000 feet above ground, creating a 13 kiloton explosion, a fireball, a shock-wave, and a burst of radiation. On the day that the bomb was dropped, there were about 255,000-300,000 people living in Hiroshima.</p>
  437.  
  438. <p>There was a sudden flash, brighter than the sun, and then sky went dark, buildings were thrown to the ground, and everything began to burn. People were burned alive and nothing left but a shadow on the wall. People staggered through the ruins, their eyes blinded, their clothing burned off their bodies, skin burned off in the heat. Everyone was desperate for water, everything was unbearably hot. They begged soldiers for water from their canteens; they drowned themselves in cisterns. Later, <a
  439. href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Black_Rain">black rain</a> began to fall from the darkened sky. People escaping from the city center thought it was a miracle. They tried to catch the rain on their tongues, or they caught it and drank it out of cups. They didn&#8217;t know that the rain was fallout. They didn&#8217;t know that it was full of radiation and as they drank it it was burning them away from the inside. There was no refuge, no sanctuary; there was nobody to help.</p>
  440.  
  441. <p>The city was burning; the doctors and nurses were almost all downtown. The bomb exploded directly over one of the major clinics, and over 90% of the doctors, and over 90% of the nurses, were killed or injured in the bombing. Because the U.S. bomber targeted the city center, about 85% of the people killed in Hiroshima were civilians.</p>
  442.  
  443. <p>The explosion completely incinerated everything within a one mile radius of the city center. The shock-wave and the fires ignited by the explosion damaged or completely destroyed about nine-tenths of the buildings in the city. Somewhere between 70,000 and 80,000 people&#8211;that is, about one quarter to one third of the entire population of the city&#8211;died immediately. The heat of the explosion vaporized or carbonized the children and adults who were nearest to Ground Zero when the bomb went off.</p>
  444.  
  445. <p>Thousands more, who were further away from the center, died when they were crushed to death by the force of the shock-wave, burned by the blast or by the fires raging throughout the ruined city, trapped underneath collapsing buildings or drowned in the river as they tried to escape. They died from dehydration; they were killed quickly or slowly by <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Acute_radiation_syndrome">radiation poisoning</a> and infections and cancers that ate their bodies away from the inside out. Some died suddenly, and some died slow, lingering, painful and unavoidable deaths over days or weeks. It is estimated that in all, the atomic bombing killed about 130,000-140,000 people. It left thousands more <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hibakusha">with permanent disabilities</a> from their injuries and from the radiation that spread in a burst and spread through the fallout.</p>
  446.  
  447. <p>Almost all of the people who were maimed and killed in the obliteration of the city were <em>civilians</em>. Although there were some minor military bases near Hiroshima, the bomb was dropped on the city center, several miles away from the military bases on the edge of town. Hiroshima was chosen as a target, even though it had little military importance, because <q>It is a good radar target and it is such a size that a large part of the city could be extensively damaged. There are adjacent hills which are likely to produce a focussing effect which would considerably increase the blast damage.</q> <a href="http://www.dannen.com/decision/targets.html">1</a>. It was one of the largest Japanese cities not yet damaged by the American firebombing campaign. Military planners believed it strategically important to demonstrate as much destruction as possible from the blast.</p>
  448.  
  449. <p><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thomas_Ferebee">Thomas Ferebee</a>, a bombadier for the United States Army, was the man who dropped the atomic bomb on Hiroshima. His commanding officer was the pilot of the Enola Gay, <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paul_Tibbets">Paul Tibbets</a>. Tibbets and Ferebee were part of the XXI Bomber Command, directed by <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Curtis_LeMay">Curtis LeMay</a>. LeMay planned and executed the atomic bombings at the behest of Secretary of War <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_L._Stimson">Henry L. Stimson</a> and President <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Harry_S._Truman">Harry Truman</a>.</p>
  450.  
  451. <p>Kengo Nikawa died on August 22nd, 1945 because of the bombing. This is his pocket watch.</p>
  452.  
  453. <p>We will never know the names of many of the 140,000 other residents of Hiroshima who were killed by the bombing. We have only estimates because the Japanese government was already in a shambles by this point in the war, and countless records, of those that were successfully kept, were consumed by the flames, along with the people whose lives they recorded.</p>
  454.  
  455. <p>Three days later, on August 9, 1945, CBS broadcast a recorded address by President Harry S. Truman about the atomic bombing. It was broadcast on the very same day that <a href="http://radgeek.com/gt/2005/08/09/a_day">the government of the United States sent bombers to incinerate a second city, Nagasaki, with a second atomic bomb</a>. Here is what Truman said:</p>
  456.  
  457. <div class="figure">
  458. <div><img src="http://radgeek.com/gt/2005/08/09/HarryTruman1948.jpg" alt="Here's Harry S. Truman, looking awfully proud of his damn self." /></div>
  459.  
  460. <audio controls>
  461. <source src="http://radgeek.com/gt/2010/08/Trumann_hiroshima.ogg" type="audio/ogg" />
  462. <source src="http://radgeek.com/gt/2010/08/Trumann_hiroshima.mp3" type="audio/mpeg" />
  463. <object width="300" height="42">
  464. <param name="src" value=""http://radgeek.com/gt/2010/08/Trumann_hiroshima.mp3">
  465. <param name="autoplay" value="false">
  466. <param name="controller" value="true">
  467. <div>Here is an <a href=""http://radgeek.com/gt/2010/08/Trumann_hiroshima.mp3">audio clip</a> of&#8230;</div>
  468. </object>
  469. </audio>
  470. <p>Harry S. Truman, August 9, 1945.</p>
  471. <p><q>We won the race of discovery against the Germans&#8230;.</q></p>
  472. </div>
  473.  
  474. <p>In his radio address on August 9, Truman disingenuously described Hiroshima, a densely populated, industrialized port city of a quarter million souls, as <q>a military base,</q> and then he said, <q>That was because we wished in this first attack to avoid, insofar as possible, the killing of civilians.</q> That was a lie. The bomb was dropped on the city center, over a hospital, far away from military installations.</p>
  475.  
  476. <div class="figure">
  477. <div><img alt="Here is a city street completely reduced to rubble, with fires smoldering in the background and smoke hanging in the air. A single Shinto gateway remains standing over the rubble." src="http://radgeek.com/gt/2006/08/09/NagasakiFires.jpg" /></div>
  478. <p class="signature" style="text-align: center"><a href="http://www.exploratorium.edu/nagasaki/journey/journey6.html">Photo by Yosuke Yamahata</a></p>
  479. <p><a href="https://secure.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/wiki/File:Trumann_hiroshima.ogg"><q>Having found the bomb, we have used it.</q></a></p>
  480. <div><img src="http://radgeek.com/gt/2010/08/hiroshima-mushroom-cloud-300x187.jpg" alt="" /></div>
  481. <p><a href="https://secure.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/wiki/File:Trumann_hiroshima.ogg"><q>We have used it&#8230;</q></a></p>
  482. <div><img src="http://radgeek.com/gt/2010/08/Nagasaki-mushroom-cloud-from-the-ground-300x244.jpg" alt="Here is a mushroom cloud, seen from the ground, towering into the sky over a bridge in Nagasaki." /></div>
  483. <div><img src="http://radgeek.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/08/Hiroshima11-300x189.jpg" alt=""  /></div>
  484. <p><a href="https://secure.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/wiki/File:Trumann_hiroshima.ogg"><q>&#8230; on Hiroshima, a military base&#8230;</q></a></p>
  485. <div><img src="http://radgeek.com/gt/2010/08/hiro_3.jpg" alt="" /></div>
  486. <div><img src="http://radgeek.com/gt/2010/08/hiro_2.jpg" alt=""  /></div>
  487. <div><img src="http://radgeek.com/gt/2010/08/hiro_10.jpg" alt="" /></div>
  488. <p><a href="https://secure.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/wiki/File:Trumann_hiroshima.ogg"><q>We wished in this first attack to avoid, insofar as possible, the killing of civilians.</q></a></p>
  489. <div><img src="http://dulceetdecorumest.org/wp-content/uploads/2006/08/HiroshimaCistern.jpg" alt="Here's a survivor's drawing of a cistern near ground zero. A dozen dying people crowd together into it, desperate for water." /></div>
  490. <p><a href="https://secure.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/wiki/File:Trumann_hiroshima.ogg"><q>We have used it against those who attacked us without warning at Pearl Harbor &#8230;</q></a></p>
  491. <div><img src="http://radgeek.com/gt/2010/08/foto1-300x222.jpg" alt=""  /></div>
  492. <div><img src="http://radgeek.com/gt/2010/08/Hiroshima16-300x225.jpg" alt="" /></div>
  493. <p><a href="https://secure.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/wiki/File:Trumann_hiroshima.ogg"><q>We have used it &#8230; against those who starved and beaten and executed American prisoners of war &#8230;</q></a></p>
  494. <div><img src="http://radgeek.com/gt/2010/08/hiroshima-portrait-100days-ga.jpg" alt="" /></div>
  495. <div><img src="http://radgeek.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/08/f451k2-300x203.jpg" alt="" /></div>
  496.  
  497. <p><a href="https://secure.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/wiki/File:Trumann_hiroshima.ogg"><q>We have used it &#8230; against those who have abandoned all pretense of obeying international laws of warfare &#8230;</q></a></p>
  498. <div><img src="http://radgeek.com/gt/2010/08/Hiroshima07-300x200.jpg" alt="" /></div>
  499. <div><img src="http://radgeek.com/gt/2010/08/hiroshima_wideweb__430x323-300x225.jpg" alt=""  /></div>
  500. <p><a href="https://secure.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/wiki/File:Trumann_hiroshima.ogg"><q>We have used it in order to shorten the agony of war.</q></a></p>
  501. <div><img src="http://radgeek.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/08/Google-Images-Hiroshima.jpg" alt="" /></div>
  502. </div>
  503.  
  504. <p>It is worth remembering that the atomic bombing of the Hiroshima city center &#8212; the first use of atomic weapons against human targets in the history of the world &#8212; a bombing in which the United States government&#8217;s forces deliberately targeted a civilian center &#8212; a bombing that the United States government carried out with the <em>explicit intention</em> of obliterating an entire city in seconds, in order to <q>break enemy morale</q> &#8212; an attack in which that government&#8217;s forces deliberately turned weapons on civilians that destroyed 90% of an industrial metropolis, and killed <em>between a third and a half of all the people living in it</em> &#8212; was, and remains, the deadliest act of terrorism in the history of the world.</p>
  505.  
  506. <p>Here are some facts you do not need to remind me of today: that the government of the Empire of Japan launched a war of aggression against American territory and killed both American military and civilians; that they conducted brutal wars of conquest against China, Korea, and throughout southeast Asia, in which hundreds of thousands of civilians were mercilessly tortured and killed; that even to the end, some fanatical elements of the military regime wanted to fight the United States down to the last man.</p>
  507.  
  508. <p>That’s all true, but it’s quite beyond the point. None of these vicious acts by a vicious <em>government</em> justifies doing this to Japanese <em>people</em>, to civilian men, women and children who had no meaningful role in either the decision-making or in the fighting. No crime or atrocity of the Japanese <em>government</em> excuses a half-year campaign of terror against Japanese <em>cities</em>; no political objective could possibly allow the U.S. government to seek victory by burning 140,000 civilians alive in a single day. No strategic necessity justifies turning such weapons on a city of 300,000 human beings; no need or desire or exigency of war justifies treating 140,000 souls like this.</p>
  509.  
  510. <p><em>Nothing</em> ever could.</p>
  511.  
  512. <p><figure style="width: 90%; margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;">
  513. <div><a href="http://radgeek.com/gt/2015/08/hiroshima01.jpg"><img src="http://radgeek.com/gt/2015/08/hiroshima01.jpg" alt="Here are some photos in which..." style="width: 90%; height: auto;" /></a></div>
  514. <div><a href="http://radgeek.com/gt/2015/08/janela-35.jpeg"><img src="http://radgeek.com/gt/2015/08/janela-35.jpeg" alt="" style="width: 90%; height: auto;" /></a></div>
  515. <div><a href="http://radgeek.com/gt/2015/08/article-0-0D522F3700000578-283_964x596.jpg"><img src="http://radgeek.com/gt/2015/08/article-0-0D522F3700000578-283_964x596.jpg" alt="" style="width: 90%; height: auto;" /></a></div>
  516. <figcaption>Paper lanterns float down the Motoyasu River in Hiroshima,
  517. <br>
  518. in the annual August 6 memorial event, in memory of the lives lost.</figcaption>
  519. </figure></p>
  520.  
  521. <h3>Also.</h3>
  522.  
  523. <ul>
  524. <li><a href="http://radgeek.com/gt/2005/08/09/a_day">GT 2005-08-09: A day that will live in infamy</a></li>
  525. <li><a href="http://www.anarchistagency.com/commentary/another-hiroshima/">Eric Laursen, Commentary, <cite>Agency</cite> (2015-08-05): On the Anniversary of Hiroshima and Nagasaki</a></li>
  526. <li><a href="http://original.antiwar.com/Ralph-2/2009/08/05/hiroshima-and-nagasaki/">Ralph Raico, <cite>Antiwar.com</cite> (2009-08-05): Hiroshima and Nagasaki</a></li>
  527. <li><a href="http://www.internationalnews.fr/article-the-lies-of-hiroshima-are-the-lies-of-today-by-john-pilger-55059051.html">John Pilger (2010-08-06): The Lies of Hiroshima Are The Lies of Today</a></li>
  528. <li><a href="http://www.designobserver.com/observatory/entry.html?entry=7517"><cite>Design Observer</cite> (November, 2008): Hiroshima: The Lost Photographs</a></li>
  529. <li><a href="http://www.fogonazos.es/2007/02/hiroshima-pictures-they-didnt-want-us_05.html">Hiroshima, the pictures they didn&#8217;t want us to see</a></li>
  530. </ul>
  531.  
  532. <div class="note">
  533. <p>The audio clip above is from <a href="https://secure.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/wiki/File:Trumann_hiroshima.ogg">a recording of President Harry S. Truman&#8217;s radio report on the Potsdam conference</a>, recorded by CBS on August 9, 1945 in the White House. The song linked to above is a recording of <a href="http://radgeek.com/gt/2006/08/09/Oppenheimer.mp3"><cite class="song">Oppenheimer</cite></a> (1997), by the British composer <a href="http://www.jocelynpook.com/">Jocelyn Pook</a>. The voice that you hear at the beginning is <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_Oppenheimer">Robert Oppenheimer</a>, in an interview many years after the war, talking about his thoughts at the <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trinity_test"><q>Trinity test</q></a>, the first explosion of an atomic bomb in the history of the world, on July 16th, 1945.</p>
  534. </div>
  535.  
  536. ]]></content>
  537. <link href="http://radgeek.com/gt/2010/08/Oppenheimer.ogg" rel="enclosure" length="7699370" type="audio/ogg" />
  538. <link href="http://radgeek.com/gt/2006/08/09/Oppenheimer.mp3" rel="enclosure" length="8148742" type="audio/mpeg" />
  539. <link href="http://radgeek.com/gt/2010/08/Trumann_hiroshima.ogg" rel="enclosure" length="120110" type="audio/ogg" />
  540. <link href="http://radgeek.com/gt/2010/08/Trumann_hiroshima.mp3" rel="enclosure" length="112624" type="audio/mpeg" />
  541. <link href="https://secure.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/wiki/File:Trumann_hiroshima.ogg" rel="enclosure" length="217" type="audio/ogg" />
  542. <link rel="replies" type="text/html" href="http://radgeek.com/gt/2017/08/06/815am-72-years-140000-souls/#comments" thr:count="2"/>
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