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  3.  <title>Planet Intertwingly</title>
  4.  <updated>2020-02-25T06:29:53Z</updated>
  5.  <generator uri="">Venus</generator>
  6.  <author>
  7.    <name>Sam Ruby</name>
  8.    <email>[email protected]</email>
  9.  </author>
  10.  <id></id>
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  15.  <entry xml:lang="en-us">
  16.    <id></id>
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  18.    <title>Head of Google for Startups US</title>
  19.    <summary type="xhtml"><div xmlns=""><div class="block-paragraph"><div class="rich-text"><p>February is Black History Month across the U.S., but here in Atlanta, Black history is everywhere, year-round. Atlanta is the <a href="">number one city</a> for Black prosperity, and the country’s fourth-largest tech hub. As more than a quarter of Atlanta's tech workers are Black, it’s clear that our city’s startup scene is just the latest iteration of a long legacy of Black entrepreneurship. There's a spirit in the city that inspired the entrepreneurs of the past, and continues to attract tech talent today.</p><p>I was one of those entrepreneurs. When I founded my own startup, <a href="">Partpic</a>, I decided to do it not in Silicon Valley, where I had started my career, but in Atlanta. Partpic was acquired in 2016, but I opted to stay in Atlanta and continue to grow my roots in the tech and business community. It’s home now. In my new role as U.S. Head of Google for Startups, I’ll lead our continued support of Atlanta’s Black founders, beginning with a few exciting efforts:</p></div></div><div class="block-paragraph"><div class="rich-text"><h3>Russell Center for Innovation</h3><p>Along with our friends at Grow with Google, we’re partnering with the <a href="">Russell Center for Innovation and Entrepreneurship (RCIE</a>), an organization that helps black entrepreneurs and local business owners build, grow and create jobs. Our support will include mentorship, scholarships and funding three RCIE fellowships designed to help students learn and practice business firsthand. </p></div></div><div class="block-paragraph"><div class="rich-text"><h3>Collab Studio</h3><p><a href="">Collab Studio</a>—a resource center providing Black founders a safe space to learn and forge community in Atlanta—has joined the <a href="">Google for Startups partner network</a>. Our funding will help Collab Studio facilitate connections and technical resources so that 20 Black founders can prepare their businesses for the next stage of growth.</p></div></div><div class="block-paragraph"><div class="rich-text"><h3>Atlanta Founders Academy</h3><p>The Atlanta Founders Academy, modeled off<a href=""> last year's pop-up</a> at our Atlanta offices, is coming this spring. Throughout the year, we’ll host a series of hands-on programs from Googlers, experts, and investors to support underrepresented Atlanta startup founders on topics such as sales, strategy, hiring and fundraising. Spearheading these efforts will be Googler and newly-minted Atlanta Advisor-in-Residence, Michelle Green, who has been helping Fortune 500 companies grow their business for more than a decade. Learn more about how to get involved in the Atlanta Founders Academy <a href="">in this form</a>.</p><p>As a Black woman, entrepreneur and Googler, I'm proud to be a part of the living, breathing history of Atlanta. Google’s focus on providing equitable access to information, networks, and capital for underrepresented startups speaks to a larger theme in tech and innovation today: Great ideas and startups can come from anywhere and anyone, and you don’t have to be based in Silicon Valley to be successful. We have an opportunity to <a href="">highlight the work</a> of startups here in Atlanta and in other regions that have been under-resourced for too long—and the great privilege of supporting Black founders and future history-makers.</p></div></div><img alt="" height="1" src="" width="1"/></div>
  20.    </summary>
  21.    <content>Head of Google for Startups U.S. Jewel Burks explores how the Black entrepreneurs of the past inspire the founders of today.</content>
  22.    <updated>2020-02-24T17:00:00Z</updated>
  23.    <category term="Diversity and Inclusion"/>
  24.    <category term="Entrepreneurs"/><feedburner:origLink xmlns:feedburner=""></feedburner:origLink>
  25.    <author>
  26.      <name>Jewel Burks</name>
  27.    </author>
  28.    <source>
  29.      <id></id>
  30.      <logo></logo>
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  34.      <subtitle>Insights from Googlers into our products, technology, and the Google culture.</subtitle>
  35.      <title>The Official Google Blog</title>
  36.      <updated>2020-02-25T00:29:11Z</updated>
  37.    </source>
  38.  </entry>
  40.  <entry xml:lang="en-us">
  41.    <id></id>
  42.    <link href="" rel="alternate" type="text/html"/>
  43.    <title>Head of G Suite Product Marketing</title>
  44.    <summary type="xhtml"><div xmlns=""><div class="block-paragraph"><div class="rich-text"><p>In the life of a working mom or dad, flexibility is key. And in the life of a sometimes-work-from-home working mom or dad, technology is the reason I can be flexible. Sometimes my kid gets sick, or I need a plumber to come fix the toilet. I’m lucky to have a job that lets me work remotely, in an age where videoconferencing is an acceptable way of staying on track with the day’s meetings. </p><p>But videoconferencing isn’t always easy. The kids climb on you, the dog barks, there’s background noise … you get the idea. I’ve had some embarrassing moments and made plenty of mistakes, but I’ve learned a few things along the way. Here are my tips for successful videoconferencing from home. (Got more tips? Mention @gsuite on Twitter.) </p><p><b>Tip #1: Choose the right environment<br/></b>When I want to talk through a complex issue or brainstorm ideas, video calls are more efficient than chat or email. They also help me get to know teammates in different time zones. But when you're on a call, give some thought to what’s around you, such as the backdrop (choose a plain wall, and avoid windows that will provide too much backlight), and if you have a laptop, put it somewhere steady. I once did an entire video call with my laptop on my … well, lap—and at the end the other participant told me that the subtle wobbling of the screen was extremely distracting.</p><p><b>Tip #2: Invite anyone, anytime<br/></b>Videoconferencing doesn’t have to be scheduled; if you’re in the middle of a too-long email conversation, you can instantly set up a meeting and invite people within or outside of your organization to join. <a href="">Hangouts Meet</a> automatically creates international dial-in codes so people can call on the phone from anywhere, and you can invite people via a Calendar event, by email, or by phone. <a href="">Check out our help center</a> to get started.</p><p><b>Tip #3: Can’t hear? Turn on captions<br/></b>If you’re in a loud place and don’t have super-fancy headphones, you can use Meet’s live caption feature to display captions in real time (just like closed captions on TV). <a href="">Start here.</a></p><p><b>Tip #4: Presenting? Only share what you mean to share<br/></b>Don’t you love that moment when you’re sharing your screen and then, suddenly, everyone on the call is reading your email? To make sure you only share what you mean to share, present one window (rather than your entire screen). <a href="">Check it out</a>.</p><p><b>Tip #5: Want to read the room? Change the screen layout<br/></b>One of my favorite features in Meet is changing the layout of the video call. If someone’s showing slides, but there’s a lively discussion happening in the office, you can switch your layout to focus on the people in the office, rather than the presentation. <a href="">Learn how</a>.</p></div></div><div class="block-image_full_width"><div class="article-module h-c-page"><div class="h-c-grid"><figure class="article-image--large h-c-grid__col h-c-grid__col--6 h-c-grid__col--offset-3 "><img alt="gsuite meet.gif" src=""/></figure></div></div></div><div class="block-paragraph"><div class="rich-text"><p><b>Tip #6: Be real<br/></b>Everyone has a life outside of work. Depending on the culture of your workplace, it can be OK (even good) to show a little bit of the “real” life around you—like letting your kid wave to the camera or eating your lunch if you’ve been on nonstop calls all day. Showing a little bit of your life can foster deeper connections with coworkers and even create empathy for whatever you’re dealing with outside of work.</p><p>Got video tips of your own? We’d love to hear them—tweet us <a href="">@gsuite</a>.</p></div></div><img alt="" height="1" src="" width="1"/></div>
  45.    </summary>
  46.    <content>We’re sharing our tips for successful video conferencing from home.</content>
  47.    <updated>2020-02-24T14:00:00Z</updated>
  48.    <category term="Google Cloud"/>
  49.    <category term="G Suite"/><feedburner:origLink xmlns:feedburner=""></feedburner:origLink>
  50.    <author>
  51.      <name>Alexa Schirtzinger</name>
  52.    </author>
  53.    <source>
  54.      <id></id>
  55.      <logo></logo>
  56.      <link href="" rel="alternate" type="text/html"/>
  57.      <link href="" rel="self" type="application/rss+xml"/>
  58.      <link href="" rel="hub" type="text/html"/>
  59.      <subtitle>Insights from Googlers into our products, technology, and the Google culture.</subtitle>
  60.      <title>The Official Google Blog</title>
  61.      <updated>2020-02-25T00:29:11Z</updated>
  62.    </source>
  63.  </entry>
  65.  <entry>
  66.    <id>,2020:/blog//2.12387</id>
  67.    <link href="" rel="alternate" type="text/html"/>
  68.    <title>Russia Is Trying to Tap Transatlantic Cables</title>
  69.    <summary>The Times of London is reporting that Russian agents are in Ireland probing transatlantic communications cables. Ireland is the landing point for undersea cables which carry internet traffic between America, Britain and Europe. The cables enable millions of people to communicate and allow financial transactions to take place seamlessly. Garda and military sources believe the agents were sent by the...</summary>
  70.    <content type="xhtml" xml:lang="en-us"><div xmlns=""><p>The <i>Times of London</i> is <a href="">reporting</a> that Russian agents are in Ireland probing transatlantic communications cables.</p>
  72. <blockquote><p>Ireland is the landing point for undersea cables which carry internet traffic between America, Britain and Europe. The cables enable millions of people to communicate and allow financial transactions to take place seamlessly.
  74. </p><p>Garda and military sources believe the agents were sent by the GRU, the military intelligence branch of the Russian armed forces which was blamed for the nerve agent attack in Britain on Sergei Skripal, a former Russian intelligence officer.</p></blockquote>
  76. <p>This is nothing new. The NSA and GCHQ have <a href="">been</a> <a href="">doing</a> <a href="">this</a> for decades.</p>
  78. <p>Boing Boing <a href="">post</a>.</p></div>
  79.    </content>
  80.    <updated>2020-02-24T12:27:33Z</updated>
  81.    <published>2020-02-24T12:27:33Z</published>
  82.    <category label="eavesdropping" scheme="" term="eavesdropping"/>
  83.    <category label="Ireland" scheme="" term="ireland"/>
  84.    <category label="Russia" scheme="" term="russia"/>
  85.    <author>
  86.      <name>Bruce Schneier</name>
  87.    </author>
  88.    <source>
  89.      <id>,2014-06-11:/blog//2</id>
  90.      <link href="" rel="alternate" type="text/html"/>
  91.      <link href="" rel="self" type="application/atom+xml"/>
  92.      <subtitle>A blog covering security and security technology.</subtitle>
  93.      <title>Schneier on Security</title>
  94.      <updated>2020-02-24T12:27:33Z</updated>
  95.    </source>
  96.  </entry>
  98.  <entry xml:lang="en-US">
  99.    <id></id>
  100.    <link href="" rel="alternate" title="" type="text/html"/>
  101.    <title/>
  102.    <content type="xhtml" xml:lang="en-US"><div xmlns=""><a class="auto-link figure" href=""><img alt="Screenshot of Tantek homepage viewed on iOS Firefox scrolled to show the Recent Photos embed of a 3x4 grid of the twelve most recent photo posts" class="auto-embed u-photo" src=""/></a>Added a Recent Photos embed to my homepage sidebar (or bottom of the mobile view) at #<span class="p-category auto-tag">IndieWebCamp</span> Austin projects day! Still tweaking, yet quite happy with how it looks, e.g. compared to an <a class="auto-link h-cassis-username" href="">@Instagram</a> profile. #<span class="p-category auto-tag">indieweb</span> #<span class="p-category auto-tag">takebackyourweb</span> #<span class="p-category auto-tag">ownyourphotos</span> #<span class="p-category auto-tag">iOS</span> #<span class="p-category auto-tag">Firefox</span> #<span class="p-category auto-tag">screenshot</span></div>
  103.    </content>
  104.    <updated>2020-02-24T05:26:00Z</updated>
  105.    <published>2020-02-24T05:26:00Z</published>
  106.    <source>
  107.      <id></id>
  108.      <author>
  109.        <name>Tantek</name>
  110.        <uri></uri>
  111.      </author>
  112.      <link href="" rel="alternate" title="Tantek &#xC7;elik" type="text/html"/>
  113.      <link href="" rel="self" type="application/atom+xml"/>
  114.      <link href="" rel="hub" type="text/html"/>
  115.      <title xml:lang="en-US">Tantek Çelik</title>
  116.      <updated>2020-02-24T05:26:00Z</updated>
  117.    </source>
  118.  </entry>
  120.  <entry xml:lang="en-US">
  121.    <id></id>
  122.    <link href="" rel="alternate" type="text/html"/>
  123.    <title>Four short links: 24 February 2020</title>
  124.    <summary>YOLO Creator Leaves Computer Vision — Joseph Redmon, creator of YOLO (You Only Look Once) has stopped doing computer vision because of its uses. But basically all facial recognition work would not get published if we took Broader Impacts sections seriously. There is almost no upside and enormous downside risk. schema — tool to infer […]</summary>
  125.    <content type="xhtml"><div xmlns=""><ol>
  126. <li><a href="">YOLO Creator Leaves Computer Vision</a> — Joseph Redmon, creator of <a href="">YOLO</a> (You Only Look Once) has stopped doing computer vision because of its uses. <i>But basically all facial recognition work would not get published if we took Broader Impacts sections seriously. There is almost no upside and enormous downside risk.</i></li>
  127. <li><a href="">schema</a> — <i> tool to infer and instantiate schemas and translate between data formats. Supports JSON, GraphQL, YAML, TOML, and XML</i>.</li>
  128. <li><a href="">Overtone</a> — <i>an open source audio environment designed to explore new musical ideas from synthesis and sampling to instrument building, live-coding, and collaborative jamming. We combine the powerful SuperCollider audio engine with Clojure, a state of-the-art lisp, to create an intoxicating interactive sonic experience.</i></li>
  129. <li><a href="">An Architectural Risk Analysis of Machine Learning Systems</a> — a comprehensive approach to identifying different types of risk in each component and process of a generic machine learning system.</li>
  130. </ol>
  131. <img alt="" height="1" src="" width="1"/></div>
  132.    </content>
  133.    <updated>2020-02-24T05:01:00Z</updated>
  134.    <category term="Four Short Links"/>
  135.    <category term="Signals"/><feedburner:origLink xmlns:feedburner=""></feedburner:origLink>
  136.    <author>
  137.      <name>Nat Torkington</name>
  138.    </author>
  139.    <source>
  140.      <id></id>
  141.      <link href="" rel="alternate" type="text/html"/>
  142.      <link href="" rel="self" type="application/rss+xml"/>
  143.      <link href="" rel="hub" type="text/html"/>
  144.      <subtitle>Now, next, and beyond: Tracking need-to-know trends at the intersection of business and technology</subtitle>
  145.      <title>Radar</title>
  146.      <updated>2020-02-24T16:29:20Z</updated>
  147.    </source>
  148.  </entry>
  150.  <entry xml:lang="en-US">
  151.    <id></id>
  152.    <link href="" rel="alternate" title="" type="text/html"/>
  153.    <title/>
  154.    <content type="xhtml" xml:lang="en-US"><div xmlns=""><a class="auto-link figure u-bridgy-flickr-photo" href=""><img alt="Downtown Austin skyline at night, building lights reflected in Lady Bird Lake / River in the dark." class="auto-embed u-photo" src=""/></a><a class="auto-link figure u-bridgy-flickr-photo" href=""><img alt="Mostly cloudy sunset barely visible above the distant trees on the other side of the river, lit with a beam of orange, just in front of a scattered flock of dozens of ducks resting on the water." class="auto-embed u-photo" src=""/></a><a class="auto-link figure u-bridgy-flickr-photo" href=""><img alt="Dusk view of the west part of downtown Austin, reflected in the river below." class="auto-embed u-photo" src=""/></a><a class="auto-link figure u-bridgy-flickr-photo" href=""><img alt="View from a bridge of Lady Bird Lake, with a cement column in front of us dividing the view, with a large white circle painted on it with the all capitals words LIVE A GREAT STORY written inside in a large sans-serif font." class="auto-embed u-photo" src=""/></a>Last night’s 5.5 mile sunset run(2) turned into a dusk run(3), and a night run(1) by the time we made it back to the Congress Avenue bridge to run back across.<br class="auto-break"/><br class="auto-break"/>We ran along the water to Mopac bridge, ran across, pausing to take to heart an artist’s encouragement to LIVE A GREAT STORY(4), and kept going.<br class="auto-break"/><br class="auto-break"/>#<span class="p-category auto-tag">run</span> #<span class="p-category auto-tag">runner</span> #<span class="p-category auto-tag">runners</span> #<span class="p-category auto-tag">LadyBirdLake</span> #<span class="p-category auto-tag">Austin</span> #<span class="p-category auto-tag">DowntownAustin</span> #<span class="p-category auto-tag">sunset</span> #<span class="p-category auto-tag">dusk</span> #<span class="p-category auto-tag">night</span> #<span class="p-category auto-tag">downtown</span> #<span class="p-category auto-tag">skyline</span> #<span class="p-category auto-tag">trail</span> #<span class="p-category auto-tag">trails</span> #<span class="p-category auto-tag">bridge</span> #<span class="p-category auto-tag">view</span> #<span class="p-category auto-tag">optOutside</span> #<span class="p-category auto-tag">fromWhereIRun</span> #<span class="p-category auto-tag">NeverStopExploring</span> #<span class="p-category auto-tag">InstaRunner</span> #<span class="p-category auto-tag">50mileTraining</span> #<span class="p-category auto-tag">2020_053</span> #<span class="p-category auto-tag">20200222</span> #<span class="p-category auto-tag">laterGram</span> #<span class="p-category auto-tag">noFilter</span></div>
  155.    </content>
  156.    <updated>2020-02-24T03:58:00Z</updated>
  157.    <published>2020-02-24T03:58:00Z</published>
  158.    <source>
  159.      <id></id>
  160.      <author>
  161.        <name>Tantek</name>
  162.        <uri></uri>
  163.      </author>
  164.      <link href="" rel="alternate" title="Tantek &#xC7;elik" type="text/html"/>
  165.      <link href="" rel="self" type="application/atom+xml"/>
  166.      <link href="" rel="hub" type="text/html"/>
  167.      <title xml:lang="en-US">Tantek Çelik</title>
  168.      <updated>2020-02-24T05:26:00Z</updated>
  169.    </source>
  170.  </entry>
  172.  <entry>
  173.    <id>,2020:/blog//2.12394</id>
  174.    <link href="" rel="alternate" type="text/html"/>
  175.    <title>Inrupt, Tim Berners-Lee's Solid, and Me</title>
  176.    <summary>For decades, I have been talking about the importance of individual privacy. For almost as long, I have been using the metaphor of digital feudalism to describe how large companies have become central control points for our data. And for maybe half a decade, I have been talking about the world-sized robot that is the Internet of Things, and how...</summary>
  177.    <content type="xhtml" xml:lang="en-us"><div xmlns=""><p>For decades, I have been talking about the importance of individual privacy. For almost as long, I have been using the metaphor of <a href="">digital feudalism</a> to describe how large companies have become <a href="">central control points</a> for our data. And for maybe half a decade, I have been talking about the <a href="">world-sized robot</a> that is the Internet of Things, and how digital security is now a matter of <a href="">public safety</a>. And most recently, I have been <a href="">writing and</a> <a href="">speaking</a> about how technologists need to get involved with public policy.</p>
  179. <p>All of this is a long-winded way of saying that I have joined a company called <a href="">Inrupt</a> that is working to bring Tim Berners-Lee's distributed data ownership model that is <a href="">Solid</a> into the mainstream. (I think of Inrupt basically as the Red Hat of Solid.) I joined the <a href="">Inrupt team</a> last summer as its Chief of Security Architecture, and have been in stealth mode until now.</p>
  181. <p>The idea behind Solid is both simple and extraordinarily powerful. Your data lives in a pod that is controlled by you. Data generated by your things -- your computer, your phone, your IoT whatever -- is written to your pod. You authorize granular access to that pod to whoever you want for whatever reason you want. Your data is no longer in a bazillion places on the Internet, controlled by you-have-no-idea-who. It's yours. If you want your insurance company to have access to your fitness data, you grant it through your pod. If you want your friends to have access to your vacation photos, you grant it through your pod. If you want your thermostat to share data with your air conditioner, you give both of them access through your pod.</p>
  183. <p>The ideal would be for this to be completely distributed. Everyone's pod would be on a computer they own, running on their network. But that's not how it's likely to be in real life. Just as you can theoretically run your own email server but in reality you outsource it to Google or whoever, you are likely to outsource your pod to those same sets of companies. But maybe pods will come standard issue in home routers. Even if you do hand your pod over to some company, it'll be like letting them host your domain name or manage your cell phone number. If you don't like what they're doing, you can always move your pod -- just like you can take your cell phone number and move to a different carrier. This will give users a lot more power.</p>
  185. <p>I believe this will fundamentally alter the balance of power in a world where everything is a computer, and everything is producing data about you. Either IoT companies are going to enter into individual data sharing agreements, or they'll all use the same language and protocols. Solid has a very good chance of being that protocol. And security is critical to making all of this work. Just trying to grasp what sort of granular permissions are required, and how the authentication flows might work, is mind-altering. We're stretching pretty much every Internet security protocol to its limits and beyond just setting this up.</p>
  187. <p>Building a secure technical infrastructure is largely about policy, but there's also a wave of technology that can shift things in one direction or the other. Solid is one of those technologies. It moves the Internet away from overly-centralized power of big corporations and governments and towards more rational distributions of power; greater liberty, better privacy, and more freedom for everyone. </p>
  189. <p>I've worked with Inrupt's CEO, John Bruce, at both of my previous companies: Counterpane and Resilient. It's a little weird working for a start-up that is <i>not</i> a security company. (While security is essential to making Solid work, the technology is fundamentally about the functionality.) It's also a little surreal working on a project <a href="">conceived and spearheaded</a> by Tim Berners-Lee. But at this point, I feel that I should only work on things that matter to society. So here I am.</p>
  191. <p>Whatever happens next, it's going to be a really fun ride.</p>
  193. <p>EDITED TO ADD (2/23): News <a href="">article</a>. HackerNews <a href="">thread</a>.</p></div>
  194.    </content>
  195.    <updated>2020-02-23T13:40:06Z</updated>
  196.    <published>2020-02-21T20:04:27Z</published>
  197.    <category label="Inrupt" scheme="" term="inrupt"/>
  198.    <category label="Schneier news" scheme="" term="schneiernews"/>
  199.    <author>
  200.      <name>Bruce Schneier</name>
  201.    </author>
  202.    <source>
  203.      <id>,2014-06-11:/blog//2</id>
  204.      <link href="" rel="alternate" type="text/html"/>
  205.      <link href="" rel="self" type="application/atom+xml"/>
  206.      <subtitle>A blog covering security and security technology.</subtitle>
  207.      <title>Schneier on Security</title>
  208.      <updated>2020-02-24T12:27:33Z</updated>
  209.    </source>
  210.  </entry>
  212.  <entry>
  213.    <id>,2020:/blog//2.12393</id>
  214.    <link href="" rel="alternate" type="text/html"/>
  215.    <title>Policy vs Technology</title>
  216.    <summary>Sometime around 1993 or 1994, during the first Crypto Wars, I was part of a group of cryptography experts that went to Washington to advocate for strong encryption. Matt Blaze and Ron Rivest were with me; I don't remember who else. We met with then Massachusetts Representative Ed Markey. (He didn't become a senator until 2013.) Back then, he and...</summary>
  217.    <content type="xhtml" xml:lang="en-us"><div xmlns=""><p>Sometime around 1993 or 1994, during the first Crypto Wars, I was part of a group of cryptography experts that went to Washington to advocate for strong encryption. Matt Blaze and Ron Rivest were with me; I don't remember who else. We met with then Massachusetts Representative Ed Markey. (He didn't become a senator until 2013.) Back then, he and Vermont Senator Patrick Leahy were the most knowledgeable on this issue and our biggest supporters against government backdoors. They still are.</p>
  219. <p>Markey was against forcing encrypted phone providers to implement the NSA's Clipper Chip in their devices, but wanted us to reach a compromise with the FBI regardless. This completely startled us techies, who thought having the right answer was enough. It was at that moment that I learned an important difference between technologists and policy makers. Technologists want solutions; policy makers want consensus.</p>
  221. <p>Since then, I have become more immersed in policy discussions. I have spent more time with legislators, advised advocacy organizations like EFF and EPIC, and worked with policy-minded think tanks in the United States and around the world. I teach cybersecurity policy and technology at the Harvard Kennedy School of Government. My most recent two books, <i>Data and Goliath</i> -- about surveillance -- and <i>Click Here to Kill Everybody</i> -- about IoT security -- are really about the policy implications of technology.</p>
  223. <p>Over that time, I have observed many other differences between technologists and policy makers -- differences that we in cybersecurity need to understand if we are to translate our technological solutions into viable policy outcomes.</p>
  225. <p>Technologists don't try to consider all of the use cases of a given technology. We tend to build something for the uses we envision, and hope that others can figure out new and innovative ways to extend what we created. We love it when there is a new use for a technology that we never considered and that changes the world. And while we might be good at security around the use cases we envision, we are regularly blindsided when it comes to new uses or edge cases. (Authentication risks surrounding someone's intimate partner is a good example.)</p>
  227. <p>Policy doesn't work that way; it's specifically focused on use. It focuses on people and what they do. Policy makers can't create policy around a piece of technology without understanding how it is used -- how all of it's used.</p>
  229. <p>Policy is often driven by exceptional events, like the FBI's desire to break the encryption on the San Bernardino shooter's iPhone. (The PATRIOT Act is the most egregious example I can think of.) Technologists tend to look at more general use cases, like the overall value of strong encryption to societal security. Policy tends to focus on the past, making existing systems work or correcting wrongs that have happened. It's hard to imagine policy makers creating laws around VR systems, because they don't yet exist in any meaningful way. Technology is inherently future focused. Technologists try to imagine better systems, or future flaws in present systems, and work to improve things.</p>
  231. <p>As technologists, we iterate. It's how we write software. It's how we field products. We know we can't get it right the first time, so we have developed all sorts of agile systems to deal with that fact. Policy making is often the opposite. U.S. federal laws take months or years to negotiate and pass, and after that the issue doesn't get addressed again for a decade or more. It is much more critical to get it right the first time, because the effects of getting it wrong are long lasting. (See, for example, parts of the GDPR.) Sometimes regulatory agencies can be more agile. The courts can also iterate policy, but it's slower.</p>
  233. <p>Along similar lines, the two groups work in very different time frames. Engineers, conditioned by Moore's law, have long thought of 18 months as the maximum time to roll out a new product, and now think in terms of continuous deployment of new features. As I said previously, policy makers tend to think in terms of multiple years to get a law or regulation in place, and then more years as the case law builds up around it so everyone knows what it really means. It's like tortoises and hummingbirds.</p>
  235. <p>Technology is inherently global. It is often developed with local sensibilities according to local laws, but it necessarily has global reach. Policy is always jurisdictional. This difference is causing all sorts of problems for the global cloud services we use every day. The providers are unable to operate their global systems in compliance with more than 200 different -- and sometimes conflicting -- national requirements. Policy makers are often unimpressed with claims of inability; laws are laws, they say, and if Facebook can translate its website into French for the French, it can also implement their national laws.</p>
  237. <p>Technology and policy both use concepts of trust, but differently. Technologists tend to think of trust in terms of controls on behavior. We're getting better -- NIST's recent work on trust is a good example -- but we have a long way to go. For example, Google's Trust and Safety Department does a lot of AI and ethics work largely focused on technological controls. Policy makers think of trust in more holistic societal terms: trust in institutions, trust as the ability not to worry about adverse outcomes, consumer confidence. This dichotomy explains how techies can claim bitcoin is trusted because of the strong cryptography, but policy makers can't imagine calling a system trustworthy when you lose all your money if you forget your encryption key.</p>
  239. <p>Policy is how society mediates how individuals interact with society. Technology has the potential to change how individuals interact with society. The conflict between these two causes considerable friction, as technologists want policy makers to get out of the way and not stifle innovation, and policy makers want technologists to stop moving fast and breaking so many things.</p>
  241. <p>Finally, techies know that code is law­ -- that the restrictions and limitations of a technology are more fundamental than any human-created legal anything. Policy makers know that law is law, and tech is just tech. We can see this in the tension between applying existing law to new technologies and creating new law specifically for those new technologies.</p>
  243. <p>Yes, these are all generalizations and there are exceptions. It's also not all either/or. Great technologists and policy makers can see the other perspectives. The best policy makers know that for all their work toward consensus, they won't make progress by redefining pi as three. Thoughtful technologists look beyond the immediate user demands to the ways attackers might abuse their systems, and design against those adversaries as well. These aren't two alien species engaging in first contact, but cohorts who can each learn and borrow tools from the other. Too often, though, neither party tries.</p>
  245. <p>In October, I attended the first ACM Symposium on Computer Science and the Law. Google counsel Brian Carver talked about his experience with the few computer science grad students who would attend his Intellectual Property and Cyberlaw classes every year at UC Berkeley. One of the first things he would do was give the students two different cases to read. The cases had nearly identical facts, and the judges who'd ruled on them came to exactly opposite conclusions. The law students took this in stride; it's the way the legal system works when it's wrestling with a new concept or idea. But it shook the computer science students. They were appalled that there wasn't a single correct answer.</p>
  247. <p>But that's not how law works, and that's not how policy works. As the technologies we're creating become more central to society, and as we in technology continue to move into the public sphere and become part of the increasingly important policy debates, it is essential that we learn these lessons. Gone are the days when we were creating purely technical systems and our work ended at the keyboard and screen. Now we're building complex socio-technical systems that are literally creating a new world. And while it's easy to dismiss policy makers as doing it wrong, it's important to understand that they're not. Policy making has been around a lot longer than the Internet or computers or any technology. And the essential challenges of this century will require both groups to work together. </p>
  249. <p>This essay <a href="">previously appeared</a> in <i>IEEE Security &amp; Privacy</i>.</p></div>
  250.    </content>
  251.    <updated>2020-02-23T07:04:53Z</updated>
  252.    <published>2020-02-21T11:54:06Z</published>
  253.    <author>
  254.      <name>Bruce Schneier</name>
  255.    </author>
  256.    <source>
  257.      <id>,2014-06-11:/blog//2</id>
  258.      <link href="" rel="alternate" type="text/html"/>
  259.      <link href="" rel="self" type="application/atom+xml"/>
  260.      <subtitle>A blog covering security and security technology.</subtitle>
  261.      <title>Schneier on Security</title>
  262.      <updated>2020-02-24T12:27:33Z</updated>
  263.    </source>
  264.  </entry>
  266.  <entry xml:lang="en-US">
  267.    <id></id>
  268.    <link href="" rel="alternate" title="" type="text/html"/>
  269.    <title/>
  270.    <content type="xhtml" xml:lang="en-US"><div xmlns=""><a class="auto-link figure u-bridgy-flickr-photo" href=""><img alt="Holly, Nicole, another NovemberProject member, Jen, and Tantek outside the LBJ Library in Austin, Texas." class="auto-embed u-photo" src=""/></a><a class="auto-link figure u-bridgy-flickr-photo" href=""><img alt="Clear blue sky over the river in Austin Texas." class="auto-embed u-photo" src=""/></a><a class="auto-link figure u-bridgy-flickr-photo" href=""><img alt="The sun shining brightly in a clear sky over buildings above the river, and reflected in the river as well, in Austin Texas." class="auto-embed u-photo" src=""/></a>Made it to <a class="auto-link h-cassis-username" href="">@Nov_Project_ATX</a> yesterday morning! Ran, worked out, and caught up with pal Holly who I haven’t seen since she moved from SF, and Madison friends Jen and Nicole (who herself also moved to Austin).<br class="auto-break"/><br class="auto-break"/>Ran back to downtown and the river afterwards, for a calm reflection(2), and sunrise over nearby buildings(3).<br class="auto-break"/><br class="auto-break"/>#<span class="p-category auto-tag">NP_ATX</span> #<span class="p-category auto-tag">traverbal</span> #<span class="p-category auto-tag">run</span> #<span class="p-category auto-tag">NovemberProject</span> #<span class="p-category auto-tag">runners</span> #<span class="p-category auto-tag">wakeUpTheSun</span> #<span class="p-category auto-tag">fromWhereIRun</span> #<span class="p-category auto-tag">optOutside</span> #<span class="p-category auto-tag">freeFitness</span> #<span class="p-category auto-tag">justShowUp</span> #<span class="p-category auto-tag">LBJLibrary</span> #<span class="p-category auto-tag">Austin</span> #<span class="p-category auto-tag">Texas</span> #<span class="p-category auto-tag">2020_052</span> #<span class="p-category auto-tag">20200221</span> #<span class="p-category auto-tag">laterGram</span> #<span class="p-category auto-tag">noFilter</span></div>
  271.    </content>
  272.    <updated>2020-02-23T05:49:00Z</updated>
  273.    <published>2020-02-23T05:49:00Z</published>
  274.    <source>
  275.      <id></id>
  276.      <author>
  277.        <name>Tantek</name>
  278.        <uri></uri>
  279.      </author>
  280.      <link href="" rel="alternate" title="Tantek &#xC7;elik" type="text/html"/>
  281.      <link href="" rel="self" type="application/atom+xml"/>
  282.      <link href="" rel="hub" type="text/html"/>
  283.      <title xml:lang="en-US">Tantek Çelik</title>
  284.      <updated>2020-02-24T05:26:00Z</updated>
  285.    </source>
  286.  </entry>
  288.  <entry xml:lang="en-US">
  289.    <id></id>
  290.    <link href="" rel="alternate" title="" type="text/html"/>
  291.    <title/>
  292.    <content type="xhtml" xml:lang="en-US"><div xmlns=""><a class="auto-link h-cassis-username" href="">@IndieWebCamp</a> Austin, facilitating a session on All Things Photos. <br class="auto-break"/>E.g. taking photos, curating, editing, posting.<br class="auto-break"/><br class="auto-break"/>My incremental #<span class="p-category auto-tag">indieweb</span> #<span class="p-category auto-tag">photo</span> workflow:<br class="auto-break"/>📷 take photos in the moment, but not post*<br class="auto-break"/>🖼 curate photos, e.g. delete duplicates or non-HDR versions (or keep the non-HDR version if it was sharper, less blurry, or if the HDR versions had weird motion artifacts)<br class="auto-break"/>❤️ favorite photos, in the iOS Photos app, that I want to actually consider posting publicly, or perhaps uploading e.g. to a wiki<br class="auto-break"/>✍🏻 edit photos, e.g. rotate &amp; crop, especially favorited photos, to align the horizon, crop out extraneous/distracting things, etc.<br class="auto-break"/>👇🏻 choose a favorited photo from that day as my main photo to post<br class="auto-break"/>📝 write a narrative caption based on that photo<br class="auto-break"/>📓 more photos: include more favorited photos if they make sense as part of the narrative, perhaps seek out more (non-favorited) photos to help illustrate the narrative<br class="auto-break"/>📮 post that photo or multiphoto post (its own process)<br class="auto-break"/>♡ unfavorite the photos I posted, except those I might want to view or show to friends later<br class="auto-break"/><br class="auto-break"/>I’m looking to simplify my process where I can, as it often takes me up to half an hour to actually get from curating my photos to posting a particular (multi)photo post!<br class="auto-break"/><br class="auto-break"/>*I don’t post photos in the moment any more in order to stay present in whatever I’m actually doing IRL. Instead at "in between times" like standing in line, or on transit, I take incremental steps towards publishing photos.</div>
  293.    </content>
  294.    <updated>2020-02-22T22:30:00Z</updated>
  295.    <published>2020-02-22T22:30:00Z</published>
  296.    <source>
  297.      <id></id>
  298.      <author>
  299.        <name>Tantek</name>
  300.        <uri></uri>
  301.      </author>
  302.      <link href="" rel="alternate" title="Tantek &#xC7;elik" type="text/html"/>
  303.      <link href="" rel="self" type="application/atom+xml"/>
  304.      <link href="" rel="hub" type="text/html"/>
  305.      <title xml:lang="en-US">Tantek Çelik</title>
  306.      <updated>2020-02-24T05:26:00Z</updated>
  307.    </source>
  308.  </entry>
  310.  <entry xml:lang="en-US">
  311.    <id></id>
  312.    <link href="" rel="alternate" type="text/html"/>
  313.    <link href="" rel="replies" type="text/html"/>
  314.    <link href="" rel="replies" type="application/atom+xml"/>
  315.    <title xml:lang="en-US">Fixing Canadian wireless connectivity</title>
  316.    <summary xml:lang="en-US">The CEO of Tucows argues that wireless connectivity should be counted as infrastructure in Canada</summary>
  317.    <updated>2020-02-22T18:20:08Z</updated>
  318.    <published>2020-02-22T17:52:09Z</published>
  319.    <category scheme="" term="business"/>
  320.    <category scheme="" term="internet"/>
  321.    <category scheme="" term="net neutrality"/>
  322.    <category scheme="" term="elliot noss"/>
  323.    <category scheme="" term="infrastructure"/>
  324.    <category scheme="" term="layers"/>
  325.    <category scheme="" term="mnvos"/>
  326.    <author>
  327.      <name>davidw</name>
  328.      <uri></uri>
  329.    </author>
  330.    <source>
  331.      <id></id>
  332.      <link href="" rel="alternate" type="text/html"/>
  333.      <link href="" rel="self" type="application/atom+xml"/>
  334.      <subtitle xml:lang="en-US">David Weinberger's blog. Let's just see what happens  - Tagline (c) 1999</subtitle>
  335.      <title xml:lang="en-US">Joho the Blog</title>
  336.      <updated>2020-02-22T18:20:08Z</updated>
  337.    </source>
  338.  </entry>
  340.  <entry>
  341.    <id>,2020:/blog//2.12389</id>
  342.    <link href="" rel="alternate" type="text/html"/>
  343.    <title>Friday Squid Blogging: 13-foot Giant Squid Caught off New Zealand Coast</title>
  344.    <summary>It's probably a juvenile: Researchers aboard the New Zealand-based National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research Ltd (NIWA) research vessel Tangaroa were on an expedition to survey hoki, New Zealand's most valuable commercial fish, in the Chatham Rise ­ an area of ocean floor to the east of New Zealand that makes up part of the "lost continent" of Zealandia....</summary>
  345.    <content type="xhtml" xml:lang="en-us"><div xmlns=""><p>It's probably a <a href="">juvenile</a>:</p>
  347. <blockquote><p>Researchers aboard the New Zealand-based National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research Ltd (NIWA) research vessel <i>Tangaroa</i> were on an expedition to survey hoki, New Zealand's most valuable commercial fish, in the Chatham Rise ­ an area of ocean floor to the east of New Zealand that makes up part of the <a href="">"lost continent" of Zealandia</a>.
  349. </p><p>At 7.30am on the morning of January 21, scientists were hauling up their trawler net from a depth of 442 meters (1,450 feet) when they were surprised to spot tentacles in amongst their catch. Large tentacles.</p>
  351. <p>According to voyage leader and NIWA fisheries scientist Darren Stevens, who was on watch, it took six members of staff to lift the giant squid out of the net. Despite the squid being 4 meters long and weighing about 110 kilograms (240 pounds), Stevens said he thought the squid was "on the smallish side," compared to other <a href="">behemoths caught</a>.</p></blockquote>
  353. <p>As usual, you can also use this squid post to talk about the security stories in the news that I haven't covered.</p>
  355. <p>Read my blog posting guidelines <a href="">here</a>.</p></div>
  356.    </content>
  357.    <updated>2020-02-21T22:19:42Z</updated>
  358.    <published>2020-02-21T22:19:42Z</published>
  359.    <category label="squid" scheme="" term="squid"/>
  360.    <author>
  361.      <name>Bruce Schneier</name>
  362.    </author>
  363.    <source>
  364.      <id>,2014-06-11:/blog//2</id>
  365.      <link href="" rel="alternate" type="text/html"/>
  366.      <link href="" rel="self" type="application/atom+xml"/>
  367.      <subtitle>A blog covering security and security technology.</subtitle>
  368.      <title>Schneier on Security</title>
  369.      <updated>2020-02-24T12:27:33Z</updated>
  370.    </source>
  371.  </entry>
  373.  <entry xml:lang="en-US">
  374.    <id></id>
  375.    <link href="" rel="alternate" type="text/html"/>
  376.    <title xml:lang="en-US">Semantic markup, browsers, and identity in the DOM</title>
  377.    <content type="xhtml" xml:lang="en-US"><div xmlns=""><p>HTML was initially designed as a semantic markup language,
  378. with elements having semantics (meaning)
  379. describing general roles within a document.
  380. These semantic elements have been added to over time.
  381. Markup as it is used on the web is often criticized for not following the semantics,
  382. but rather being a soup of <code>div</code>s and <code>span</code>s,
  383. the most generic sorts of elements.
  384. The Web has also evolved over the last 25 years from a web of documents
  385. to a web where many of the most visited pages are really applications rather than documents.
  386. The HTML markup used on the Web is a representation of a tree structure,
  387. and the user interface of these web applications
  388. is often based on dynamic changes made through the DOM,
  389. which is what we call both the live representation of that tree structure
  390. and the API through which that representation is accessed.
  391. </p>
  393. <p>Browsers exist as tools for users to browse the Web;
  394. they strike a balance between showing the content as its author intended
  395. versus adapting that content to the device it is being displayed on
  396. and the preferences or needs of the user.</p>
  398. <p>Given the unreliable use of semantics on the Web,
  399. most of the ways browsers adapt content to the user rarely depend deeply on semantics,
  400. although some of them
  401. (such as <a href="">reader mode</a>)
  402. do have significant dependencies.
  403. However, <strong>browser adaptations of content
  404. or interventions that browsers make on behalf of the user
  405. very frequently depend on the persistent object identity in the DOM</strong>.
  406. That is, nodes in the DOM tree (such as sections of the page, or paragraphs)
  407. have an identity over the lifetime of the page,
  408. and many things that browsers do depend on that identity being consistent over time.
  409. For example, exposing the page to a screen reader,
  410. <a href="">scroll anchoring</a>,
  411. and I think some aspects of ad blocking
  412. all depend on the idea that there are elements in the web page that
  413. the browser understands the identity of over time.</p>
  415. <p>This might seem like it's not a very interesting observation.
  416. However, I believe it's important in the context of frameworks,
  417. like <a href="">React</a>, that use a programming model
  418. (which many developers find easier)
  419. where the developer writes code to map application state to user interface
  420. rather than having to worry about constantly altering the DOM to match the current state.
  421. These frameworks have an expensive step where they have to map the generated virtual DOM
  422. into a minimal set of changes to the real DOM.
  423. It is well known that it's important for performance for this set of changes to be minimal,
  424. since making fewer changes to the DOM
  425. results in the browser doing less work to render the updated page.
  426. However, this process is also important for the site to be a true part of the Web,
  427. since this rectification is important for being something that
  428. the browser can properly adapt to the device and to the user's needs.</p></div>
  429.    </content>
  430.    <updated>2020-02-21T20:32:00Z</updated>
  431.    <published>2020-02-21T20:32:00Z</published>
  432.    <author>
  433.      <name>David Baron</name>
  434.      <email>[email protected]</email>
  435.      <uri></uri>
  436.    </author>
  437.    <source>
  438.      <id></id>
  439.      <author>
  440.        <name>David Baron</name>
  441.      </author>
  442.      <link href="" rel="alternate" type="text/html"/>
  443.      <link href="" rel="self" type="application/atom+xml"/>
  444.      <rights xml:lang="en-US">Copyright © 2002-2020, L. David Baron</rights>
  445.      <title xml:lang="en-US">David Baron's Weblog</title>
  446.      <updated>2020-02-21T20:35:53Z</updated>
  447.    </source>
  448.  </entry>
  450.  <entry xml:lang="en-US">
  451.    <id></id>
  452.    <link href="" rel="alternate" type="text/html"/>
  453.    <title xml:lang="en-US">Notice of Vote for Second Implementer’s Draft of OpenID Connect Client Initiated Backchannel Authentication (CIBA) Core Specification</title>
  454.    <summary xml:lang="en-US">The official voting period will be between Friday, March 6, 2020 and Friday, March 13, 2020, following the 45 day review of the specification. For the convenience of members, voting will actually open on Friday, February 28, 2020 for members who have completed their reviews by then, with the voting period ending on Friday, March [...]</summary>
  455.    <content type="xhtml" xml:lang="en-US"><div xmlns=""><p>The official voting period will be between Friday, March 6, 2020 and Friday, March 13, 2020, following the <a href="">45 day review</a> of the specification. For the convenience of members, voting will actually open on Friday, February 28, 2020 for members who have completed their reviews by then, with the voting period ending on Friday, March 13, 2020.</p>
  456. <p>The OpenID MODRNA Working Group page is <a href=""></a>. If you’re not already a member, or if your membership has expired, please consider joining to participate in the approval vote. Information on joining the OpenID Foundation can be found at <a href=""></a>.</p>
  457. <p>The vote will be conducted at <a href=""></a>.</p>
  458. <p>– Michael B. Jones, OpenID Foundation Secretary</p></div>
  459.    </content>
  460.    <updated>2020-02-21T18:57:42Z</updated>
  461.    <published>2020-02-21T18:57:42Z</published>
  462.    <category scheme="" term="News"/>
  463.    <category scheme="" term="OpenID Connect"/>
  464.    <category scheme="" term="Specs"/>
  465.    <category scheme="" term="Working Group"/>
  466.    <category scheme="" term="CIBA"/>
  467.    <category scheme="" term="Implementer's Draft"/>
  468.    <category scheme="" term="MODRNA"/>
  469.    <category scheme="" term="Public Review"/>
  470.    <category scheme="" term="specification"/>
  471.    <category scheme="" term="vote"/>
  472.    <author>
  473.      <name>Mike Jones</name>
  474.      <uri></uri>
  475.    </author>
  476.    <source>
  477.      <id></id>
  478.      <link href="" rel="alternate" type="text/html"/>
  479.      <link href="" rel="self" type="application/atom+xml"/>
  480.      <link href="" rel="hub" type="text/html"/>
  481.      <subtitle xml:lang="en-US">The Internet Identity Layer</subtitle>
  482.      <title xml:lang="en-US">OpenID</title>
  483.      <updated>2020-02-21T18:57:42Z</updated>
  484.    </source>
  485.  </entry>
  487.  <entry xml:lang="en-us">
  488.    <id></id>
  489.    <link href="" rel="alternate" type="text/html"/>
  490.    <title>Keyword Contributor</title>
  491.    <summary type="xhtml"><div xmlns=""><div class="block-paragraph"><div class="rich-text"><p>While many Brazilians grow up celebrating Carnival, this wasn’t true for Christiane Silva Pinto. It wasn’t until college when she joined her first <i>bateria</i> that it became an incredibly important tradition to her. “When I was playing in college, I loved the music and practicing with the band, but I also loved that I got to know more about that culture I hadn’t been in touch with when I was a kid,” says Christiane, who played the drums in her college bateria, which is a Brazilian percussion band. </p><p>“Some of the people who played with us had experience playing in the Carnival parades, and those stories were contagious.” Today, in addition to working as an Associate Product Marketing Manager for Google helping small and medium-sized businesses in Brazil, Christiane is part of a band that plays every year during the iconic Carnival in Sao Paulo, Brazil, where a sea of spectators gather every year. </p><p>Carnival lasts for four days, and much of the celebration happens in the streets. While there are different traditions in different cities in Brazil, people in Sao Paulo enjoy parades, food and most importantly, music. Bands called <i>blocos</i> or <i>bloquinhos</i> (which include the traditional baterias along with other instruments as well as singing and dancing) set up temporary stages or hire trucks and offer free, wandering concerts.</p><p>In 2013, Christiane and her friends founded their first Carnival bloquinho and she was excited to see 30 people had turned up for their show. She would’ve never imagined that her band would become so popular that around 10,000 people would gather to watch them play, like they did for last year’s Carnival. In her bloco, where Christiane plays a kind of tambourine called tamborim and the snare drum; they play traditional Carnival songs, original pieces they’ve written and even reinterpret contemporary songs with Carnival rhythms from bands like Pink Floyd or Rage Against The Machine.</p></div></div><div class="block-image_carousel"><div class="h-c-page article-module"><div class="article-module glue-pagination h-c-carousel h-c-carousel--simple h-c-carousel--dark ng-cloak"><div class="h-c-carousel__wrap"><ul class="glue-carousel ng-cloak"><li class="h-c-carousel__item article-carousel__slide"><figure><div class="article-carousel__slide-img"><span class="h-u-visually-hidden">carnaval07.jpg</span></div></figure></li><li class="h-c-carousel__item article-carousel__slide"><figure><div class="article-carousel__slide-img"><span class="h-u-visually-hidden">carnaval12.jpg</span></div></figure></li><li class="h-c-carousel__item article-carousel__slide"><figure><div class="article-carousel__slide-img"><span class="h-u-visually-hidden">PasmadoCasaNatura_TINE-8.jpg</span></div></figure></li><li class="h-c-carousel__item article-carousel__slide"><figure><div class="article-carousel__slide-img"><span class="h-u-visually-hidden">PasmadoCasaNatura_TINE-9.jpg</span></div></figure></li></ul><div class="h-c-carousel__paginate glue-pagination-previous uni-click-tracker"><div class="h-c-carousel__paginate-wrap"><svg xmlns="" class="h-c-icon h-c-icon--keyboard-arrow-left"><use xmlns:xlink="" xlink:href="#mi-keyboard-arrow-right"/></svg></div></div><div class="h-c-carousel__paginate glue-pagination-next uni-click-tracker"><div class="h-c-carousel__paginate-wrap"><svg xmlns="" class="h-c-icon h-c-icon--keyboard-arrow-right"><use xmlns:xlink="" xlink:href="#mi-keyboard-arrow-right"/></svg></div></div></div><div class="h-c-carousel__navigation"><div class="glue-pagination-page-list uni-click-tracker"/></div></div></div></div><div class="block-paragraph"><div class="rich-text"><p>Aside from making music, Christiane sees carnival as an opportunity to unite Brazilians  and generate equality awareness, as well as connect with her African heritage. “We have a lot of inequality in Brazil. Most people are poor, and most of the poor people are Black. Race is very related to economy, and unfortunately you will probably see that during Carnival the white people are having fun and the Black people are working,” she says. </p><p>In fact, in her bloquinho there are only two Black women, including Christiane. While the majority of Brazilians are Black, they’re hugely underrepresented, and she’s proud to bring her perspective to the celebration and give visibility to her culture and ancestors. </p><p>Christiane also wants to empower women through Carnival. She recently joined a second bloquinho dedicated to empowering women through music and body positiveness. This bloco is exclusively for women, which is unusual; it was formed in 2015 by one of her friends after she was harassed during Carnival. “We founded a feminist bloco where women could come together to celebrate freedom, to be safe and to be able to express their bodies.” She’s also helping campaign local government to pass initiatives that protect women against harassment.   </p><p>Christiane’s dedication to Carnival began with her love of music, but through it she’s found a way to make underrepresented voices heard. “Many people say that things are so bad that they don’t understand how some people can still enjoy Carnival and forget about the country’s problems. But that’s the way people who don’t live Carnival think, because they don’t understand its culture. For me, it’s a way of cultural resistance.” she says. </p><p>“Music is a powerful way to express your ideas and your values. Being able to create music is very beautiful and powerful. And for me, it’s priceless to keep my culture and my ancestors alive through Carnival.” </p></div></div><img alt="" height="1" src="" width="1"/></div>
  492.    </summary>
  493.    <content>Googler Christiane Silva empowers people and pays tribute to her heritage through the music and tradition of Brazil’s Carnival.</content>
  494.    <updated>2020-02-21T18:00:00Z</updated>
  495.    <category term="Passion Projects"/><feedburner:origLink xmlns:feedburner=""></feedburner:origLink>
  496.    <author>
  497.      <name>Christin Parcerisa</name>
  498.    </author>
  499.    <source>
  500.      <id></id>
  501.      <logo></logo>
  502.      <link href="" rel="alternate" type="text/html"/>
  503.      <link href="" rel="self" type="application/rss+xml"/>
  504.      <link href="" rel="hub" type="text/html"/>
  505.      <subtitle>Insights from Googlers into our products, technology, and the Google culture.</subtitle>
  506.      <title>The Official Google Blog</title>
  507.      <updated>2020-02-25T00:29:11Z</updated>
  508.    </source>
  509.  </entry>
  511.  <entry xml:lang="en-US">
  512.    <id></id>
  513.    <link href="" rel="alternate" type="text/html"/>
  514.    <title xml:lang="en-US">New Client Profile: HashiCorp</title>
  515.    <summary xml:lang="en-US">About HashiCorp was founded by Mitchell Hashimoto and Armon Dadgar in 2012, to create tools for modern data center automation. HashiCorp built on the momentum of Vagrant, an open source tool written by Hashimoto, for automating the management of virtual machines images. Vagrant had quickly established itself as the go to tool for developers that</summary>
  516.    <content type="xhtml" xml:lang="en-US"><div xmlns=""><h2><a href=""><img alt="" class="aligncenter size-full wp-image-5084" height="200" src="" width="350"/></a></h2>
  517. <h2>About</h2>
  518. <p>HashiCorp was founded by Mitchell Hashimoto and Armon Dadgar in 2012, to create tools for modern data center automation. HashiCorp built on the momentum of Vagrant, an open source tool written by Hashimoto, for automating the management of virtual machines images. Vagrant had quickly established itself as the go to tool for developers that wanted to create and break down virtual machine images reproducibly.</p>
  519. <p>But with containers and microservice architectures taking off, and the cloud becoming ever more strategic, a greater prize awaited: namely an end to end stack for automation of all cloud and on premises environments with a slick developer experience. HashiCorp started work on a new integrated suite of tools. Developers that had enjoyed Vagrant swiftly began to adopt other HashiCorp tools, which are also open source, in their daily workflows and routines.</p>
  520. <p>By the time HashiCorp hired David McJannet as CEO in 2016, the company was ready to become an enterprise player, turning grassroots-led developer adoption into corporate adoption. The dynamic has worked out well. Deal sizes quickly expanded under McJannet, as did the sales force. HashiCorp is a notable success as a commercial open source software company. For all those engineer founder-led companies that think they are the only person that should run the company, HashiCorp is a solid counter-example.</p>
  521. <h2>Size</h2>
  522. <ul>
  523. <li>In November 2018 HashiCorp raised $100m, valuing the firm at $1.9bn. It has raised $170m+ in total.</li>
  524. <li>We believe that annual revenues are likely approaching $150m.</li>
  525. <li>The company has around 900 employees</li>
  526. </ul>
  527. <p> </p>
  528. <h2>Products</h2>
  529. <p><strong>Terraform</strong> – infrastructure as code. Template-based, scalable way to deploy infrastructure<br/>
  530. Pre-approved templates for applications; policy engine for templates across teams. The market leader for AWS automation tooling. The best known brand in the HashiCorp portfolio.</p>
  531. <p><strong>Consul</strong> – distributed key value store and service discovery, now increasingly positioned as a service mesh built on the Envoy sidecar. Consul is HashiCorp’s most downloaded tool. For a deeper look at HashiCorp’s service mesh play to enable modern software delivery patterns, see my post <a href="http://(">HashiConf EU 2019: The Service Mesh push and Progressive Delivery</a>.</p>
  532. <p><strong>Vault</strong> – secrets management, identity-based access, application data encryption, with audit trail. Vault has proven to be the magic decoder ring for open source company enterprise revenues. It drives sales at HashiCorp. Where many infrastructure companies struggle to build defensible repeatable revenues streams, Vault helped HashiCorp grow revenues quickly. .</p>
  533. <p><strong>Nomad</strong> – workload scheduling and task deployment across container-based and legacy applications; microservices and batch apps. It can be used as a container orchestration engine although HashiCorp doesn’t position Nomad as a Kubernetes competitor. Nomad has adoption from some shops preferring a simpler story for containers, HashiCorp APIs and tight integration with the likes of Consul and Vault.</p>
  534. <p><strong>Sentinel</strong> – policy as code platform integrating all HashiCorp products.</p>
  535. <h2>Go to Market</h2>
  536. <p>HashiCorp has built a truly modular suite. It can be integrated end-to-end and there are strong synergies between the different tools, but the fact that they can be adopted independently is a significant part of the growth story. The fact that they have multiple land-and-expand entry points/multiple personas to champion them within an org (e.g. Ops can pick up Terraform, security teams can get Vault, Dev teams can use Nomad, Networking can use Consul) is a notable part of their GTM.</p>
  537. <h2>Competitive Landscape</h2>
  538. <p>Competitors include Buoyant, Chef, Pulumi, Puppet, Red Hat Ansible, and VMware. HashiCorp partners closely, but also competes, with Amazon Web Services, Google Cloud Platform and Microsoft Azure. HashiCorp has strong offerings in a number of adjacent related markets for distributed application development management. We can expect solid growth as it expands its enterprise footprint in new and existing accounts. The biggest challenge facing HashiCorp at this point is likely to be a lack of maturity in enterprise customers when it comes to modern software delivery and management. Sophistication is very low, which creates the need for extensive consulting and training services: not a market that a product company wants to be in. HashiCorp is investing in consulting, and implementation services to help customers modernise. But IT inertia is a problem the entire industry faces, as we attempt to transform organisations towards Agile Development, DevOps, and Product Management as a discipline.</p>
  539. <p>For now HashiCorp has great engineering and go to market partnerships with all the major cloud players.</p>
  540. <p>Competition from AWS is likely to increase substantially over the next few years however. Terraform for example competes with CloudFormation, Amazon’s own templating tool for describing and managing AWS resources such as EC2 instances, RDS databases, and identities. Complaints from developers about poor CloudFormation usability are being addressed by Amazon’s Cloud Development Kit, which allows you to define your CloudFormation templates using Java, JavaScript, TypeScript or C#. Meanwhile AWS AppMesh will also compete with Consul in the service mesh market. HashiCorp’s strong positioning as an open cloud offering, supporting multi and hybrid cloud architectures, will help it see continued strong growth. Even as AWS increases pressure, the scale and growth of the AWS installed base will create new market opportunities for HashiCorp. HashiCorp’s momentum and positioning makes it a potential acquisition target for GCP or Microsoft Azure. While it would make an excellent acquisition for AWS in many respects- notably the focus on developer experience, an area where Amazon lags – it’s not the kind of deal AWS normally pursues, preferring smaller tuck in deals. HashiCorp has a shot at being a breakout independent success in the age of AWS, just as VMware was in the era of Microsoft in its client/server pomp.</p>
  541. </div>
  542.    </content>
  543.    <updated>2020-02-21T15:56:35Z</updated>
  544.    <category term="Uncategorized"/><feedburner:origLink xmlns:feedburner="">;utm_medium=rss&amp;utm_campaign=new-client-profile-hashicorp</feedburner:origLink>
  545.    <author>
  546.      <name>James Governor</name>
  547.    </author>
  548.    <source>
  549.      <id></id>
  550.      <logo></logo>
  551.      <link href="" rel="alternate" type="text/html"/>
  552.      <link href="" rel="self" type="application/atom+xml"/>
  553.      <link href="" rel="self" type="application/rss+xml"/>
  554.      <link href="" rel="hub" type="text/html"/>
  555.      <link href="" rel="license" type="text/html"/>
  556.      <subtitle xml:lang="en-US">An industry analyst blog looking at software ecosystems and convergence</subtitle>
  557.      <title xml:lang="en-US">James Governor's Monkchips</title>
  558.      <updated>2020-02-24T18:09:15Z</updated>
  559.    </source>
  560.  </entry>
  562.  <entry xml:lang="en-US">
  563.    <id></id>
  564.    <link href="" rel="alternate" type="text/html"/>
  565.    <title xml:lang="en-US">New Client Profile: Neptune Software</title>
  566.    <summary xml:lang="en-US">About Neptune Software AS was founded in 2011 by Ole-André Haugen, Njal Stabell and Andreas Grydeland Sulejewski in Oslo, Norway. The principals had all spent years consulting in the SAP ecosystem, before establishing a product company focused on helping customers extend and modernise their SAP systems with modern application front ends. Neptune has established itself</summary>
  567.    <content type="xhtml" xml:lang="en-US"><div xmlns=""><h2><a href=""><img alt="" class="aligncenter size-full wp-image-5082" height="70" src="" width="364"/></a></h2>
  568. <h2>About</h2>
  569. <p><span style="font-weight: 400;"><strong>Neptune Software</strong> AS was founded in 2011 by Ole-André Haugen, Njal Stabell and Andreas Grydeland Sulejewski in Oslo, Norway. The principals had all spent years consulting in the SAP ecosystem, before establishing a product company focused on helping customers extend and modernise their SAP systems with modern application front ends. </span><span style="font-weight: 400;">Neptune has established itself as a solid choice for SAP shops, but is now eyeing other ecosystem opportunities. </span><span style="font-weight: 400;">While the market for general purpose low-code and no-code tools is growing quickly, the addressable opportunity for SAP extension and modernisation is itself far from saturated. For a company of Neptune’s size, with its deep domain experience with SAP systems, this remains the “go to” market play. SAP customers are used to paying significant premiums for solutions, unlike for example the pure play developer tool market.</span></p>
  570. <h2><span style="font-weight: 400;">Size</span></h2>
  571. <ul>
  572. <li><span style="font-weight: 400;">60</span><span style="font-weight: 400;"> employees</span></li>
  573. <li>500+ customers, including Johnson &amp; Johnson, the Norwegian Military and Sotheby’s New York.</li>
  574. </ul>
  575. <h2><span style="font-weight: 400;">Products </span></h2>
  576. <p><span style="font-weight: 400;"><strong>Neptune Digital Experience (DX) Platform</strong> is a lightweight runtime for data and service integration – deployable as a container – which maintains state and connections between front ends and back end data services. Complex data models and tables can be exposed as APIs. NeptuneDX is also the</span><span style="font-weight: 400;"> integrated development environment (IDE) with a drag and drop interface, designed for integrating and extending back end business application services with modern front end technology. It uses a service “wiring” metaphor, with different views for different users depending on skill. </span><span style="font-weight: 400;">NeptuneDX integrations with SAP’s proprietary ABAP language/data platform are slick, in some cases deeper than SAP’s own equivalents. </span></p>
  577. <p>The Neptune App Designer comes in two flavours – a SAP GUI application integrated directly into the SAP IDE, or the Web App Designer, which is browser based. The other important element of the Neptune platform is the mobile client, for native and web apps on mobile clients, including offline support.</p>
  578. <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Native support for ABAP and deep integration with SAP interfaces is an advantage for customers and consultants with legacy skills, which remains the great majority of the SAP market. Neptune bypasses OData, the data integration standard, in favour of native support. Users can simply point at an ABAP Class and Neptune does the work exposing the data as service for access by the application frontend. </span>SAP customers are always waiting for SAP to reface its app and services, as we’ve seen with multiple tech waves and SAP customisation platforms such as NetWeaver and HANA. But with so many interfaces to fix, it can seem a Sisyphean task – just as SAP gets the first few thousand interfaces supported, a new generation of integration, application programming interface (API) or front end technology comes along to support. Making ABAP developers productive in modern visual environments, and connecting directly to ABAP classes is a strong story. Neptune also supports OData, but the native integration is faster.</p>
  579. <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">NeptuneDX isn’t primarily aimed at non-programmers – it is more low-code and pro-code than no-code. It doesn’t lead with a spreadsheet metaphor, for example. Rather it’s an application designer, for augmenting different developer skillsets with code generation. </span><span style="font-weight: 400;">It supports modern UI frameworks and libraries including Vue JS, and React, but the deepest and slickest integration is still with SAP’s UI5 platform. Though SAP has open sourced UI5, the foundations of its Fiori front end platform and associated design guidelines, <a href="">Open UI5</a></span><span style="font-weight: 400;"> has not been widely adopted outside the SAP ecosystem itself. For Neptune DX to really shine across platforms it will need to offer a React native experience that is as good as the support for UI5. </span></p>
  580. <p>NeptuneDX supports single sign for enterprise platforms including Microsoft Azure AD, SAML and LDAP. Active Directories Categories, Authorizations and Roles are natively supported. Extension and customisation is also supported with Node.js, including NPM support. For API development there is a test workbench, and Neptune supports swagger 2.0 for automated documentation.</p>
  581. <h2><span style="font-weight: 400;">Go to market </span></h2>
  582. <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">We have discussed the SAP integration story extensively above, but it’s worth considering wider contextual plays where Neptune Software has achieved some traction. </span><span style="font-weight: 400;">While the term “Digital Transformation” is overused, it remains a context used by associated buyers in various line of business functions, notably marketing and sales, not just IT.  </span></p>
  583. <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">A related market with some currency is Customer Experience Management. One strong advantage of playing in CEM is the partners that it self selects – services companies and agencies doing high value client work, rather than low level outsourcing style providers.</span></p>
  584. <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">One interesting opportunity is Neptune DX as a brand management platform. The pattern emerged at one of the company’s automotive clients. Visual and brand guidelines are implemented as code, with developers building employee or client-facing apps that utilise these enforced guidelines. The current buzzword, or emerging trend, for this kind of approach is Design Systems. Design Systems are about consistency and repeatability, but are too often a designer, rather than a developer-led concern. NeptuneDX can be used to allow designers to set visual guidelines.</span></p>
  585. <h2><span style="font-weight: 400;">Competitive Landscape</span></h2>
  586. <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Neptune competes with low-code platforms such as Betty Blocks, Google AppSheet, Mendix, and Outsystems. Its deep SAP domain experience is a strong differentiator, but it is currently not as well positioned as a general purpose platform. </span><span style="font-weight: 400;">Low-code and Robotic Process Automation (RPA) are both exploding as enterprises attempt to drive digital transformation narratives and strategies, while being reliant on legacy packaged applications such as SAP and Oracle, or born in the cloud SaaS platforms such as Salesforce, SuccessFactors and Workday.</span></p>
  587. <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Cloud integration is going to be increasingly important to these customers, and that’s one area where Neptune will need to increase its footprint. SaaS go to market plays are the most effective customer acquisition model for software today. </span></p>
  588. </div>
  589.    </content>
  590.    <updated>2020-02-21T15:08:18Z</updated>
  591.    <category term="Uncategorized"/>
  592.    <category term="integration"/>
  593.    <category term="low-code"/>
  594.    <category term="pro-code"/>
  595.    <category term="SAP"/>
  596.    <category scheme="" term="RPA"/>
  597.    <category scheme="" term="DX"/>
  598.    <category scheme="" term="API"/>
  599.    <category scheme="" term="IDE"/><feedburner:origLink xmlns:feedburner="">;utm_medium=rss&amp;utm_campaign=new-client-profile-neptune-software</feedburner:origLink>
  600.    <author>
  601.      <name>James Governor</name>
  602.    </author>
  603.    <source>
  604.      <id></id>
  605.      <logo></logo>
  606.      <link href="" rel="alternate" type="text/html"/>
  607.      <link href="" rel="self" type="application/atom+xml"/>
  608.      <link href="" rel="self" type="application/rss+xml"/>
  609.      <link href="" rel="hub" type="text/html"/>
  610.      <link href="" rel="license" type="text/html"/>
  611.      <subtitle xml:lang="en-US">An industry analyst blog looking at software ecosystems and convergence</subtitle>
  612.      <title xml:lang="en-US">James Governor's Monkchips</title>
  613.      <updated>2020-02-24T18:09:15Z</updated>
  614.    </source>
  615.  </entry>
  617.  <entry>
  618.    <id>,2020:/charlie/blog-static//1.4163</id>
  619.    <link href="" rel="alternate" type="text/html"/>
  620.    <title>A serious question</title>
  621.    <summary>(Because I am still elbow-deep in the guts of "Invisible Sun", blogging is sparse right now ...) I just asked a couple of questions on twitter, and I thought you might like to share the misery. SERIOUS QUESTION for space...</summary>
  622.    <content type="xhtml" xml:lang="en"><div xmlns=""><p>(<em>Because I am still elbow-deep in the guts of "Invisible Sun", blogging is sparse right now ...</em>)</p>
  624. <p>I just asked a couple of questions on twitter, and I thought you might like to share the misery.</p>
  626. <p>SERIOUS QUESTION for space geeks:</p>
  628. <ol start="1">
  629. <li>The flight of Apollo 11. Postulate that Mike Collins is a werewolf. At what point during trans-Lunar injection does he go furry? And how many times during the mission profile is he forced to shapeshift by the light of the full Moon?</li>
  630. </ol>
  634. <ol start="2">
  635. <li>A full Moon must subtend an angle of at least 0.5 degrees to trigger shapeshifting in werewolves. A werewolf is aboard a spaceship bound for Ganymede, largest moon of Jupiter. In low Ganymede orbit, how many Jovian moons trigger shapeshifting?</li>
  636. </ol>
  638. <p>Assumptions:</p>
  640. <ol start="1">
  641. <li><p>Werewolves are real.</p></li>
  642. <li><p>Shapeshifting is not triggered by direct exposure to the light of the full Moon, but by the existence of a full, uneclipsed Moon in the sky (otherwise werewolves could just hole up indoors to avoid furry hijinks).</p></li>
  643. <li><p>Werewolves shapeshift involuntarily in an arbitrary short period of time (WARNING: any discussion of relativitic effects or the use of werewolves as an FTL signaling mechanism will be <em>firmly</em> discouraged).</p></li>
  644. <li><p>A Moon other than Earth's moon suffices, but it must be a primary Moon (by IAU definition) and not a Moon of a Moon, and also it must subtend an angle of no less than 0.5 degrees to be effective. Earthrise, from Lunar orbit, is not a lycanthropy trigger.</p></li>
  645. <li><p>The first rule of Vampires is: Vampires do not exist. (See also "The Rhesus Chart").</p></li>
  646. </ol>
  648. <p>Have at it!</p></div>
  649.    </content>
  650.    <updated>2020-02-21T14:42:58Z</updated>
  651.    <published>2020-02-21T14:42:58Z</published>
  652.    <author>
  653.      <name>Charlie Stross</name>
  654.      <uri>;blog_id=1&amp;id=2</uri>
  655.    </author>
  656.    <source>
  657.      <id>,2010-01-01:/charlie/blog-static//1</id>
  658.      <link href="" rel="alternate" type="text/html"/>
  659.      <link href="" rel="self" type="application/atom+xml"/>
  660.      <subtitle>Being the blog of Charles Stross, author, and occasional guests ...</subtitle>
  661.      <title>Charlie's Diary</title>
  662.      <updated>2020-02-25T03:49:22Z</updated>
  663.    </source>
  664.  </entry>
  666.  <entry xml:lang="en-us">
  667.    <id></id>
  668.    <link href="" rel="alternate" type="text/html"/>
  669.    <title>Google News</title>
  670.    <summary type="xhtml"><div xmlns=""><div class="block-paragraph"><div class="rich-text"><p>Break out your costumes and strike a pose: Brazil’s Carnaval starts today and lasts through February 26th. The five-day festival, which traces its roots back to the <a href="">early 1700s</a>, is now one of the largest festivals in the world with thousands of parties and millions of people celebrating across Brazil’s biggest cities. Google News is here to help you keep up with the parades and stay safe.</p><br/><p>When you search for <a href=";ceid=BR:pt-419&amp;e=SplashLibraryMenuExperiment&amp;hl=pt-BR&amp;gl=BR">Carnaval</a> on desktop and mobile devices, you’ll see an interactive topic, which will keep you updated on breaking news, help plan your schedule with parade routes and lineups, and let you rock your best look with DIY videos for costumes and make-up. You can also follow Carnaval by tapping it’s star icon on the top right corner for quick access and to receive updates directly in your For You page. </p><p><br/></p></div></div><div class="block-image_full_width"><figure class="article-image--full article-module "><img alt="Carnaval Keyword Phone.gif" src=""/><div class="rich-text"><p><br/></p></div></figure></div><div class="block-paragraph"><div class="rich-text"><p>With all the excitement also comes your safety, which is why we’ve partnered with the non-profit <a href="">Think Olga</a> to provide you with information about public safety resources and the contact information for the<a href=";pid=S1413-81232015000100249">Assistance Center for Women in Situations of Violence</a> and the military police. </p><br/><p>These features will be available across desktop, iOS and Android platforms in Brazilian Portuguese but accessible to you from anywhere in the world. </p><br/><p>Don’t miss a beat of the party with Google News, <i>e se jogue na folia</i>!</p></div></div><img alt="" height="1" src="" width="1"/></div>
  671.    </summary>
  672.    <content>Google News brings you all the latest Carnaval news and headlines directly from Brazil's biggest festivals across all your devices.</content>
  673.    <updated>2020-02-21T14:00:00Z</updated>
  674.    <category term="Google in Latin America"/>
  675.    <category term="News"/><feedburner:origLink xmlns:feedburner=""></feedburner:origLink>
  676.    <author>
  677.      <name>Robb Wei</name>
  678.    </author>
  679.    <source>
  680.      <id></id>
  681.      <logo></logo>
  682.      <link href="" rel="alternate" type="text/html"/>
  683.      <link href="" rel="self" type="application/rss+xml"/>
  684.      <link href="" rel="hub" type="text/html"/>
  685.      <subtitle>Insights from Googlers into our products, technology, and the Google culture.</subtitle>
  686.      <title>The Official Google Blog</title>
  687.      <updated>2020-02-25T00:29:11Z</updated>
  688.    </source>
  689.  </entry>
  691.  <entry>
  692.    <id></id>
  693.    <link href="" rel="alternate" type="text/html"/>
  694.    <title>The Apache News Round-up: week ending 21 February 2020</title>
  695.    <content type="xhtml"><div xmlns=""><p>It's Friday already! We're wrapping up another great week with the following activities:</p>
  696.  <p><strong>Happy 25th Anniversary Apache HTTP Server!</strong> Raise a glass to the project and community that started it all. Hats off for its longevity as the world's most popular Web server for a quarter century. Many happy returns <a href=""></a></p><strong>ASF Board</strong> – management and oversight of the business affairs of the corporation in accordance with the Foundation's bylaws.<br/> - Next Board Meeting: 18 March 2020. Board calendar and minutes <a href=""></a>
  697.  <p><strong>ApacheCon™</strong> – the ASF's official global conference series, bringing Tomorrow's Technology Today since 1998.<br/> 1) <strong><em>Apache Roadshow/DC</em></strong> --25 March in CHANTILLY, VA. Registration open; Sponsorship opportunities available. Topics include Apache Projects &amp; CARE
  698. Initiatives (with George Mason University Center for Assurance Research
  699. &amp; Engineering); Cybersecurity; and Open Source Software in
  700. Start-Ups. <a href=""></a><br/> 2) <strong><em>Apache Roadshow/Chicago</em></strong> --18-19 May in CHICAGO, IL. CFP open. Sponsorship opportunities available. <a href=""></a><br/> 3) <strong><em>Apache Roadshow/Seattle</em></strong> --10-12 June in REDMOND, WA. Sponsorship opportunities available. Topics include Data and Analytics, ML and
  701. AI, Java, Cloud, Containers, Servers, and Web Frameworks. <a href=""></a><br/> 4) <strong><em>ApacheCon North America</em></strong> --28 September - 2 October in NEW ORLEANS, LA. CFP open; Registration open; Sponsorship opportunities available. Topics include Big Data
  702. Integration, Community, IoT, Search, Geospatial, Graphing, Integration,
  703. Servers, and more. Apache Project content includes Camel, Cassandra,
  704. Cloudstack, Fineract, Flagon, Gobblin, Groovy, HTTP Server, Ignite,
  705. Karaf, Observability, Solr/Lucene, Tomcat, and Traffic Server/Traffic
  706. Control, among others. <a href=""></a></p>
  707.  <p> </p>
  708.  <p> </p>
  709.  <p><strong>ASF Infrastructure</strong> – our distributed team on three continents keeps the ASF's infrastructure running around the clock.<br/> -
  710. 7M+ weekly checks yield uptime at 99.93%. Performance checks across 50
  711. different service components spread over more than 250 machines in data
  712. centers around the world. <a href=""></a></p>
  713.  <p><strong>Apache Code Snapshot</strong> – this week, 810 Apache contributors changed 4,791,832 lines of code over 3,495 commits. Top 5 contributors, in order, are: Andrea Cosentino, Claus Ibsen, Andi Huber, Bharath Vissapragadam, and Carlos Rovira.   <br/></p>
  714.  <p><strong>Apache Project Announcements</strong> – the latest updates by category.
  715.  </p> <span class="il">
  716.    <p>Big Data --<br/> - Apache Avro 1.9.2 released <a href=""></a><br/> - Apache HBase 2.1.9 released <a href=""></a><br/></p></span>
  717.  <p><span>Content --<br/> - Apache Jackrabbit 2.21.0 and Oak 1.4.26 released <a href=""></a> <br/> - Apache POI 4.1.2 released <a href=""></a> </span><span class="il"/><span class="il"/> <br/></p>
  718.  <p>Messaging --<br/>
  719.  - Apache <span class="il">Qpid</span> <span class="il">Broker</span>-J 7.1.8 released <a href="" rel="noreferrer" target="_blank">https://<span class="il">qpid</span></a><br/><br/>Programming Languages --<br/>
  720.  - Apache Groovy 3.0.1 released <a href="" rel="noreferrer" target="_blank"></a><br/> <br/>Servers --<br/>
  721.  - Apache Tomcat 7.0.100 released <a href=""></a> <br/> - Apache <span class="il">HttpComponents</span> <span class="il">Core</span> 5.0 GA released <a href="" rel="noreferrer" target="_blank"></a></p>
  722.  <p><strong><br/>Did You Know?</strong></p>
  723.  <p> - Did you know that newcomers to Apache are encouraged to get started and learn about The Apache Way with the friendly folks at ASF's Community Development (ComDev) project? <a href=""></a><br/></p>
  724.  <p> - Did you know that Boston Children's Hospital uses Apache cTAKES to link phenotypic and genomic data for the Precision Link Biobank? <a href=""></a></p>
  725.  <p> - Did you know that Netflix uses Apache Druid to optimize streaming in real time? <a href=""></a><br/><br/></p>
  726.  <p><strong>Apache Community Notices:</strong></p>
  727.  <p> - Apache Month In Review: January 2020 – overview of events that have taken place within the Apache community <a href=""></a> </p>
  728.  <p> - "Trillions and Trillions Served", the documentary on the ASF, is in post-production. Catch the teaser at <a href=""></a> </p>
  729.  <p> - Apache in 2019 - By The Digits <a href=""></a> </p>
  730.  <p> - The Apache Way to Sustainable Open Source Success <a href=""></a></p>
  731.  <p> - ASF Operations Summary: Q2 FY2020 (August - October 2019) <a href=""></a></p>
  732.  <p> - Celebrating 20 Years Community-led Development "The Apache Way" <a href=""></a></p>
  733.  <p> - ASF Founders look back on 20 Years of the ASF <a href=""></a></p>
  734.  <p> - Foundation Reports and Statements <a href=""></a></p>
  735.  <p> - ApacheCon: Tomorrow's Technology Today since 1998 <a href=""></a></p>
  736.  <p> - ASF Annual Report for FY2019 <a href=""></a></p>
  737.  <p> - The Apache Software Foundation 2018 Vision Statement <a href=""></a></p>
  738.  <p> - Foundation Statement –Apache Is Open. <a href=""></a></p>
  739.  <p> - Pre-registration open for the first Pulsar Summit <a href=""></a> </p>
  740.  <div>
  741.    <p> - "Success at Apache" focuses on the people and processes behind why the ASF "just works". <a href=""></a></p>
  742.  </div>
  743.  <div>
  744.    <p> - Please follow/like/re-tweet the ASF on social media: @TheASF on Twitter (<a href=""></a>) and on LinkedIn at <a href=""></a></p>
  745.    <p> - Do friend and follow us on the Apache Community Facebook page <a href=""></a> and Twitter account <a href=""></a></p>
  746.  </div> <span class="LrzXr"/><span class="LrzXr"/>
  747.  <div> - Find out how you can participate with Apache
  748. community/projects/activities --opportunities open with Apache Camel,
  749. Apache HTTP Server, and more! <a href=""></a></div>
  750.  <div><br/> - Are your software solutions Powered by Apache? Download &amp; use our "Powered By" logos <a href=""></a></div>
  751.  <div>
  752.    <p>= = =</p>
  753.    <p>For real-time updates, sign up for Apache-related news by sending
  754. mail to [email protected] and follow @TheASF on Twitter.
  755. For a broader spectrum from the Apache community, <a href=""></a> provides an aggregate of Project activities as well as the personal blogs and tweets of select ASF Committers.</p>
  756.  </div>
  757.  <p> </p></div>
  758.    </content>
  759.    <updated>2020-02-21T06:18:29Z</updated>
  760.    <published>2020-02-21T06:18:29Z</published>
  761.    <category label="Newsletter" term="Newsletter"/>
  762.    <category scheme="" term="2020"/>
  763.    <category scheme="" term="apache"/>
  764.    <category scheme="" term="community"/>
  765.    <category scheme="" term="foundation"/>
  766.    <category scheme="" term="initiatives"/>
  767.    <category scheme="" term="news"/>
  768.    <category scheme="" term="projects"/>
  769.    <category scheme="" term="round-up"/>
  770.    <category scheme="" term="software"/>
  771.    <category scheme="" term="summary"/>
  772.    <category scheme="" term="weekly"/>
  773.    <author>
  774.      <name>Swapnil M Mane</name>
  775.    </author>
  776.    <source>
  777.      <id></id>
  778.      <link href="" rel="self" type="application/atom+xml"/>
  779.      <link href="" rel="alternate" type="text/html"/>
  780.      <subtitle>The voice of the ASF</subtitle>
  781.      <title>The Apache Software Foundation Blog</title>
  782.      <updated>2020-02-21T06:18:29Z</updated>
  783.    </source>
  784.  </entry>
  786.  <entry xml:lang="en-US">
  787.    <id></id>
  788.    <link href="" rel="alternate" type="text/html"/>
  789.    <title>Four short links: 22 February 2020</title>
  790.    <summary>Teachable Machine — Google’s codeless ML training. Google AI No Longer Uses Binary Gender Tags on People (Input Mag) — the change is already in effect. Credited to their new AI Principles. VP of Something (Matt Webb) — It’s pretty clear to me that in 10 years time, sustainability will have to be a VP […]</summary>
  791.    <content type="xhtml"><div xmlns=""><ol>
  792. <li><a href="">Teachable Machine</a> — Google’s codeless ML training.</li>
  793. <li><a href="">Google AI No Longer Uses Binary Gender Tags on People</a> (Input Mag) — the change is already in effect. Credited to their new <a href="">AI Principles</a>.</li>
  794. <li><a href="">VP of Something</a> (Matt Webb) — <i>It’s pretty clear to me that in 10 years time, sustainability will have to be a VP role, if not a C-level role, and “circular transformation” (I just made that up; you can have it) will be a phrase for the 2020s, just as “digital transformation” was the business mantra for the 2010s.</i></li>
  795. <li><a href="">DeepSqueak</a> — <i>Developed by researchers Russell Marx and Kevin Coffey at the University of Washington School of Medicine, the software uses sophisticated deep learning algorithms (hence the name “DeepSqueak”) to automatically pick rodent calls out of raw audio, compare them to calls with similar characteristics, and even look for patterns in the squeaks’ order. Not much is currently known about what all those squeaks mean, but Coffey hopes that once enough biologists compile enough calls, a sort of murine “Rosetta Stone” will emerge.</i></li>
  796. </ol>
  797. <img alt="" height="1" src="" width="1"/></div>
  798.    </content>
  799.    <updated>2020-02-21T05:01:00Z</updated>
  800.    <category term="Four Short Links"/>
  801.    <category term="Signals"/><feedburner:origLink xmlns:feedburner=""></feedburner:origLink>
  802.    <author>
  803.      <name>Nat Torkington</name>
  804.    </author>
  805.    <source>
  806.      <id></id>
  807.      <link href="" rel="alternate" type="text/html"/>
  808.      <link href="" rel="self" type="application/rss+xml"/>
  809.      <link href="" rel="hub" type="text/html"/>
  810.      <subtitle>Now, next, and beyond: Tracking need-to-know trends at the intersection of business and technology</subtitle>
  811.      <title>Radar</title>
  812.      <updated>2020-02-24T16:29:20Z</updated>
  813.    </source>
  814.  </entry>
  816.  <entry xml:lang="en-US">
  817.    <id></id>
  818.    <link href="" rel="alternate" type="text/html"/>
  819.    <title>Four short links: 20 February 2020</title>
  820.    <summary>Hacker Laws — a lot of classics, like Cunningham’s Law: The best way to get the right answer on the internet is not to ask a question—it’s to post the wrong answer. And Kernighan’s Law: Debugging is twice as hard as writing the code in the first place. Therefore, if you write the code as […]</summary>
  821.    <content type="xhtml"><div xmlns=""><ol>
  822. <li><a href="">Hacker Laws</a> — a lot of classics, like Cunningham’s Law: <i>The best way to get the right answer on the internet is not to ask a question—it’s to post the wrong answer.</i> And Kernighan’s Law: <i>Debugging is twice as hard as writing the code in the first place. Therefore, if you write the code as cleverly as possible, you are, by definition, not smart enough to debug it.</i></li>
  823. <li><a href="">A Practical Guide to Watchdogs for Embedded Systems</a> — a lot of good advice and sample code.</li>
  824. <li><a href="">Not Everyone Thinks Moore’s Law is Over</a> — <i>legendary microprocessor engineer</i> says, “<i>I’m expecting more transistors every 2-3 years by a number large enough that how you think of computer architecture has to change.</i> And his reasoning is sound as a generalization.</li>
  825. <li><a href="">ADS-B Data Sharing</a> — <i>There are many websites tracking aircraft, and all of them rely on data shared by ADS-B fans. However, the access to aggregated ADS-B worldwide data is limited. The main goal of ADSBHub is to become a ADS-B data sharing center and valuable data source for all enthusiasts and professionals interested in development of ADS-B-related software.</i> Collaborative project that has the best data for what’s in the air.</li>
  826. </ol>
  827. <img alt="" height="1" src="" width="1"/></div>
  828.    </content>
  829.    <updated>2020-02-20T05:01:00Z</updated>
  830.    <category term="Four Short Links"/>
  831.    <category term="Signals"/><feedburner:origLink xmlns:feedburner=""></feedburner:origLink>
  832.    <author>
  833.      <name>Nat Torkington</name>
  834.    </author>
  835.    <source>
  836.      <id></id>
  837.      <author>
  838.        <name>O’Reilly Radar</name>
  839.      </author>
  840.      <link href="" rel="alternate" type="text/html"/>
  841.      <link href="" rel="self" type="application/rss+xml"/>
  842.      <link href="" rel="hub" type="text/html"/>
  843.      <subtitle>Now, next, and beyond: Tracking need-to-know trends at the intersection of business and technology</subtitle>
  844.      <title>Radar</title>
  845.      <updated>2020-02-24T16:29:20Z</updated>
  846.    </source>
  847.  </entry>
  849.  <entry xml:lang="en-us">
  850.    <id></id>
  851.    <link href="" rel="alternate" type="text/html"/>
  852.    <link href="" rel="replies" type="application/xhtml+xml"/>
  853.    <title xml:lang="en-us">On Soaking the Rich</title>
  854.    <summary type="xhtml" xml:lang="en-us"><div xmlns="">The government of   <a href="">BC</a>, the Canadian province where I live, just released a new   budget which, among other things, raises tax on high incomes.   <a href="">Here</a> is an overview.   The top marginal tax on incomes over C$220,000 goes from 16.8%   to 20.5%. This is just provincial tax; what with the Feds, the total top marginal rate is now 53%.  Not everyone is delighted.   For example Garth Turner, finance/real-estate blogger, who <a href="">emits a   howl of right-wing grief</a>.   I’m comfortable speaking about this since I’m personally affected</div>
  855.    </summary>
  856.    <content type="xhtml" xml:lang="en-us"><div xmlns=""><p>The government of
  857.  <a href="">BC</a>, the Canadian province where I live, just released a new
  858.  budget which, among other things, raises tax on high incomes.
  859.  <a href="">Here</a> is an overview.
  860.  The top marginal tax on incomes over C$220,000 goes from 16.8%
  861.  to 20.5%. This is just provincial tax; what with the Feds, the total top marginal rate is now 53%.  Not everyone is delighted.
  862.  For example Garth Turner, finance/real-estate blogger, who <a href="">emits a
  863.  howl of right-wing grief</a>.
  864.  I’m comfortable speaking about this since I’m personally affected.</p>
  865.  <p><i>[These days, a Canuck buck is worth about $0.75 American.]</i></p>
  866.  <p>It’s worth noting that our province is led by the
  867.  <a href="">New Democratic Party</a> (everyone says  “NDP”) who are Social Democrats; by and large
  868.  pretty moderate by world standards. On the American spectrum they’re red-toothed commies; not too far off
  869.  what Bernie Sanders would like to see.</p>
  870.  <h2 id="p-1">Numbers</h2>
  871.  <p>Let’s do some math, OK?  Garth Turner points out how awful this will be for people living in super-expensive Vancouver and
  872.  making a paltry $250K. Hmm, the marginal increase is 3.7% on income over $220K. So those poor $250K people are going
  873.  to be paying an extra $1110/year.  Garth also excerpts a letter from an aggrieved doctor’s husband who says they’ll be paying an
  874.  extra $1K a month; by my arithmetic the doctor’s making over $540K taxable, thus taking home over $250K, ignoring the tax dodges
  875.  available to the self-employed, then there’s the husband’s income.  Maybe I’m missing something, but neither of these calculations yield
  876.  what feel to me like lifestyle-changing numbers.</p>
  877.  <p>Side-note: I don’t want to diss Garth too much because he’s a really excellent writer on personal finance in general and
  878.  real-estate in particular; if you’re in Canada and have money to invest you should totally read him.  Also he’s funny and
  879.  runs cute dog pictures.  He becomes less interesting as he veers into overly-predictable right-wing tax-grouch tropes.  And,
  880.  disclosure: I’m
  881.  <a href="">a customer</a>.</p>
  882.  <h2 id="p-2">Saving and spending</h2>
  883.  <p>Here’s the thing: A high proportion of people subject to the tax hike are taking home more than they need to live on, so the
  884.  effect of this move is that their savings (and wealth) will grow more slowly.  Most such people
  885.  retire with enough to live on, and are in their forties or older.  So the tax hike won’t result in any short-term spending
  886.  decreases to speak of, but starting say ten
  887.  years from now, a demographic of well-off retirees will have a little less to pump into that future economy.</p>
  888.  <p>And those slightly-smaller savings, what about them?  They join a world-wide glut of capital, surging around looking for a
  889.  decent return. Plenty will look for it outside Canada, or in ventures where most of the profits go to money people.</p>
  890.  <p>On the other hand, the extra $200M or so a year this tax maneuver pulls in will <em>all</em> get spent by the
  891.  government, the vast majority in paychecks to middle- and working-class civil servants and contractors, who will in
  892.  turn spend almost all of it in the next twelve months right here in BC.  Maybe I’m missing something, but this policy feels like
  893.  an economic win/win. The only losers are one-percenters like me; modestly, a decade or two from now.  Maybe I’ll only be able to
  894.  vacation once a year.</p>
  895.  <p>Or is that kind of thinking dangerously socialist?  Here’s some data from <cite>The Economist</cite>:
  896.  <a href="">Wage gains for low earners have helped sustain America’s economic expansion</a>.
  897.  It’s data-rich and convincing. Inequality not only sucks, it’s bloody inefficient and generally bad for the economy.</p>
  898.  <p>In fact, redistributionist policies might improve the economy enough that the return on my savings will make up for their
  899.  slightly smaller size.</p>
  900.  <h2 id="p-3">Conclusion</h2>
  901.  <p>Raise the  minimum wage and the marginal tax rates on people like me.  Both as a left-winger and an investor, I
  902.  approve.</p></div>
  903.    </content>
  904.    <updated>2020-02-20T04:24:21Z</updated>
  905.    <published>2020-02-19T20:00:00Z</published>
  906.    <category scheme="" term="The World/Politics"/>
  907.    <category scheme="" term="The World"/>
  908.    <category scheme="" term="Politics"/>
  909.    <source>
  910.      <id></id>
  911.      <icon></icon>
  912.      <logo></logo>
  913.      <author>
  914.        <name>Tim Bray</name>
  915.      </author>
  916.      <link href="" rel="hub" type="text/html"/>
  917.      <link href="" rel="alternate" type="text/html"/>
  918.      <link href="" rel="self" type="application/atom+xml"/>
  919.      <link href="" rel="replies" type="text/html"/>
  920.      <rights xml:lang="en-us">All content written by Tim Bray and photos by Tim Bray Copyright Tim Bray, some rights reserved, see /ongoing/misc/Copyright</rights>
  921.      <subtitle xml:lang="en-us">ongoing fragmented essay by Tim Bray</subtitle>
  922.      <title xml:lang="en-us">ongoing by Tim Bray</title>
  923.      <updated>2020-02-22T18:55:03Z</updated>
  924.    </source>
  925.  </entry>
  927.  <entry xml:lang="en-US">
  928.    <id></id>
  929.    <link href="" rel="alternate" type="text/html"/>
  930.    <title xml:lang="en-US">Release Notes for Safari Technology Preview 101</title>
  931.    <summary xml:lang="en-US">Safari Technology Preview Release 101 is now available for download for macOS Catalina and macOS Mojave.</summary>
  932.    <content type="xhtml" xml:lang="en-US"><div xmlns=""><p><a href="">Safari Technology Preview</a> Release 101 is now <a href="">available for download</a> for macOS Catalina and macOS Mojave. If you already have Safari Technology Preview installed, you can update in the Software Update pane of System Preferences on macOS.</p>
  933. <p>This release covers WebKit revisions <a href=";rev=256576&amp;limit=999">255473-256576</a>.</p>
  934. <h3>Web Inspector</h3>
  935. <ul>
  936. <li>Added a special breakpoint for controlling whether <code>debugger</code> statements pause in the Sources tab (<a href="">r255887</a>)</li>
  937. <li>Changed to encode binary web socket frames using base64 (<a href="">r256497</a>)</li>
  938. <li>Fixed elements closing tag showing reversed in RTL mode (<a href="">r256374</a>)</li>
  939. <li>Fixed the bezier editor popover to be strictly LTR (<a href="">r255886</a>)</li>
  940. <li>Fixed dragging handles in the easing popover selecting sidebar text (<a href="">r255888</a>)</li>
  941. <li>Updated some cookie table column headers to not be localizable (<a href="">r255896</a>)</li>
  942. </ul>
  943. <h3>Media</h3>
  944. <ul>
  945. <li>Corrected TextTrack sorting with invalid BCP47 language (<a href="">r255997</a>)</li>
  946. <li>Fixed AirPlay sometimes stopping after 60 minutes of playback (<a href="">r255581</a>)</li>
  947. </ul>
  948. <h3>Apple Pay</h3>
  949. <ul>
  950. <li>Redacted billing contact during payment method selection (<a href="">r256071</a>)</li>
  951. </ul>
  952. <h3>JavaScript</h3>
  953. <ul>
  954. <li>Added support for BigInt literal as PropertyName (<a href="">r256541</a>)</li>
  955. </ul>
  956. <h3>Web Animations</h3>
  957. <ul>
  958. <li>Fixed accelerated animations freezing on a render tree rebuild (<a href="">r255663</a>)</li>
  959. <li>Fixed an event loop cycle between an animation finishing and it being removed from GraphicsLayerCA (<a href="">r256181</a>)</li>
  960. <li>Fixed an issue where out-of-view transitions could trigger high memory use (<a href="">r256095</a>)</li>
  961. <li>Prevented playing an accelerated animation that was canceled before it was committed (<a href="">r255810</a>)</li>
  962. </ul>
  963. <h3>WebAuthn</h3>
  964. <ul>
  965. <li>Changed <code>authenticatorGetAssertion</code> to be sent without <code>pinAuth</code> if user verification is discouraged (<a href="">r256001</a>)</li>
  966. </ul>
  967. <h3>WebRTC</h3>
  968. <ul>
  969. <li>Aligned <code>getDisplayMedia()</code> with standards specifications (<a href="">r256034</a>)</li>
  970. <li>Fixed not processing newly gathered ICE candidates if the document is suspended (<a href="">r256009</a>)</li>
  971. </ul>
  972. <h3>CSS</h3>
  973. <ul>
  974. <li>Fixed CSS rules with the same selector from several large stylesheets getting applied in the wrong order (<a href="">r255671</a>)</li>
  975. </ul>
  976. <h3>Rendering</h3>
  977. <ul>
  978. <li>Fixed pages that trigger a redirect sometimes getting left blank (<a href="">r256452</a>)</li>
  979. </ul>
  980. <h3>Web API</h3>
  981. <ul>
  982. <li>Disallowed setting base URL to a data or JavaScript URL (<a href="">r256191</a>)</li>
  983. <li>Fixed highlight text decorations to work with all decoration types and colors (<a href="">r256451</a>)</li>
  984. <li>Implemented <code>OffscreenCanvas.copiedImage</code> (<a href="">r256505</a>)</li>
  985. <li>Added standard gamepad mapping for GameControllerGamepads (<a href="">r256215</a>)</li>
  986. <li>Tightened up stylesheet loading (<a href="">r255693</a>)</li>
  987. <li>Fixed quantifiers after lookahead assertions to be syntax errors in Unicode patterns only (<a href="">r255689</a>)</li>
  988. <li>Fixed <code>\0</code> identity escapes to be syntax errors in Unicode patterns only (<a href="">r255584</a>)</li>
  989. </ul>
  990. <h3>IndexedDB</h3>
  991. <ul>
  992. <li>Fixed iteration of cursors skipping records if deleted (<a href="">r256414</a>)</li>
  993. </ul>
  994. <h3>Back-forward Cache</h3>
  995. <ul>
  996. <li>Updated to remember if legacy TLS was used in the back-forward cache (<a href="">r256073</a>)</li>
  997. </ul></div>
  998.    </content>
  999.    <updated>2020-02-19T21:36:11Z</updated>
  1000.    <published>2020-02-19T21:10:22Z</published>
  1001.    <category scheme="" term="Safari Technology Preview"/>
  1002.    <author>
  1003.      <name/>
  1004.    </author>
  1005.    <source>
  1006.      <id></id>
  1007.      <link href="" rel="alternate" type="text/html"/>
  1008.      <link href="" rel="self" type="application/atom+xml"/>
  1009.      <subtitle xml:lang="en-US">Open Source Web Browser Engine</subtitle>
  1010.      <title xml:lang="en-US">Blog – WebKit</title>
  1011.      <updated>2020-02-19T21:36:11Z</updated>
  1012.    </source>
  1013.  </entry>
  1015.  <entry>
  1016.    <id></id>
  1017.    <link href="" rel="alternate" type="text/html"/>
  1018.    <title>Always Use UTF-8 &amp; Always Label Your HTML Saying So</title>
  1019.    <summary type="xhtml"><div xmlns="">To avoid having to deal with escapes (other than for &lt;, &gt;, &amp;, and "), to avoid data loss in form submission, to avoid XSS when serving user-provided content, and <a href="">to comply with the HTML Standard</a>, always encode your HTML as UTF-8. Furthermore, in order to let browsers know that the document is UTF-8-encoded, always label it as such.</div>
  1020.    </summary>
  1021.    <content type="xhtml"><div xmlns=""><div class="nutshell">
  1022. <p>To avoid having to deal with escapes (other than for &lt;, &gt;, &amp;, and "), to avoid data loss in form submission, to avoid XSS when serving user-provided content, and <a href="">to comply with the HTML Standard</a>, always encode your HTML as UTF-8. Furthermore, in order to let browsers know that the document is UTF-8-encoded, always label it as such. To label your document, you need to do <i>at least one</i> of the following:</p>
  1024. <ul>
  1025. <li><p>Put <code>&lt;meta charset="utf-8"&gt;</code> as the first thing after the <code>&lt;head&gt;</code> tag.</p><p>The <code>meta</code> tag, including its ending <code>&gt;</code> character needs to be within the first 1024 bytes of the file. Putting it right after <code>&lt;head&gt;</code> is the easiest way to get this right. <b>Do not</b> put comments before <code>&lt;head&gt;</code>.</p></li>
  1026. <li><p>Configure your server to send the header <code>Content-Type: text/html; charset=utf-8</code> on the HTTP layer.</p></li>
  1027. <li><p>Start the document with the UTF-8 BOM, i.e. the bytes 0xEF, 0xBB, and 0xBF.</p></li>
  1028. </ul>
  1029. <p>Doing more than one of these is OK.</p>
  1030. </div>
  1032. <h2 id="answers">Answers to Questions</h2>
  1034. <p>The above says the important bit. Here are answers to further questions:</p>
  1036. <h3 id="why">Why Do I Need to Label UTF-8 in HTML?</h3>
  1038. <p>Because HTML didn’t support UTF-8 in the very beginning and legacy content can’t be expected to opt out, you need to opt into UTF-8 just like you need to opt into the standards mode (via <code>&lt;!DOCTYPE html&gt;</code>) and to mobile-friedly layout (via <code>&lt;meta name="viewport" content="width=device-width, initial-scale=1"&gt;</code>). (<a href="">Longer answer</a>)</p>
  1040. <h3 id="which">Which Method Should I Choose?</h3>
  1042. <p><code>&lt;meta charset="utf-8"&gt;</code> has the benefit of keeping the label within your document even if you move it around. The main risk is that someone forgets that it needs to be within the first 1024 bytes and puts comments, Facebook metadata, <code>rel=preload</code>s, stylesheets or scripts before it. Always put that other stuff <i>after</i> it.</p>
  1044. <p>The HTTP header has the benefit that if you are setting up a new server that doesn’t have any old non-UTF-8 documents on it, you can configure the header once, and it works for all HTML documents on the server thereafter.</p>
  1046. <p>The BOM method has the problem that it’s too easy to edit the file in a text editor that removes the BOM and not notice that this has happened. However, if you are writing a serializer library and you are neither in control of the HTTP header nor can inject a tag without interfering with what your users are doing, you can make the serializer always start with the UTF-8 BOM and know that things will be OK.</p>
  1048. <h3 id="utf16">Can I Use UTF-16 Instead?</h3>
  1050. <p>Don’t. If you serve user-provided content as UTF-16, <a href="">it is possible to smuggle content that becomes executable when interpreted as other encodings</a>. This is a cross-site scripting vulnerability if the user uses a browser that allows the user to manually override UTF-16 with another encoding.</p>
  1052. <p>UTF-16 cannot be labeled via <code>&lt;meta charset&gt;</code>.</p>
  1054. <h3 id="text">What about Plain Text?</h3>
  1056. <p>The <code>&lt;meta charset="utf-8"&gt;</code> method is not available for plain text, but the other two are. In the case of plain text, the HTTP header is obviously <code>Content-Type: text/plain; charset=utf-8</code> instead.</p>
  1058. <h3 id="js">What about JavaScript?</h3>
  1060. <p>If you’ve labeled your HTML as UTF-8, you don’t need to label your UTF-8-encoded JavaScript files, since by default they inherit the encoding from the document that includes them. However, to make your JavaScript robust when referenced form non-UTF-8 HTML you can use the UTF-8 BOM or the HTTP header, which is <code>Content-Type: application/javascript; charset=utf-8</code> in the JavaScript case.</p>
  1062. <h3 id="css">What about CSS?</h3>
  1064. <p>If you’ve labeled your HTML as UTF-8, you don’t need to label your UTF-8-encoded CSS files, since by default they inherit the encoding from the document that includes them. However, to make your CSS robust when referenced form non-UTF-8 HTML you can use the UTF-8 BOM or the HTTP header, which is <code>Content-Type: text/css; charset=utf-8</code> in the CSS case, or you can put <code>@charset "utf-8";</code> as the very first thing in the CSS file.</p>
  1066. <h3 id="xml">What about XML (Including SVG)?</h3>
  1068. <p>Unlabeled XML defaults to UTF-8, so you don’t need to label it.</p>
  1070. <h3 id="json">What about JSON?</h3>
  1072. <p><a href="">JSON must be UTF-8</a> and <a href="">is processed as UTF-8</a>, so there’s no labeling.</p>
  1074. <h3 id="webvtt">What about WebVTT?</h3>
  1076. <p>WebVTT is always UTF-8, so there’s no labeling.</p></div>
  1077.    </content>
  1078.    <updated>2020-02-19T19:21:12Z</updated>
  1079.    <source>
  1080.      <id></id>
  1081.      <author>
  1082.        <name>Henri Sivonen</name>
  1083.        <email>[email protected]</email>
  1084.      </author>
  1085.      <link href="" rel="alternate" type="text/html"/>
  1086.      <link href="" rel="self" type="application/atom+xml"/>
  1087.      <rights>Copyright Henri Sivonen</rights>
  1088.      <subtitle>Articles and blogish notes</subtitle>
  1089.      <title>Henri Sivonen’s pages</title>
  1090.      <updated>2020-02-20T07:08:18Z</updated>
  1091.    </source>
  1092.  </entry>
  1094.  <entry>
  1095.    <id></id>
  1096.    <link href="" rel="alternate" type="text/html"/>
  1097.    <title>Why Supporting Unlabeled UTF-8 in HTML on the Web Would Be Problematic</title>
  1098.    <summary>UTF-8 has won. Yet, Web authors have to opt in to having browsers treat HTML as UTF-8 instead of the browsers Just Doing the Right Thing by default. Why?</summary>
  1099.    <content type="xhtml"><div xmlns=""><p>UTF-8 has won. Yet, Web authors have to opt in to having browsers treat HTML as UTF-8 instead of the browsers Just Doing the Right Thing by default. Why?</p>
  1101. <p>I’m writing this down in comprehensive form, because otherwise I will keep rewriting unsatisfactory partial explanations repeatedly as bug comments again and again. For more on how to label, see <a href="">another writeup</a>.</p>
  1103. <h2>Legacy Content Won’t Be Opting Out</h2>
  1105. <p>First of all, there is the “<a href="">Support Existing Content</a>” design principle. Browsers can’t just default to UTF-8 and have HTML documents encoded in legacy encodings opt out of UTF-8, because there is unlabeled legacy content, and we can’t realistically expect the legacy content to be actively maintained to add opt-outs now. If we are to keep supporting such legacy content, the assumption we have to start with is that unlabeled content <i>could</i> be in a legacy encoding.</p>
  1107. <p>In this regard, <code>&lt;meta charset=utf-8&gt;</code> is just like <code>&lt;!DOCTYPE html&gt;</code> and <code>&lt;meta name="viewport" content="width=device-width, initial-scale=1"&gt;</code>. Everyone wants newly-authored content to use UTF-8, the No-Quirks Mode (better known as the Standards Mode), and to work well on small screens. Yet, every single newly-authored HTML document has to explicitly opt in to all three, since it isn’t realistic to get all legacy pages to opt out.</p>
  1109. <h2>Web Content Arrives over Time</h2>
  1111. <p>But there is no single legacy encoding, so if we want to Support Existing Content, we need some way of deciding which one, <i>and</i> we know that given a document that is valid UTF-8, the probability that it was meant to be something other than UTF-8 is virtually zero. So if we decide which one of the legacy encodings we are dealing with not just by the top-level domain name (or the browser UI locale) but by examining the content, why not autodetect UTF-8?</p>
  1113. <p>The issue is not the difficulty of distinguishing UTF-8 from other encodings given the <i>full</i> content. In fact, when loading files from <code>file:</code> URLs, Firefox does detect detect UTF-8! (Chrome does, too, but less reliably.) For <code>file:</code> URLs, we sacrifice incremental loading on the assumption that most <code>file:</code> URLs point to a local disk (as opposed to a file server mounted as if it was a local drive) which is fast enough that the user would not notice incremental loading anyway. We also assume that <code>file:</code>-URL content is <i>finite</i>.</p>
  1115. <p>For <code>http:</code>/<code>https:</code> content, though, incremental processing is important and starting over is bad. Also, some pages intentionally never finish loading and need to be treated as infinite so we never have “full” content!</p>
  1117. <h2>Encoding Detection Prescan Is Not Like <code>meta charset</code> Prescan</h2>
  1119. <p>But we already wait for up to 1024 bytes (in Gecko; in WebKit and in Blink it is more complicated) to scan for <code>meta charset</code>, so infinite-loading pages that neither declare the encoding nor send 1024 bytes before some earlier JavaScript has done an out-of-band request to the server to signal that it is OK to send more HTML bytes already stall. Can’t we just scan the first 1024 bytes for UTF-8ness?</p>
  1121. <p>This assumes that there is some non-ASCII within the first 1024 bytes. Can we rely on non-ASCII pages to have the first bytes of non-ASCII within the first 1024 bytes? No.</p>
  1123. <p>The non-markup bytes are typically either in the general-purpose HTML <code>title</code> element or in the <code>content</code> attribute of the Facebook-purpose <code>meta property="og:title"</code> element. Sadly, it is all too possible for these not to be within the first 1024 bytes, because before them, there are things like IE conditional comments, Facebook bogo-namespaces, a heap of <code>rel=preload</code>s, over a dozen icons for iOS, copyright-related comments, or just scripts and stylesheets declared first.</p>
  1125. <h2>What If We Scanned the Whole <code>head</code>?</h2>
  1127. <p>What if we scanned until the start of <code>body</code> like WebKit does for <code>meta charset</code> (leaving aside for the moment how confidently we can locate the start of <code>body</code>, which has an optional start tag before we start the real tokenization and tree building)? Surely <code>title</code> is <i>somewhere</i> in <code>head</code>, and the user cannot perceive incremental rendering until <code>body</code> starts anyway.</p>
  1129. <p>So now we see <code>title</code> while we’ve buffered up bytes and haven’t started the real encoding decoder, the tokenizer, or the tree builder. We can now detect from the content of <code>title</code>, right? For non-Latin scripts, yes. Even just the page title in a non-Latin script is very likely enough to decide UTF-8ness. For languages like German or Finnish, no. Even though just about every German or Finnish <i>document</i> has non-ASCII, there’s a very real chance that the few words that end up in the title are fully ASCII. For languages like English, Somali, Dutch, Indonesian, Swahili, Somali, or various Malay languages you have even less hope of there being non-ASCII in the title than with German or Finnish even though there might be non-ASCII quotation marks, dashes, or a rare non-ASCII letter (such as a rare letter with diaeresis or acute accent) in a full document. For the <i>World-Wide</i> Web, a solution needs to work for these languages, too, and not just for non-Latin-script languages.</p>
  1131. <h2>Looking Further</h2>
  1133. <p>OK, so it seems that something more complicated is needed. Let’s think of fundamental requirements:</p>
  1135. <p>If Web authors think they can get away with not declaring UTF-8, many, many Web authors are going to leave UTF-8 undeclared. Therefore, we need a solution that works reliably in 100% of the case or we’d make the Web Platform more brittle. Timeouts are by definition dependent on something other than the content, so any solution that hand-waves some problem away by adding a timeout would be unreliable in this sense. Likewise, solutions that depend on how HTML content maps to network protocol buffer boundaries are inherently unreliable in this sense.</p>
  1137. <p>Also, making UTF-8 work undeclared should not regress performance compared to labeled UTF-8. A performance regression large enough to make the aggregate user experience worse (especially on slow CPUs and Internet connections) but small enough not to be noticed by authors (especially on fast CPUs and fast Internet connections) would be particularly unfortunate.</p>
  1139. <p>This gives us the following basic requirements:</p>
  1141. <ul>
  1142. <li>Must support existing unlabeled non-UTF-8 content.</li>
  1143. <li>Must be reliable for unlabeled UTF-8.</li>
  1144. <li>Must not break incremental rendering of HTML.</li>
  1145. <li>Must not involve timeouts.</li>
  1146. <li>Must not depend on network buffer boundaries.</li>
  1147. <li>Must not regress performance compared to labeled UTF-8.</li>
  1148. </ul>
  1150. <p>Let’s look at what’s wrong with potential solutions. (As noted earlier, simply defaulting to UTF-8 without detection would fail to support existing unlabeled non-UTF-8 content.)</p>
  1152. <h2>Buffer Until Decided</h2>
  1154. <p>OK, how about we scan until we’ve seen enough non-ASCII to decide, then? This doesn’t work, because for ASCII-only content it would mean buffering all the way to the end of the document, and ASCII-only content is real on the Web. That is, this would break incremental rendering e.g. for English. Trying to hand-wave the problem away using timeout would fail the requirement not to have timeouts. Trying to have a limit based and byte count would make the solution unreliable e.g. English content that has a copyright sign in the page footer or for Dutch content that has a letter with the diaeresis further from the page start than whatever the limit is.</p>
  1156. <h2>What Chrome Does but with UTF-8 Detection</h2>
  1158. <p>Chrome already has detection for legacy encodings. How about detecting UTF-8 byte patterns, too?</p>
  1160. <p>This would not be at all reliable. Chrome’s detection is opportunistic from whatever bytes the HTML parser happens to have available up front. This means that the result not only depends on timing and network buffer boundaries but also fails to account for non-ASCII after a long ASCII prefix.</p>
  1162. <h2>What Chrome Does but with UTF-8 as the Fallback</h2>
  1164. <p>How about doing what Chrome does, but deciding UTF-8 if all the bytes available at the time of decision or ASCII?</p>
  1166. <p>This would break some existing unlabeled non-UTF-8 content with a long ASCII prefix. Additionally, the breakage would be dependent on timing and network buffer boundaries.</p>
  1168. <h2>What Firefox Does but with UTF-8 Detection</h2>
  1170. <p>Firefox already has detection for legacy encodings. How about detecting UTF-8 byte patterns, too?</p>
  1172. <p>Firefox has a solution that does not depend on timing or network buffer boundaries and that can deal with long ASCII prefixes. If the meta prescan of the first 1024 bytes fails, Firefox runs the encoding detector on those 1024 bytes taking into account the top-level domain as an additional signal. If those bytes are all ASCII (and don’t contain an ISO-2022-JP escape sequence), Firefox at that point decides from the top-level domain. Upon encountering the end of the stream, Firefox guesses again now taking into account all the bytes. If the second guess differs from the first guess, the page is reloaded using the result of the second guess.</p>
  1174. <p>(The above description does not apply to the .jp, .in, and .lk TLDs. .jp has a special-purpose detector that detects among Japanese encodings only and triggers the reload, if needed, as soon as the decision is possible. .in and .lk fall back to windows-1252 without detection to accommodate old font hacks.)</p>
  1176. <p>When there’s a 1024-byte (or longer) ASCII prefix, reloading the page would regress performance relative to labeling UTF-8. Also, there is the additional problem that side effects of scripts (e.g. outbound XHR/Fetch) could be observed twice.</p>
  1178. <h2>What Firefox Does but Guessing UTF-8 If the First 1024 Bytes Are ASCII</h2>
  1180. <p>How about guessing UTF-8 instead of making a TLD-based guess when the first 1024 bytes are ASCII?</p>
  1182. <p>This solution would be better, but it would regress performance in the form of reloads for existing pages that currently don’t suffer such problems in order to allow UTF to go undeclared for new pages. Furthermore, pages that load different-origin pages into iframes could be confused by those pages reloading on their own. Sure, this problem is already present in Firefox, but it occurs rarely thanks to the TLD-based guess being pretty good except for non-windows-1252 content on generic domains. This solution would make it occur for every unlabeled non-UTF-8 page with a 1024-byte ASCII prefix. Moreover, this would break legacy-encoded documents that never reach the end of the stream, such as pre-Web Socket chat response iframes.</p>
  1184. <p>Even for new unlabeled UTF-8 pages that would be a performance penalty relative to labeled UTF-8: The performance cost of processing all the bytes of the page using the detector.</p>
  1186. <h2>Stopping the Detector Once Confident about UTF-8</h2>
  1188. <p>Could we do something about the performance penalty for unlabeled UTF-8 content?</p>
  1190. <p>Yes, we could. First, the ASCII prefix is already skipped over using SIMD and without pushing to each detector state machine. We could define how many characters of given UTF-8 sequence length need to be seen in order to stay with UTF-8 and stop running the detector. In the case of two-byte UTF-8 sequences, seeing only one is not enough. In the case of three-byte UTF-8 sequences, maybe even one is enough. This would mitigate the concern of unlabeled UTF-8 suffering a performance penalty relative to labeled UTF-8.</p>
  1192. <p>However, this would still leave the issue of reloading non-UTF-8 pages that presently don’t need to be reloaded thanks to the TLD-based guess and the issue of breaking legacy-encoded pages that intentionally never reach the end of the stream.</p>
  1194. <h2>Passing Through the ASCII Prefix</h2>
  1196. <p>What’s deal with the reloading anyway? An ASCII prefix decodes the same in both UTF-8 and in legacy encodings (other than UTF-16BE and UTF-16LE, which are handled on the BOM sniffing layer), so why not just pass the ASCII prefix through and make the detection decision afterwards?</p>
  1198. <p>That is, instead of treating decoding as a step that happens <i>after</i> detection, how about fusing the detector into a decoder such that the decoder streams ASCII through (to the HTML tokenizer) until seeing an ISO-2022-JP escape or a non-ASCII byte, and in the former case turns into a streaming ISO-2022-JP decoder immediately and in the latter case buffers bytes until the fused detector has confidently made its guess, turns into a decoder for the guessed encoding, outputs the buffer decoded accordingly, and thereafter behaves as a streaming decoder for the guessed encoding?</p>
  1200. <p>As with the observation that detecting UTF-8 is simple given access to the whole document, but things being complicated because document loading on the Web happens over time, things with the ASCII prefix are more complicated than they seem.</p>
  1202. <p>If the ASCII prefix is passed through to the HTML tokenizer, parsed, and the corresponding part of the DOM built before the encoding is decided, two issues need to be addressed:</p>
  1204. <ol>
  1205. <li>The ASCII prefix may contain <code>&lt;script src&gt;</code>, <code>&lt;link rel=stylesheet&gt;</code>, or same-origin <code>&lt;iframe&gt;</code>, and the encoding of the document inherits into those in case they turn out to lack encoding declarations of their own.</li>
  1206. <li>A script may have observed <code>document.characterSet</code>.</li>
  1207. </ol>
  1209. <p>Does the second issue matter? Maybe it does, in which case passing through the ASCII prefix before deciding the encoding won’t work. However, more likely it doesn’t.</p>
  1211. <p>If it doesn’t, we can make up a special name signifying ongoing detection and expose it from <code>document.characterSet</code> and inherit it into external scripts, stylesheets, and same-origin iframes. This means that detection expands from being an HTML loading-specific issue to being something that the script and style loaders need to deal with as well (i.e. they need to also run the detector if the special name is inherited).</p>
  1213. <p>If we were to go this route, we should use pre-existing IE special names. The generic detector should be called <code>_autodetect_all</code> and the .jp TLD-specific detector should be called <code>_autodetect</code>. (<a href="">IE got Japanese detection in IE4.</a> The generic detector was not in IE4 but was added by IE6 at the latest. Hence the Japanese case getting the shorter name.)</p>
  1215. <p>In addition to exposing non-encoding-name values via <code>document.characterSet</code> and making detection spill over to the script and style loaders, this poses a problem similar to the earlier ASCII prefix problems: What if there’s a two-byte UTF-8 sequence, which on its own could be plausible as <a href="">two German windows-1252 characters</a> or as a single legacy CJK character, and then another long stretch of ASCII? For example, UTF-8 ®, which is reasonable in an English page title, maps to <span>庐</span> in GBK, <span>簧</span> in Big5, <span>速</span> in EUC-JP, and <span>짰</span> in EUC-KR. The characters land in the most common section (Level 1 Hanzi/Kanji or common Hangul) in each of the four encodings.</p>
  1217. <p>So if UTF-8 ® stops ASCII passthrough and starts buffering, because the character alone isn’t a conclusive sign of UTF-8ness, it is easy to break incremental rendering, since on an English page buffering until more non-ASCII characters are found could end up reaching the end of the stream.</p>
  1219. <h2>ASCII Pass-Through with Length-Limited Subsequent ASCII Runs</h2>
  1221. <p>The problem could be alleviated in a way that doesn’t depend on timing or on buffer boundaries. If the page indeed is German in windows-1252 or Chinese, Japanese, or Korean in a legacy encoding, there should be more UTF-8 byte sequences at a shorter distance from the previous one than in UTF-8 English (or Dutch, etc.). The German non-ASCII sequences will be relatively far apart, but it’s very improbable that the next occurrence of windows-1252 non-ASCII will <i>also</i> constitute a valid UTF-8 byte sequence. GBK, Big5, EUC-JP, and EUC-KR can easily have multiple consecutive two-byte sequences that are also plausible UTF-8 byte sequences. However, once non-ASCII starts showing up, more non-ASCII is relatively close and at some point, there will be a byte sequence that’s not valid UTF-8.</p>
  1223. <p>It should be possible to pick a number such that if the detector has seen non-ASCII but hasn’t yet decided UTF-8 vs. non-UTF-8, if it subsequently sees more ASCII bytes in a row than the chosen number, it decides UTF-8.</p>
  1225. <h2>It’s a Design! Why Not Go Ahead and Ship It?</h2>
  1227. <p>Apart from making the bet that exposing weird values from <code>document.characterSet</code> wouldn’t break the Web, the solution sketched above would involve behaviors that none of Gecko, Blink, or WebKit currently have. Just letting Web authors omit labeling UTF-8 does not seem like a good enough reason to introduce such complexity.</p>
  1229. <h2>What about <code>text/plain</code>?</h2>
  1231. <p><code>text/plain</code> can’t use <code>&lt;meta charset=utf-8&gt;</code> and doesn’t have the issue of re-running the side effects of JavaScript upon reload. How about making Firefox detect UTF-8 for <code>text/plain</code>?</p>
  1233. <p>The case against doing this is less strong than in the HTML case. However, it’s a slippery slope. It would be bad for Firefox to do this unilaterally and to provoke Chrome to do more detection if it meant Chrome picking one of the easy-for-Chrome brittle options from the start of the above list instead of doing something robust and cross-vendor-agreed-upon.</p></div>
  1234.    </content>
  1235.    <updated>2020-02-19T19:20:41Z</updated>
  1236.    <source>
  1237.      <id></id>
  1238.      <author>
  1239.        <name>Henri Sivonen</name>
  1240.        <email>[email protected]</email>
  1241.      </author>
  1242.      <link href="" rel="alternate" type="text/html"/>
  1243.      <link href="" rel="self" type="application/atom+xml"/>
  1244.      <rights>Copyright Henri Sivonen</rights>
  1245.      <subtitle>Articles and blogish notes</subtitle>
  1246.      <title>Henri Sivonen’s pages</title>
  1247.      <updated>2020-02-20T07:08:18Z</updated>
  1248.    </source>
  1249.  </entry>
  1251.  <entry xml:lang="en-US">
  1252.    <id></id>
  1253.    <link href="" rel="alternate" type="text/html"/>
  1254.    <title>10 ways to get untapped talent in your organization to contribute</title>
  1255.    <summary>Every day, leaders actively look for ways to use their employees’ capabilities, but as they do this, research indicates that the bulk of organizational talent still goes untapped. This could occur for a myriad of reasons. Perhaps: You don’t recognize the value of talent that exists in your current workforce. The people are there, but […]</summary>
  1256.    <content type="xhtml"><div xmlns=""><p>Every day, leaders actively look for ways to use their employees’ capabilities, but as they do this, research indicates that the bulk of organizational talent still goes untapped. This could occur for a myriad of reasons. Perhaps:</p>
  1257. <ul>
  1258. <li><em>You don’t recognize the value of talent</em> that exists in your current workforce. The people are there, but you don’t see them.</li>
  1259. <li><em>Your workers don’t recognize the value of their talent</em> as it relates to your strategy. The opportunity is there, but they don’t see it.</li>
  1260. <li><em>Your workers haven’t been sufficiently trained to reach their highest levels</em> of potential when performing their work. They don’t know how to turn raw talent into a competitive capability.</li>
  1261. <li><em>Your workers haven’t been sufficiently inspired to bring their best talents to work with you</em>, so they are offering them to another organization. In today’s gig economy, that could be devastating for you. That means your people are learning, but you aren’t leveraging them, so someone else is reaping the reward as they grow.</li>
  1262. </ul>
  1263. <p>A big part of your leadership success is understanding how to reimagine the way you operate in your own role so that you focus on the organization’s biggest priorities. That will help you know what power to unleash for yourself and what capabilities to foster in others. A good rule of thumb is for you to find the right mix of:</p>
  1264. <ul>
  1265. <li>Teaching: coaching and mentoring your people on strategic priorities and using their capabilities correctly</li>
  1266. <li>Telling: sharing stories, statistics, and strategies about where you’re going, what’s expected, and what’s worked in the past</li>
  1267. <li>Trusting: delegating work to others so you’ll have time to be far more strategic in your own work efforts</li>
  1268. <li>Trying: exploring new innovation opportunities as you look for new ways to grow the business or become more efficient</li>
  1269. </ul>
  1270. <p>In order to get untapped talent in your organization to contribute, consider helping your people with 10 key things:</p>
  1271. <ol>
  1272. <li><strong>Understanding that you value many different types of talent</strong>Many organizations struggle with identifying and using the talents of their people, so they often don’t know when to use what they have in-house versus investing in outside resources. Before you launch on a large reskilling or outsourcing campaign, start by communicating the value you see in people having a variety of different talents. For instance, instead of focusing on purely technical or business roles, start looking for those people who are great collaborators, those who are great negotiators or deal brokers, those who can visualize enterprise or societal problems, those who are great visionaries, and those who are great orchestrators. You will start to see multiple people step up to new opportunities if you focus on getting the right fit for a person who’s already in your organization. Remember: just because a person <em>can</em> do a role (which is about capability) doesn’t mean that’s what that person <em>should</em> be doing now (which is about fit). Look at people’s experiences, competencies, capabilities, and interests as they all relate to your current business needs. Then validate various types of talent so you can draw on all of them to fulfill your strategic priorities.</li>
  1273. <li><strong>Accurately assessing their potential</strong>Organizations can sometimes struggle with two distinct types of people. One group is full of very talented individuals, but they do not understand how and why their talent is valuable to the organization’s strategy. They know how to fulfill the requirements of their job description, but they are unable to connect their work back to the broader success of the business. The second group is also comprised of talented individuals, but in this case, they know their experiences and capabilities, and they’re able to make connections to creative opportunities for their talent in countless ways. Their challenge lies in the fact that you don’t see their potential. You’re so accustomed to seeing people one way that you can’t see the forest for the trees. Learn to be more intentional and inclusionary in the way you assess team members and apply their skills to your overall goals.</li>
  1274. <li><strong>Using multiple approaches to match talent to work</strong>Typically, organizations look at their strategy first and then try to find the talent and capabilities that give them a competitive advantage. One alternative is to assess the existing talent you have in your organization, and then, given that talent, ask yourself what you might be able to produce. Consider case #1, where you might contemplate building a new system. You identify a need for new architects, coders, infrastructure team members, etc. Now consider case #2, where you still evaluate your entire team, but find that in addition to architects, coders, and infrastructure team members, you have artists, communicators, historians, security experts, gamers, and even digital laggards. Given your team makeup and your customers’ needs, ask yourself what kind of solutions you could offer if you have all of those skills at your disposal. There is a vast array of offerings waiting to be exposed by the untapped capabilities of your team.</li>
  1275. <li><strong>Making it exciting to do something different</strong>Your people have taken a long time to build their reputations, so occasionally you may find that some of them are reluctant to step out into a new role. In order to help them take the risk to use hidden talents in new ways, generate some energy around the effort you’re offering. Create a buzz in the office that makes this a hot opportunity, one that everyone wants to be involved in. By promoting the project and whipping up enthusiasm both inside and outside your team, you can emphasize cool new opportunities and roles that those who sign on will be building something bigger than themselves, a project so rewarding they won’t want to miss out.</li>
  1276. <li><strong>Branding their work in new ways</strong>Start to think about your work more abstractly, and teach your direct reports to think that way as well. For instance, instead of looking at your group as an infrastructure team responsible for setting up servers, give your team a tagline that brands their efforts in an abstract, yet inventive way. For instance, migrate their thinking about their job from pure infrastructure work to “helping the organization move at the speed of light.” This becomes a simple, yet powerful reminder that you are no longer doing business as usual, and new skills are required to help you be successful. People will naturally start to determine ways they can use their hidden talent to help the organization move faster, they’ll start to have different conversations with their colleagues, and you will see innovative solutions that wouldn’t occur with your normal modes of working.</li>
  1277. <li><strong>Creating multiple ways to become a rock star</strong>Recognize that most people won’t move on to lead departments or huge numbers of people. Create paths where talent can grow and be recognized because of their deep knowledge and collaborative efforts, even if they don’t request or receive a promotion. Develop “Unsung Hero” awards for those who work behind the scenes to make everything run smoothly. Recognize individual players who develop solutions as well as those who have become the glue that holds everything together, and recognize those who develop ideas on the fringe to help you work through a really tough delivery.</li>
  1278. <li><strong>Creating a culture where it’s easy for people to speak up</strong>We often ask people to speak up, but then force them to work in cultures where it’s virtually impossible for them to actually do it. That creates an environment where most of your employees are not their best versions of themselves every day. They’ve learned that it’s smart to be quiet, even when they have knowledge that might help you win. People may see opportunities you can capitalize on, capabilities they could offer, or competitive advantage they could create, but because of the way your culture works, they’ve learned to be quiet. They cage those thoughts within because they do not have a voice, or they are not allowed to have vision on your team. Demonstrate the value of every person’s contribution by intentionally creating space (in meetings, in email, at the watercooler, etc.) for everyone to develop influence on the team.</li>
  1279. <li><strong>Making it easy and okay for people to build coalitions of support</strong>Allow team members to reach out to others in the company who think and act like them, or who are interested in the same subject matters. Provide an autonomous environment where they can pursue their ambitions with others. These places can serve as incubators for ideas and sandboxes for new innovation. You’ll see new opportunities emerge as people collaborate to solve problems, or start to recognize commonality in roles and processes. Instead of stifling these conversations, encourage them, because they are a sign that a coalition is forming and your productivity could soon be rising.</li>
  1280. <li><strong>Bringing a strategic focus to their work</strong>Rather than focusing on a job description, help team members understand the real job to be done, and recognize that their future work might be performed in a different way than their work is completed today. Give them a mission, a vision, a way to fit in to the overall strategic priorities of the business. Help them find a dream that is strong enough for them to take ownership of known and unknown tasks and want to individually push them forward. Give them time to develop capabilities today that you know you’ll need tomorrow. But then stick to your word. Often, people are promised the moon when they take on a job and then find themselves stuck working in the basement. This can lead to enormous levels of disengagement because, while employees still have to do the work, they have no real outlet for their innovation. That will force them to look elsewhere to solve their problem.</li>
  1281. <li><strong>Rethinking your own work and ways of working</strong>Go back to the drawing board for your own role. Understand what your real work is. Often, as people stay with an organization, the <em>work</em> changes, but they don’t change the <em>way they work</em>. You might be doing different work today than you did a few years ago, but your thought processes and work patterns can be essentially the same. Step back and take a look at your current role. What you are trying to accomplish, and who will you need for support in that effort? Are you doing the right work? Are you intentional about the way you use the time you spend with your leaders, peers, and directs? How do you use the mix of your time? How do you use their time?</li>
  1282. </ol>
  1283. <p>By using these 10 techniques, you will be able to harness the power of your organization’s untapped talent, capitalize on your people’s capabilities, and create a culture that motivates them to partner with you to create long-term success for your organization.</p>
  1284. <img alt="" height="1" src="" width="1"/></div>
  1285.    </content>
  1286.    <updated>2020-02-19T11:00:00Z</updated>
  1287.    <category term="Future of the Firm"/>
  1288.    <category term="Deep Dive"/>
  1289.    <category term="Your Company's Talent"/><feedburner:origLink xmlns:feedburner=""></feedburner:origLink>
  1290.    <author>
  1291.      <name>Pamela Rucker</name>
  1292.    </author>
  1293.    <source>
  1294.      <id></id>
  1295.      <author>
  1296.        <name>O’Reilly Radar</name>
  1297.      </author>
  1298.      <link href="" rel="alternate" type="text/html"/>
  1299.      <link href="" rel="self" type="application/rss+xml"/>
  1300.      <link href="" rel="hub" type="text/html"/>
  1301.      <subtitle>Now, next, and beyond: Tracking need-to-know trends at the intersection of business and technology</subtitle>
  1302.      <title>Radar</title>
  1303.      <updated>2020-02-24T16:29:20Z</updated>
  1304.    </source>
  1305.  </entry>
  1307.  <entry xml:lang="en">
  1308.    <id></id>
  1309.    <link href="" rel="alternate" type="text/html"/>
  1310.    <link href="" rel="replies" type="text/html"/>
  1311.    <link href="" rel="replies" type="application/atom+xml"/>
  1312.    <title xml:lang="en">Julie Packard: Philanthropist, Antithesis of a Trust-Fund Baby, and Environmental Role Model</title>
  1313.    <summary type="xhtml" xml:lang="en"><div xmlns=""><p>Welcome to Remarkable People. This week’s Remarkable People podcast features a woman who fell in love with the Monterey Bay while studying science at U.C. Santa Cruz. On many dark, dank, and cold mornings, Julie Packard waded through the icy waters of the intertidal zone to study the plants and animals. She did this [...]</p>
  1314. <p>The post <a href="" rel="nofollow">Julie Packard: Philanthropist, Antithesis of a Trust-Fund Baby, and Environmental Role Model</a> appeared first on <a href="" rel="nofollow">Guy Kawasaki</a>.</p></div>
  1315.    </summary>
  1316.    <content type="xhtml" xml:lang="en"><div xmlns=""><div class="fusion-fullwidth fullwidth-box fusion-builder-row-1 nonhundred-percent-fullwidth non-hundred-percent-height-scrolling" style="background-color: rgba(255,255,255,0); background-position: center center; padding-top: 0px; padding-right: 0px; padding-bottom: 0px; padding-left: 0px;"><div class="fusion-builder-row fusion-row "><div class="fusion-layout-column fusion_builder_column fusion_builder_column_1_1 fusion-builder-column-0 fusion-one-full fusion-column-first fusion-column-last 1_1" style="margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 20px;"><div class="fusion-column-wrapper"><div class="fusion-text"><p dir="ltr"><strong>Welcome to Remarkable People.</strong></p>
  1317. <p dir="auto">This week’s Remarkable People podcast features a woman who fell in love with the Monterey Bay while studying science at U.C. Santa Cruz.</p>
  1318. <p dir="auto">On many dark, dank, and cold mornings, Julie Packard waded through the icy waters of the intertidal zone to study the plants and animals. She did this as research about the impact of humans on the Central California coast.</p>
  1319. <p dir="auto">In the late seventies David Packard, half of the founding team of Hewlett-Packard Company, challenged his children to come up with a big project that would make a difference in the world.</p>
  1320. <p dir="auto">Julie’s sister Nancy, Nancy’s husband, and a couple of friends came up with a concept for an aquarium. Eventually, this led to her father and mother investing $55 million to fund what is now the Monterey Bay Aquarium.</p>
  1321. <p dir="auto">Initial studies projected 350,000 visitors a year. Year one drew nearly 2.4 million people.</p>
  1322. <p dir="auto">Since its opening day on October 20th, 1984, the Monterey Bay Aquarium has introduced over 60 million people to the incredible sea life off the Central California Coast, as well as the vast ocean beyond.</p>
  1323. <p dir="auto">Julie is the executive director of the Monterey Bay Aquarium and an international leader in the field of ocean conservation. She is also a leading voice for science-based policy reform in support of a healthy ocean.</p>
  1324. <p dir="auto">Can you guess what sea animal she’d like to come back as? Stay tuned, and you’ll soon find out.</p>
  1325. <p dir="auto">Her philosophy is to learn something every day, work with great people, and motivate them to make the world a better place.</p>
  1326. <p dir="auto">This is Guy Kawasaki and this is the Remarkable People podcast. And now here’s Julie Packard.</p>
  1327. <p dir="auto"><em>© Monterey Bay Aquarium, photo by Tom O’Neal</em></p>
  1328. </div><center/><div class="fusion-text"><h2 dir="ltr">What did you learn from this episode of Remarkable People?</h2>
  1329. <p dir="ltr">This week’s question is:</p>
  1330. <p dir="ltr"><span/></p><hr/><p><em> Where could you spend time to help the planet? We can all do a little more. 🌎🐡#remarkablepeople #questionoftheday </em><br/><a href=";text=%20Where%20could%20you%20spend%20time%20to%20help%20the%20planet%3F%20We%20can%20all%20do%20a%20little%20more.%20%F0%9F%8C%8E%F0%9F%90%A1%23remarkablepeople%20%23questionoftheday%20&amp;via=GuyKawasaki&amp;related=GuyKawasaki" rel="noopener noreferrer" target="_blank">Click To Tweet</a><br/></p><hr/>Use the #remarkablepeople hashtag to join the conversation!<p/>
  1331. <p dir="ltr"><strong>Where to subscribe: <a href="" rel="noopener noreferrer" target="_blank">Apple Podcast</a> | <a href="" rel="noopener noreferrer" target="_blank">Google Podcasts</a></strong></p>
  1332. <h2 dir="ltr">Find more from Julie Packard</h2>
  1333. <ul>
  1334. <li dir="ltr">
  1335. <p dir="ltr"><a href="" rel="noopener noreferrer" target="_blank">Monterey Bay Seafood Watch app</a></p>
  1336. </li>
  1337. <li dir="ltr">
  1338. <p dir="ltr"><a href="" rel="noopener noreferrer" target="_blank">Monterey Bay Aquarium</a></p>
  1339. </li>
  1340. <li dir="ltr"><a href="" rel="noopener noreferrer" target="_blank">Monterey Bay Aquarium’s Instagram</a></li>
  1341. </ul>
  1342. <h2 dir="ltr">Follow Remarkable People Host, Guy Kawasaki</h2>
  1343. <ul>
  1344. <li dir="ltr">
  1345. <p dir="ltr"><a href="" rel="noopener noreferrer" target="_blank">Twitter</a></p>
  1346. </li>
  1347. <li dir="ltr">
  1348. <p dir="ltr"><a href="" rel="noopener noreferrer" target="_blank">Facebook</a></p>
  1349. </li>
  1350. <li dir="ltr">
  1351. <p dir="ltr"><a href="" rel="noopener noreferrer" target="_blank">Instagram</a></p>
  1352. </li>
  1353. <li dir="ltr">
  1354. <p dir="ltr"><a href="" rel="noopener noreferrer" target="_blank">LinkedIn</a></p>
  1355. </li>
  1356. </ul>
  1357. <h2>Other topics of interest</h2>
  1358. </div><div class="fusion-button-wrapper fusion-aligncenter"><a class="fusion-button button-flat fusion-button-default-size button-default button-1 fusion-button-default-span fusion-button-default-type" href="" rel="noopener noreferrer" target="_blank"><span class="fusion-button-text">Subscribe to Guy Kawasaki’s Remarkable People Podcast</span></a></div><div class="fusion-text"><h2>FULL TRANSCRIPT of Guy Kawasaki’s Remarkable People Podcast</h2>
  1359. <h2>Julie Packard</h2>
  1360. <p class="p1">Guy Kawasaki:</p>
  1361. <p class="p1">For me and I think many people, 367 Addison is the center of the universe. It’s like where time began. Did you live there?</p>
  1362. <p class="p1">Julie Packard:</p>
  1363. <p class="p1">No, I’m so sorry to say. That is Mecca, a shrine to the tech community for sure. But my three older siblings were born there, but by the time I came around, my dad had decided he wanted to move up into the hills. So he was born in Pueblo, Colorado, in a really rural town. I don’t know if any of the listeners have been Pueblo, but there’s not a whole lot going on. It’s right at the edge of the Prairie in Colorado, and he was just super outdoorsy and secretly wanted to be a farmer or rancher, I think, before he became an engineering genius.</p>
  1364. <p class="p1">And so they moved from Palo Alto up to Los Altos Hills in the ‘50s and then where I was born. So no, sadly, I didn’t live at Addison. I don’t have any stories. You’d have to interview my older siblings for that.</p>
  1365. <p>Wondering what 367 Addison is? <a href=";pb=!1s0x808fbb3d21f4855d%3A0x6b4f35d4d94ec6d!3m1!7e115!!5sHewlett%20Packard%20Garage%20Palo%20Alto%2C%20CA%2094301%20-%20Google%20Search!15sCAQ&amp;imagekey=!1e10!2sAF1QipMHTIF7t7kFgQL8-T3HybH34MCSvPVupgU7nb-2&amp;sa=X&amp;ved=2ahUKEwjyieDsp9TnAhVamHIEHfeTCZEQoiowFHoECBAQBg" rel="noopener noreferrer" target="_blank">Google Maps</a> and <a href="" rel="noopener noreferrer" target="_blank">Wikipedia</a></p>
  1366. <p><img alt="HP Garage is a private museum where the company Hewlett-Packard (HP) was founded." class="lazyload aligncenter size-large wp-image-7444" height="768" src="" width="1024"/></p>
  1367. </div><div class="fusion-text"><p class="p1">Guy Kawasaki:</p>
  1368. <p class="p1">But still, you did grow up in the family that arguably started Silicon Valley. So what was that like?</p>
  1369. <p class="p1">Julie Packard:</p>
  1370. <p class="p1">Things were very different back then. First of all, just setting the scene. We moved up in the hills in Los Altos Hills, kind of above what’s now Foothill College, and back then, it was just apricot orchards and oak forests, and you’d look out over the valley. There was of course hardly any urbanization at all. And so it was very rural and a lot quieter back then of course, and growing up probably like most kids in the ‘50s, my dad worked all the time, no surprise, and my mother was very traditional and there were four of us in the family and for her it was about being supportive, raising your kids with manners and good values.</p>
  1371. <p class="p1">Julie Packard:</p>
  1372. <p class="p1">But we had a great place to grow up. My dad bought this apricot orchard, and we spent our summers in the orchard cutting the apricots to make dried apricots to sell. So my dad, as I said, loved vegetable gardening and growing stuff. He was a huge nature lover, but it had to be functional: hunting, fishing, growing things, cattle ranching. He loved driving tractors. He’d get out in a tractor and disk the orchard every spring and drive the tractor around and in the summer apricot’s would be harvested, and we’d sell them to the canneries. Back then, in Santa Clara Valley there were all these apricot and prune and cherry orchards. So they were canneries down there, and you’d sell the fresh fruit.</p>
  1373. <p class="p1">Julie Packard:</p>
  1374. <p class="p1">Then over time, of course, it was all urbanized, but we still continued to cut dried apricots, sun-dried, dried apricots, plums, the best. You can get them at the farmer’s market. Now that is an insider tip. Everyone in California, look for the Blenheims apricots, they’re the best.</p>
  1375. <p class="p1">Guy Kawasaki:</p>
  1376. <p class="p1">This is the farmer’s market on Sunday?</p>
  1377. <p class="p1">Julie Packard:</p>
  1378. <p class="p1">Yeah. Just any farmer’s market in the Bay area. You can find them. They’re the old school kind you used to grow in the “Valley of the Heart’s Delight,” which is what they called Santa Clara Valley because great fruit growing. So my dad worked a lot, and he was very imposing. He needed to maintain a little profile at the dinner table, and he’d always win every argument with you. I mean, many of us I’m sure grew up in families like that.</p>
  1379. <p class="p1">Julie Packard:</p>
  1380. <p class="p1">He just had such huge curiosity and just seemed to know everything about everything, and what he didn’t know he would read. He just had an incredible library of just the biggest array of subject matter from calculating, plumbing, pipes for his irrigation system to the future of the defense industry and Russia.</p>
  1381. <p class="p1">Guy Kawasaki:</p>
  1382. <p class="p1">Did he come home and say, today, we got an order for 10,000 oscilloscopes from Disney and nothing like that? We just invented reverse Polish notation calculators and nothing like that?</p>
  1383. <p class="p1">Julie Packard:</p>
  1384. <p class="p1">He would tell us about all of those things, and we thought they were like very exciting and remarkable. We knew all those things were a very big deal, for sure. For me personally, though, you have to understand, I came of age in the 60s, and that was a time when there was just a lot of unrest, a lot of protesting about the military-industrial complex, and HP was a big defense contractor.</p>
  1385. <p class="p1">Julie Packard:</p>
  1386. <p class="p1">And so I personally, I was trying to maintain a really low profile about kind of at the time my dad’s company, because of the political times, there was controversy around it. Now tech is sort of just revered as everyone’s in love with it, but then not so much.</p>
  1387. <p class="p1">Guy Kawasaki:</p>
  1388. <p class="p1">Other than Facebook.</p>
  1389. <p class="p1">Julie Packard:</p>
  1390. <p class="p1">Not so much. But I mean, generally speaking, those were very unsettled, interesting times. But my dad would share those things, and where they just blew us away, they were like so cool.</p>
  1391. <p class="p1">Guy Kawasaki:</p>
  1392. <p class="p1">Did it ever come to a point where you were philosophically opposed to say, “Dad, how can your company empower the military-industrial complex?”</p>
  1393. <p class="p1">Julie Packard:</p>
  1394. <p class="p1">Me personally?</p>
  1395. <p class="p1">Guy Kawasaki:</p>
  1396. <p class="p1">Yeah.</p>
  1397. <p class="p1">Julie Packard:</p>
  1398. <p class="p1">Well, absolutely. I was the youngest in the family, and definitely a bit of the black sheep. And how would I say it, between the times and being the youngest, I think and just being very independent. Sure. I had those thoughts, but you didn’t take my dad on about things. There was nothing. No good could come of it. Let’s just say that.</p>
  1399. <p class="p1">Guy Kawasaki:</p>
  1400. <p class="p1">Do you have any particular lessons you look back? I can tell you what I learned from my father. The three or four most important things. Do you have a small number of things you can say that my father…?</p>
  1401. <p class="p1">Julie Packard:</p>
  1402. <p class="p1">Yeah. Absolutely. My dad was incredibly humble. I mean, arrogance was considered in our family, the absolute worst quality. So we always were taught, and he modeled that we are very fortunate, and we needed to be humble about that. And not ever be arrogant in any way. Not just having to do with money, but just in general. The privileges that we had, of course, which he created for the family. That was a big family value – giving back – certainly because my parents establish their family foundation early on.</p>
  1403. <p class="p1">Julie Packard:</p>
  1404. <p class="p1">It was in the ‘60s – 1965. The Packard Foundation is now 50 years old. And so early on, they established a family foundation and began supporting at first community projects. And the company was always very, very supportive and giving back to the community.</p>
  1405. <p class="p1">In fact, my dad was an early supporter of the whole idea of corporate philanthropy, which, in my opinion, still has a long way to go. If he were alive, he’d still be out there proselytizing about that, that companies need to reinvest in their communities.</p>
  1406. <p class="p1">Julie Packard:</p>
  1407. <p class="p1">And so he believed that. And my mother actually ran the foundation early on as a volunteer and was very involved as a community volunteer. So that was modeled for us majorly, the idea of giving back and engaging in your community.</p>
  1408. <p class="p1">I thought she had a full-time job growing up, honestly, and she didn’t. She was a full-time volunteer, but I was gone all day, or I’d be in the parking lot in the car while she was volunteering on some board for the children’s hospital or something like this.</p>
  1409. <p class="p1">Guy Kawasaki:</p>
  1410. <p class="p1">So what did you learn from her?</p>
  1411. <p class="p1">Julie Packard:</p>
  1412. <p class="p1">Well, very similar values to my dad, really. She was quite proper. She was a city girl. She wasn’t an outdoorsy nature lover like my dad. She grew up in San Francisco and went to Catholic school and was very refined, and we needed to reflect well on our father at all times and have good manners and be presentable. Like any mother. I mean, I don’t know. That’s kind of mother job description 101 isn’t it? So those were two things. I think humility and giving back.</p>
  1413. <p class="p1">Julie Packard:</p>
  1414. <p class="p1">But the final thing I’d say about my dad, he would listen to anyone. I mean, his HP’s management by wandering around that he wrote about in his book, <i>The HP Way</i>, of course, is an epic philosophy and the management literature. And his door was truly always open and he liked talking to an employee at the lowest level in the company as much as, or even actually more than at a higher level to be honest.</p>
  1415. <p class="p1">Julie Packard:</p>
  1416. <p class="p1">He just loved getting in and talking to the team about what project they were working on. And he really did the whole idea of investing in people and giving them rein to do their best work, which was an HP philosophy. It’s also a philosophy of our family foundation is, invest in people in their ideas, and he really modeled that.</p>
  1417. <p class="p1">Guy Kawasaki:</p>
  1418. <p class="p1">Now let’s talk about the genesis of the aquarium. How did that come to be?</p>
  1419. <p class="p1">Julie Packard:</p>
  1420. <p class="p1">The aquarium was the brainchild of my sister and her husband and a couple of their colleagues. So here’s how the story happened.</p>
  1421. <p class="p1">The family foundation, the David and Lucile Packard Foundation, was founded in the mid-‘60s, and the four of us children were asked to be on the board, instructed to be on the board when we turned 21. So the foundation was funding a lot of different programs in different areas.</p>
  1422. <p class="p1">Julie Packard:</p>
  1423. <p class="p1">And my father kind of challenged the group, “Hey, let’s think of some big projects that we can do on our own rather than just funding other people’s ideas. And it was my older sister, Nancy, and as I said, her husband and a couple of their friends that were involved with teaching and research down at Stanford’s Marine lab, Hopkins Marine Station or Marine laboratories in Pacific Grove.</p>
  1424. <p class="p1">Julie Packard:</p>
  1425. <p class="p1">And Stanford had purchased this big old cannery right next door, the Hovden Cannery where the aquarium’s now located, and they didn’t really have plans for it. It was just to buffer zone all the development on Cannery Row. And they had the idea that this would be just a super cool thing to do with this old cannery and that in Monterey there was no place for all the tourists to learn anything about the Bay and yet that’s why they came there, and we’re all marine biologists.</p>
  1426. <p class="p1">Julie Packard:</p>
  1427. <p class="p1">The four of them were invertebrate zoologists, and I studied marine algae, so none of us were fish people or marine mammal people. But we had fallen in love with the ocean and marine biology because of Monterey Bay. And this Bay was just an inspiration. It’s an amazing place. Its amazing rich biodiversity. And so we put together a proposal to the foundation to do feasibility study if an aquarium was built on the site, could it be financially self-supporting based on admission fees and would there be enough attendance to support it? And that came out with a yes.</p>
  1428. <p class="p1">Julie Packard:</p>
  1429. <p class="p1">And so with that, we incorporated a new foundation, the Monterey Bay Aquarium Foundation, to plan, build, and operate this aquarium.</p>
  1430. <p class="p1">My parents put up the capital $55 million to build it. And the deal was that it would operate on its own. And we proceeded to put together a board of local community leaders and scientists from around. We have such an amazing scientific community here around the Bay. Science leaders and family members and hired architects and exhibit design consultants and a crazy array of specialized consulting help that you need to put together an esoteric kind of institution like an aquarium.</p>
  1431. <p class="p1">Julie Packard:</p>
  1432. <p class="p1">And set ourselves to planning this aquarium, and the concept remained the same from the start, which was to do a tour of Monterey Bay habitats and kind of have that be a theme, and a few ideas about the aquarium were different than other aquariums before.</p>
  1433. <p class="p1">One, first of all, most aquariums are rows and rows of fish tanks. Certainly, they were at the time and like that’s not what the ocean is like. Fish are just a little tiny part of what the ocean is like.</p>
  1434. <p class="p1">Julie Packard:</p>
  1435. <p class="p1">And so we wanted to really share the whole picture. Number one, we want to share it in a way where the plants and animals are represented as they would be in nature, meaning in communities, kelp forest, or rocky reef or sandy seafloor.</p>
  1436. <p class="p1">Of course, we have this amazing site with the real thing outdoors, which really no other aquarium has a site that fabulous. Most aquariums are in the dark. When you think about it, you’re on the dark because that actually makes the, from an exhibit design standpoint, that makes the tanks pop. They’re lit, the fish look great, the tanks look great, but like wow, we got the real thing out here, this wild ocean.</p>
  1437. <p class="p1">Julie Packard:</p>
  1438. <p class="p1">So we wanted a design that really drew your attention to the real thing outdoors and get people out on the decks and then could come inside and learn about what they had seen or the other way around. And then finally we really wanted to, well, two other things that were kind of important points about the concept. One was, we didn’t want people to be on a one-way path. We wanted it to be a free choice. You could experience it however you wanted in whatever order you wanted.</p>
  1439. <p class="p1">Julie Packard:</p>
  1440. <p class="p1">And then finally we wanted to really incorporate some of the new museum interpretive techniques that were happening at the science museums like the Exploratorium. And what we all know is interactive exhibits where people are engaged with the learning. And previously a lot of aquariums were really a tank with fish and a label. Here’s the name, here’s where it is from, here’s what it eats. Maybe another little fact or two. And we wanted just to make it a more interesting, engaging experience, have some more interactive kind of hands-on interpretation.</p>
  1441. <p class="p1">Julie Packard:</p>
  1442. <p class="p1">So those were some of the underlying concepts. And we naively thought we could remodel that old cannery. Wow. That talks about the or shows the sophistication level of the group like I said.</p>
  1443. <p class="p1">Now ask us about marine biology, and we can nail it. Anyway, we’re like, “We’re going to remodel this cool old building.” The building was built in 1916. It was, I believe, the largest cannery on Cannery Row.</p>
  1444. <p class="p1">Julie Packard:</p>
  1445. <p class="p1">But those canneries were just, I mean, it was such a boom and bust thing, and they’d make it, they were just canning, and harvesting and canning and just, tens of millions of tons of sardines, and they’d add onto their buildings and have a good year, and then things would go along, and I mean, they were just, you can still see, sadly not many, but you can still see some remnants in Cannery Row of some of those old buildings.</p>
  1446. <p class="p1">Julie Packard:</p>
  1447. <p class="p1">So we wanted to, we thought we could remodel the building. Of course, we were quickly disabused of that notion by the architects and engineers. But we were really happy with the concept the architects came up with, which really was preserving the facade on Cannery Row of that old building.</p>
  1448. <p class="p1">And we kept the old boilers, still a history exhibit when you go in the aquarium. It turns out Knut Hovden, who was the owner of the cannery, was known to be an incredible innovator and kind of like my dad, he invented a lot of new technology for sardine canning to make it go faster and to make the product better.</p>
  1449. <p class="p1">Julie Packard:</p>
  1450. <p class="p1">One of which was to, he had a seawater system, a seawater intake line that went into that building just like the aquarium does. So that was kind of a cool thing. And the idea was instead of having all the sardine boats like offload the sardines at the dock where they start rotting, and they’re not fresh, and then you have this giant pile of sardines hit the cannery, and it’s a big processing logistics problem.</p>
  1451. <p class="p1">Julie Packard:</p>
  1452. <p class="p1">He came up with the idea of these floating giant wooden boxes, they called sardine hoppers. They’re offshore and connected to a seawater intake pipe and then offload the sardines out there. They’d stay all fresh, and then they like suck them into the building as they needed them to can them. The building actually was registered on what’s called the Historic American Engineering Record that we had to document all of his canning technology.</p>
  1453. <p class="p1">Julie Packard:</p>
  1454. <p class="p1">So that’s a little backstory about the site of the aquarium which is amazing. And so that was the creation story and it was about seven years between the time of the idea and the feasibility study and then all the design. It took a really long time to get the permits.</p>
  1455. <p class="p1">That was a lot of drama because a city limit line between Monterey and Pacific Grove runs right through the aquarium site, which of course, just complicated matters. And we have the Coastal Commission and the Army Corps of Engineers and just a lot of agency engagement. But then we opened October 20th.</p>
  1456. <p class="p1">Guy Kawasaki:</p>
  1457. <p class="p1">Did anybody fight it?</p>
  1458. <p class="p1">Julie Packard:</p>
  1459. <p class="p1">Well, that would be a whole nother long story. We got engaged in some opposition that was really around local politics, around land use planning decisions that were coming down at the time. They didn’t have to do with the merits of the project. Everyone thought the project sounded great and what a gift to the community. Most public aquariums are on city property, or they were funded by the city, or they’re partially funded by the city, or they got an operating subsidy.</p>
  1460. <p class="p1">Julie Packard:</p>
  1461. <p class="p1">So we’re just, hello, we’re going to pay for this site, and we’re going to provide capital to build this building. We’re not asking for any operating subsidy. We’re asking you for the aquarium visitors to be part of the parking district, which is a gold mine for the city. And so we had opposition, but that’s another story. It was just local politics.</p>
  1462. <p class="p1">Guy Kawasaki:</p>
  1463. <p class="p1">Has it evolved from an aquarium to more cause orientation?</p>
  1464. <p class="p1">Julie Packard:</p>
  1465. <p class="p1">Absolutely. We are just celebrating 35 years this year, and we had a huge evolution in our mission, which is actually reflected in our mission statement. So when we began, the purpose statement for the Monterey Bay Aquarium was something like to expand public awareness, conduct research, and maybe had promote stewardship in there of Monterey Bay. And what happened over time, as we all know, is the ocean changed, and our understanding of what was happening in the ocean has undergone a transformation, not a big enough transformation in terms of public awareness.</p>
  1466. <p class="p1">Julie Packard:</p>
  1467. <p class="p1">But 30 years ago, everyone still thought the ocean was so vast that nothing could possibly affect it. And as our stories that we’re telling about the Bay and the ocean at large continued to evolve and stay up with the times, we realized that we really wanted and needed, it was really imperative for us to start talking more and more about the human impact stories of what was happening on the ocean and not just the happy natural history story about the cool fish and their weird habits, which is great. Obviously, that’s what gets people to come in the door and fall in love with the animals and gets their attention.</p>
  1468. <p class="p1">Julie Packard:</p>
  1469. <p class="p1">But we needed to add on a new species to the aquarium interpretation, which was humans, because the original aquarium we didn’t really have humans so much as part of the story. So we over time like kind of transformed all of our interpretation to have more human impact, human stories, more conservation stories, and then eventually decided to do an exhibit called “Fishing for Solutions: What’s the Catch?” that we did in the mid-‘90s right after we had opened our Open Sea Wing and taken our story offshore to connect with the broader ocean.</p>
  1470. <p class="p1">Julie Packard:</p>
  1471. <p class="p1">In “Fishing for Solutions” we thought, “Okay, the situation of the ocean is getting dire. We need to do an exhibit about global fisheries and all the problems.” And we did that exhibit, and in the course of it, we decided that we better get our restaurant menu, seafood item list in shape or would not look good. And from that whole effort, the Seafood Watch program was spawned, so to speak.</p>
  1472. <p class="p1">Julie Packard:</p>
  1473. <p class="p1">Seafood Watch began as just a consumer guide to enable people to know the sustainability of the seafood on their plates. And around that time, then we realized this was really a big deal. It really picked up. And with that, around that time, we decided to make a commitment to grow that program and also to launch a real conservation and science workgroup and big effort at the aquarium. And the seafood work is at the centerpiece of that.</p>
  1474. <p class="p1">Julie Packard:</p>
  1475. <p class="p1">But with that, we also changed our mission statement – which was a big milestone for us – to what it is today which is: the mission of the Monterey Bay Aquarium is to inspire conservation of the ocean.</p>
  1476. <p class="p1">And the idea behind that being that the end game, the end goal of the whole institution and everything we do is about ocean conservation. But that word “inspires” in there is really important because we’re a public institution, and our best asset for achieving that goal in the ocean is the aquarium itself. And so our challenge and the beauty of what we do is that we have this amazing institution that inspires people, that can inspire people through connections with living animals and discovering the ocean. The real thing.</p>
  1477. <p class="p1">Guy Kawasaki:</p>
  1478. <p class="p1">In a prior life, I was on the board of the Stanford Alumni Association, and we had many a meeting discussing the mission of the Stanford Alumni Association. It was pulling teeth. And so I’m just curious, was this something that your board, your trustees, you all got together and say, let’s do this or did you bring in McKinsey, and they charge you five million bucks to get that sentence? So how did that go down?</p>
  1479. <p class="p1">Julie Packard:</p>
  1480. <p class="p1">Like with most things, probably is the theme in your podcasts here for you’re talking to leaders is it really came down to leadership. It came down to me. I’m like front and center, all conservation all the time. I mean, that’s what motivates me. That’s my lens in life because of my life experience growing up.</p>
  1481. <p class="p1">And so our board when I sat in and our team too, I mean, I think that our team was, “Hey Julie, like you’re wanting us to do more and more of this conservation stuff and it’s gotten to where we need to really make it official, to do something more to kind of codify it more.”</p>
  1482. <p class="p1">Julie Packard:</p>
  1483. <p class="p1">And also because for the team, the main activities of the aquarium and we’ve got the public side, the aquarium, the visitor experience. We’ve got all of our K-12 education programs and then we have research, which again is mainly conducted by the MBARI – the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute. Still, we just really needed to restate what is the priority here. And so the Board got that. But some of the people were like absolute advocates helping me push that through.</p>
  1484. <p class="p1">Julie Packard:</p>
  1485. <p class="p1">A couple of them were business-oriented ones were a little concerned that okay, this is going to sound like we’re going to become an advocacy organization. It sounded like NRDC or some super lefty conservation environmental agitators. And of course, we’re not, and we didn’t intend to do that, but there was a little bit of concern about what does this mean or what are the optics of this, but in the end, the people around the table were…</p>
  1486. <p class="p1">Julie Packard:</p>
  1487. <p class="p1">You kind of can’t argue with, okay, the ocean that things are getting dire. We have this huge power to inform and engage and ignite the public, and from our team’s perspective, that is the end goal. What’s the outcome goal? Like everything we do, sure we’re a lot of the education programs. Sure, we’re improving STEM education and we’re concerned about, we’re doing a lot of things, but we just, we needed to provide focus.</p>
  1488. <p class="p1">Julie Packard:</p>
  1489. <p class="p1">One of my favorite things about the aquarium is the fact that we are viewed as nonpartisan. Like everyone loves bringing their kids to a zoo or an aquarium. It’s a happy thing. No matter you might be the most right-wing Republican known to humanity or super lefty, but you’re comfortable. We want the aquarium to be a comfortable place for everyone to come and have a great day. And so we need to continue to be that place that’s open to all, and I’m most excited about reaching the people that maybe haven’t thought about the ocean and the importance of engaging in the actions that we need to take to ensure that it’s healthy for the future, for the benefit of humanity.</p>
  1490. <p class="p1">Julie Packard:</p>
  1491. <p class="p1">The people that already are Sierra Club members, some kind of like, that’s fine, but they’re already there, and my goal is to get them to realize the ocean. If you care about saving nature, you need to talk about the ocean because the ocean is the biggest part of nature, and that’s where we be in land-dwelling species. The whole environmental movement is so much focused on land as it should, and as is understandable, but the ocean has got a profound influence on everything else.</p>
  1492. <p class="p1">Guy Kawasaki:</p>
  1493. <p class="p1">And no one has ever made the case, well, if you’re listing off the right kind of seafood and all that, you’re affecting jobs and not like we need coal because there are 50,000 coal miners?</p>
  1494. <p class="p1">Julie Packard:</p>
  1495. <p class="p1">Interestingly, the Seafood Watch program, which now is a global program, that’s our global fisheries and aquaculture program. We are super business-friendly, and we in the continuum of organizations working on this issue of overfishing, which is a serious problem and something that we know how to fix. I mean, that’s the reason to work on it. You might think, oh seafood, whatever, like what about plastic and climate change and all of that and we can talk about those things.</p>
  1496. <p class="p1">Julie Packard:</p>
  1497. <p class="p1">But the thing about fishing is it’s the most ancient relationship that humans have with the ocean. It’s the only place where we’re still extracting at least certainly the industrialized world, it’s still extracting wildlife on a market basis. We think it’s fine for people to be fishing, and we’re here to help transform the seafood and aquaculture business enterprise to one that can be more sustainable into the future.</p>
  1498. <p class="p1">Julie Packard:</p>
  1499. <p class="p1">We take heat from environmental groups and certainly, and we take heat from business. We used to take mostly heat from business early on, as you said, because they’re like, “Hey, you’re saying now that the Patagonian toothfish is on the Seafood Watch avoid list and we think that’s unfair.” The whole point is we’re like, “Okay, well, come meet with us. If you fix these two problems, the next time around, you’ll get a better rating.” So it’s been a huge driver. I mean, businesses really pay attention to it, what their rating is. It’s quite fascinating and become much more powerful than we thought.</p>
  1500. <p class="p1">Guy Kawasaki:</p>
  1501. <p class="p1">What would an environmentalist say against you?</p>
  1502. <p class="p1">Julie Packard:</p>
  1503. <p class="p1">Well, we are too friendly to fishing and that we should become-</p>
  1504. <p class="p1">Guy Kawasaki:</p>
  1505. <p class="p1">You’re not far enough.</p>
  1506. <p class="p1">Julie Packard:</p>
  1507. <p class="p1">That we should all become vegans, and we shouldn’t eat any seafood.</p>
  1508. <p class="p1">Guy Kawasaki:</p>
  1509. <p class="p1">And you don’t believe that?</p>
  1510. <p class="p1">Julie Packard:</p>
  1511. <p class="p1">Well, no, I think that would be great for nature. And I think it’s not, I just tend to go for more practical solutions, and I feel like there’s big money in the seafood enterprise. I mean, two points. One, it’s big business. It’s not going away anytime soon, so let’s work to make it better. It is jobs; it’s like millions of jobs and mainly in developing countries, and aquaculture is growing like gangbusters, and it provides jobs. It’s food security.</p>
  1512. <p class="p1">Julie Packard:</p>
  1513. <p class="p1">If we can do it right, it’s not going away. If we can do it right, let’s go for it. Let’s work to have that all happen in a better way. And as far as catching wild fish, fisheries are resilient, and as it turns out, if you lay off them when they’ve been overfished, they will recover. Now in the big scheme of things, is the ocean a lot more depauperate than it was 200 years ago? Yes, it is. And so for those who say, well, in the best of all worlds, humans would quit extracting any life out of the ocean. Sure. That would be wonderful.</p>
  1514. <p class="p1">Julie Packard:</p>
  1515. <p class="p1">I mean, something like, I don’t know, like over a billion people depend on seafood for their primary protein. There’s a big food security question here and the livelihoods of millions of people in coastal economies. And I guess on top of it you have countries where people are moving up in the middle class, and it is really increasing demand for beef and meat and that’s a whole nother, I think really worthy consideration to say, hey, if the world ate less animal protein, it would have really positive impacts on climate and a lot of other things. I don’t argue with those points of view. I think that’s all true. We’re just focusing on the seafood situation and making a lot of progress. It’s quite remarkable. There’s a lot more to do though.</p>
  1516. <p class="p1">Guy Kawasaki:</p>
  1517. <p class="p1">How do you audit or determine what’s on that Seafood Watch list? Do you depend on other researchers, or you do firsthand research?</p>
  1518. <p class="p1">Julie Packard:</p>
  1519. <p class="p1">Seafood Watch rating system is based on published available research. People get confused about it. It’s not a third party certified audited programs. So it’s not if you go into your Safeway and there’s a piece of fish there, it’s not going to say, okay, this fish is a piece of halibut, and we’ve… well, first of all, any fish caught in the U.S. is a good choice these days. It didn’t use to be, but if you want to really play it safe, buy something caught in a U.S. fishery because at least we have regulations, and even in our fisheries that were depleted, their recovery in some cases is going to take a long time.</p>
  1520. <p class="p1">Julie Packard:</p>
  1521. <p class="p1">But that piece of fish in the store that you’re buying and has a Seafood Watch rating of yellow or green, it means that we have evaluated against the set of criteria that I can talk about the sustainability of that particular fish, like how the Alaskan halibut fishery as an example. It doesn’t say that we know that that piece of halibut is a piece of halibut, and it doesn’t say that we know that, that piece of halibut came from Alaska because that would require that we are doing an audit program.</p>
  1522. <p class="p1">Julie Packard:</p>
  1523. <p class="p1">Now there is a program that does that, that’s called the Marine Stewardship Council, which is the next level. Seafood Watch is just a set of standards for businesses and fisheries to aspire to, and it’s an involuntary program. We rate all these fisheries whether you want us to or not. So it’s just they’re a transparent bunch of ratings about the sustainability of these different fisheries.</p>
  1524. <p class="p1">Julie Packard:</p>
  1525. <p class="p1">Marine Stewardship Council was an organization started by World Wildlife Fund and Unilever, I don’t know over 20 years ago that does provide third party certification, and they have their criteria, and if you’re MSC certified it means that your fishery has met the sustainability criteria. You’ve been inspected too, and you’re reporting back, and the third-party certifier is saying, yeah, you are, and you have to get recertified every five years. It’s complicated. So that’s maybe all you need to know about it for the moment. But I’m always happy to talk more about it. I think it’s fascinating, but I’m kind of a nerd on the topic. Because it’s making so much progress. It’s really exciting. I mean, there’s just a lot of good stuff going on.</p>
  1526. <p class="p1">Guy Kawasaki:</p>
  1527. <p class="p1">You seem excited and optimistic, whereas you read gigantic Pacific Island plastic patch, or what is the greatest threat to the ocean?</p>
  1528. <p class="p1">Julie Packard:</p>
  1529. <p class="p1">Well, the greatest threat to the ocean, no surprise, carbon pollution, climate change, climate crisis, whatever the current lingo is for it. I mean, clearly, it’s like the mother of all environmental issues and like any environmental issue you can think of. Twenty years ago, whatever we said the problem was now like, it’s just like an existential threat.</p>
  1530. <p class="p1">And when it comes to the ocean, obviously we read about sea-level rise, which of course mainly people are focusing on whether their home is going to be inundated, which is a serious problem to consider.</p>
  1531. <p class="p1">Julie Packard:</p>
  1532. <p class="p1">There’s a tremendous amount of coastal habitat that contains a huge amount of biodiversity that is changing, is going to continued to be altered, and just effects entire ecosystems that we can’t even imagine. But the big threat that people are just beginning to talk about, which is just insanely concerning is the whole ocean acidification thing, which is as CO2 goes in the ocean water, it makes it more acidic, and those changes are happening already, and as the water becomes more acidic it’s just going to cause, it already is causing changes in weather from animals big to small that have calcium in their cell walls and their shelves that can’t form but also just physiological systems that we don’t even, we’re just beginning to understand what those might be. So that’s going to have profound effect.</p>
  1533. <p class="p1">Julie Packard:</p>
  1534. <p class="p1">And then the ocean warming, which is already happening and of course we’re experiencing that right here in our part of the world in the central coast, scientists have documented species shifts where we see more southernly species living up here than we did 20 years ago, just in my lifetime, since I’ve been out in the tide pools doing research and collecting algae and looking at animals. So that’s happening. And so that climate change is a huge deal and sort of the mother of all issues.</p>
  1535. <p class="p1">Julie Packard:</p>
  1536. <p class="p1">I mean, whether it’s coral bleaching or impacts of warm water, the whole ocean food web. And the one thing about it that most people don’t know is the ocean is really, I’ve started to talk about the ocean as our best… healthy ocean is our best defense against damaging climate change. And the reason is the ocean has absorbed something like 90% of the heat generated from burning fossil fuels since the industrial revolution.</p>
  1537. <p class="p1">Julie Packard:</p>
  1538. <p class="p1">I mean, think about that. The ocean is like a giant modulator of heat in that atmosphere and the whole global system. Number one.</p>
  1539. <p class="p1">Then number two, all the plant life, the little microscopic plankton plants that live in the ocean are photosynthesizing and sucking up CO2, and the ocean absorbs something like 25% of the carbon emissions. And that’s huge too. And that all happens because of a living ocean.</p>
  1540. <p class="p1">Julie Packard:</p>
  1541. <p class="p1">I mean, all of that CO2 uptake by those tiny plants, if the ocean is dead, that’s not happening. And that’s pretty much they end up life on the planet. Not to be a downer, but it’s big. It’s really big. And of course also the ocean plants produce a lot of oxygen and a lot of that is consumed by life in the ocean, but it is a vast part of the system that makes life able to exist on earth.</p>
  1542. <p class="p1">Guy Kawasaki:</p>
  1543. <p class="p1">So if a random person is listening to this podcast and thinking, oh my God, I believe it, I buy it, everything you just said. What can one person, not in charge of a foundation, do?</p>
  1544. <p class="p1">Julie Packard:</p>
  1545. <p class="p1">I think, of course, I’m asked that a lot and over two million people that come to the Monterey Bay Aquarium every year, they definitely ask us that all the time, “Wow, okay. I love the ocean. I love these animals. I want my grandkids to see them, and I want us all to… I want humanity to survive and thrive. And as long as we can on this planet and what can I do?” And I answer that question in a couple of ways.</p>
  1546. <p class="p1">Julie Packard:</p>
  1547. <p class="p1">I mean, first of all, just get engaged in the process of political action in your community, in your state, in your nation. People need to get out and engage and get the right people in charge of these decisions because our environment is a common, but something that society needs to decide together for the benefit of everyone, what the rules are. The way we’ve been operating there’s a lot of, there’s just a huge amount of extracting of resources and damaging of ecosystem services that we all depend on.</p>
  1548. <p class="p1">Julie Packard:</p>
  1549. <p class="p1">And change happens. Start local. And that’s where the change begins. And in these days, certainly, in the US where I know, people are probably feeling rather deflated about how much leadership we can provide, and we feel like we’re losing ground, which we are in terms of a lot of the excellent environmental protections. The good news here in the US is a lot of great stuff’s happening at the state level. California, for example, the best thing anyone living in California right now can do is support our state or wherever your state is, support its leadership.</p>
  1550. <p class="p1">Julie Packard:</p>
  1551. <p class="p1">Because what’s happened here in California, whether it’s the progressive environmental policy, I mean, we’ve always led the way in environmental policies here and in our state, and it hasn’t exactly been at the cost of our economy by the way. I mean, tourism and the tech sector like huge and of course tourism depends on taking care of your environment, and all of that’s happened because voters care and they voted.</p>
  1552. <p class="p1">Julie Packard:</p>
  1553. <p class="p1">They put the right people in office, they supported huge public funding initiatives. I mean, we’ve had these like $5 billion land and water protection bond initiatives in California too. We’ve created the first and only integrated network of marine protected areas in California state waters. Like that was the first in the U.S. anywhere. We have an incredible network of protected lands, protected coastal lands.</p>
  1554. <p class="p1">Julie Packard:</p>
  1555. <p class="p1">People drive from San Francisco to LA, and they’re always kind of shocked. You have almost 40 million people living here in the state, and this looks so great. And Monterey Bay itself, the central coast, is totally reviving and thriving. We had, when the BBC came out, they were looking at doing a live broadcast about the ocean, “Big Blue Live,” and they picked all the places in the world, they picked Monterey Bay to do this live nature broadcast, which was fantastic.</p>
  1556. <p class="p1">Julie Packard:</p>
  1557. <p class="p1">I mean, we have like whales and white sharks and everything under the sun. So I say, get involved in your community and support policies, and that’s the best thing that you can do. And of course changes in your personal life. I would say the whole seafood movement and the improvement in sustainable seafood, it’s US consumers making the right choice that has driven a huge amount of business change and that really makes a difference.</p>
  1558. <p class="p1">And the same thing can happen with plastic too. I know everyone is very concerned about that. And over time if people start showing, okay, we really don’t need so much single-use plastic to make a difference.</p>
  1559. <p class="p1">Guy Kawasaki:</p>
  1560. <p class="p1">If I were going to go for a seafood dinner, is there anything I just should not eat? Because I’m not checking labels as the waiter brings out whatever.</p>
  1561. <p class="p1">Julie Packard:</p>
  1562. <p class="p1">You should be. You should be checking your Seafood Watch app. Now what you need to be looking for, along with-</p>
  1563. <p class="p1">Guy Kawasaki:</p>
  1564. <p class="p1">In a restaurant?</p>
  1565. <p class="p1">Julie Packard:</p>
  1566. <p class="p1">You go out to dinner with me, I pull up my app. Are you kidding? Grill the waiter. Actually, the best thing consumers can do, we’ve done so much public opinion polling about this whole seafood thing. Public says their best source of information about sustainable seafood is their waitperson or the person at the seafood counter. Well, it turns out the waitperson usually doesn’t know anything.</p>
  1567. <p class="p1">Julie Packard:</p>
  1568. <p class="p1">And the only reason, the only way they’re going to get to know something is by all of us asking questions. So that’s one of the key messages on our Seafood Watch pocket guide, ask questions. Ask questions, ask your waitperson, where did this fish come from? Is it sustainable, and how do you know? And they’ll tell you. Now, many, many restaurants these days and in coastal states, certainly in the West Coast states, definitely not in the inland states and probably less so on the East Coast coastal states. Restaurants will refer to, will use it as a sales point, and they’ll say, “Our seafood is sustainable per Monterey Bay Aquarium guidelines.”</p>
  1569. <p class="p1">Julie Packard:</p>
  1570. <p class="p1">But you’re safe with the things caught in the US pretty much are okay and local fish, local US fish. Like we’ve been really promoting all of our groundfish fisheries here in California are reopened after being declared a federal disaster and being closed for over a decade. Ask for the local fishes, if you’re in the U.S. and you’ll be good. Here that means like rockfish and lingcod and white sea bass.</p>
  1571. <p class="p1">Guy Kawasaki:</p>
  1572. <p class="p1">But isn’t it counterintuitive you’re saying, okay, so we want to preserve the ocean and preserve wildlife? So wouldn’t that say, well, don’t eat from local fisheries because they’re fishing right here and reducing our population right here?</p>
  1573. <p class="p1">Julie Packard:</p>
  1574. <p class="p1">Well, the important thing isn’t whether it’s right here, that important thing is, does it have good regulation? That’s the thing. And one thing I will say, because the whole eat local movement, which we are all aware of, certainly in our part of the world, here in Santa Cruz, California, okay, here’s the crazy thing. The United States imports 80% of the seafood we eat, and we export 90% of the seafood that we catch. It makes no sense.</p>
  1575. <p class="p1">Julie Packard:</p>
  1576. <p class="p1">So if you’re going to own a restaurant in the US, chances are the fish do not come from here. It came from another country because in the US market, which is where I think the third biggest market for seafood in the world now. So even though you and I might think, how often do we eat seafood? Americans eat a lot of seafood, and we were a big driver in the global seafood market. Biggest thing Americans eat, farmed shrimp, farmed salmon.</p>
  1577. <p class="p1">Julie Packard:</p>
  1578. <p class="p1">And so both of those products are really bad news in terms of the environment, and our team at the aquarium is working hard to improve standards, and so that’s another story because those are both farmed products.</p>
  1579. <p class="p1">One of the things that’s been really tough on all of our local fishing communities along the coast of the US is all this imported seafood because no one’s buying local seafood anymore. There’s not even a distribution system to be honest. It’s crazy. That’s starting to change. So the more people that they eat local is a really good thing for people to ask about.</p>
  1580. <p class="p1">Guy Kawasaki:</p>
  1581. <p class="p1">And what’s wrong with farmed?</p>
  1582. <p class="p1">Julie Packard:</p>
  1583. <p class="p1">Farmed can be fine. It’s just the way it’s happening now is bad news, and the main things are salmon farms use a lot of antibiotics. That’s a huge issue. They create a lot of fish waste in a really concentrated area can be equivalent to like a raw sewage outfall and the midsize city in one spot, and so that can create a dead zone in the area. The farmed salmon, they get diseases that people are concerned can spread to wild salmon in areas where wild salmon exist. In some areas, that’s not an issue if wild salmon don’t exist there. And a fish can escape and breed with a wild fish and pollute the gene pool.</p>
  1584. <p class="p1">Guy Kawasaki:</p>
  1585. <p class="p1">If there is another life, what would you want to come back as? What animal or plant?</p>
  1586. <p class="p1">Julie Packard:</p>
  1587. <p class="p1">[inaudible 00:47:25]. Yes. Well, if it includes plants, that’s a problem because I’m a botanist, but I’m going to stick with an animal. My favorite fish is this crazy fish. It’s called <i>Mola mola</i>, the Latin name. It’s an ocean sunfish. People would come to the aquarium. If you go to the big Open Sea exhibit, you’ll recognize it. It can grow to be the size of a Volkswagen bug. It looks like a big dinner plate with a fin sticking up off the top and the bottom.</p>
  1588. <p class="p1">Julie Packard:</p>
  1589. <p class="p1">It’s the world’s largest bony fish. I’m a huge fan for a lot of reasons. One, it has no commercial value. So like no one seems to care about this poor fish. We have myriad scientific research papers on tunas and sharks, the stuff we like to eat, and the scary stuff. This Mola which is like the coolest looking animal ever, like no data whatsoever. The aquarium we’re doing some tagging studies.</p>
  1590. <p class="p1">Julie Packard:</p>
  1591. <p class="p1">Nothing likes to eat it. It’s got really thick skin. It doesn’t taste good, which is, that’s who I want to be like, animals are going to leave me. No one is going to be after me if I’m a 2000 pound mola, right? I’m pretty safe. Even though I swim really slowly, I can’t keep up. I can’t get out of the way. I just grow big really fast.</p>
  1592. <p class="p1">Then the other thing is I eat jellyfish, jellies. So the future ocean, a lot of the scientists are saying that one – really doom and gloom scientists – are saying the future ocean will be a world of slime. So what that means is the oxygen levels in the ocean are declining over time. These layers of these auction minimum layers, they call them. Jellies, super low metabolism, and they can live in really funky conditions. So whatever happens in the ocean-</p>
  1593. <p class="p1">Guy Kawasaki:</p>
  1594. <p class="p1">You’ve lots to eat.</p>
  1595. <p class="p1">Julie Packard:</p>
  1596. <p class="p1">… I’ve got lots to eat, and I can swim to my preferred water temperature zone if the ocean temperature changes. So I’m thinking like that’s maybe the animal to be.</p>
  1597. <p class="p1">Guy Kawasaki:</p>
  1598. <p class="p1">What do you want your legacy to be?</p>
  1599. <p class="p1">Julie Packard:</p>
  1600. <p class="p1">I am super proud of all that the Monterey Bay Aquarium has accomplished, and our team has just taken it so far beyond anything wildly imaginable. I’m just really happy that I’ve had the opportunity so far – and continuing – to open people’s eyes to this what I like to call “the other part of the planet” that we’ve just now woken up to that makes humanity able to exist here on this beautiful earth. And if I have a spark, the engagement and dedication and motivation of a few people, whether they’re teachers or kids, future advocates that will carry on, that’s something that I’ll feel really good about.</p>
  1601. <p class="p1">Guy Kawasaki:</p>
  1602. <p class="p1">As I did my research on you, one of the most interesting things is, you are the antithesis of a trust fund baby, right? But you are the daughter of the person who created Silicon Valley, but you’re not a trust fund baby. Now how did that work out? I mean, you’re the exception.</p>
  1603. <p class="p1">Julie Packard:</p>
  1604. <p class="p1">I get asked that actually by people these days who have come on to a lot of success in raising children and they’re like, “Wow, you actually are-</p>
  1605. <p class="p1">Guy Kawasaki:</p>
  1606. <p class="p1">What happened to you?</p>
  1607. <p class="p1">Julie Packard:</p>
  1608. <p class="p1">… doing something productive. How did that happen?” I mean, all I can say about it, it’s really about what kind of parents we are, and it’s not what we say, it’s who we are and how we lead our lives. And that’s the most important thing. And my parents, they were all about being productive, contributing, working hard. Even though I grew up in the ‘50s and at that time the women, the girls, I have two sisters. We weren’t really expected.</p>
  1609. <p class="p1">Julie Packard:</p>
  1610. <p class="p1">My dad had a lot of expectations placed on my brother, big time expectations. The girls it was, you’ve got to do really well in school and work really hard and give back to society. The kind of paying job expectation was a little vague. It was important to find a good husband. Those were the times. Go to a good university.</p>
  1611. <p class="p1">Guy Kawasaki:</p>
  1612. <p class="p1">It was important to find a good-</p>
  1613. <p class="p1">Julie Packard:</p>
  1614. <p class="p1">Yeah. To our mother. Yes. Because those were the times. But my dad, if there was one message I got from him was, “Don’t be a slacker. Work hard all the time at what you were doing and be contributing in some way.” Maybe if one of us wanted to take some time off and have children, look after the kids for a while. But even so, and all of us in the family, whether we like go into a job every day or whatever we’re doing, everyone is doing some big projects to make the world a better place in some fashion. And that’s just because that’s what our parents did.</p>
  1615. </div><div class="fusion-button-wrapper fusion-aligncenter"><a class="fusion-button button-flat fusion-button-default-size button-default button-2 fusion-button-default-span fusion-button-default-type" href="" rel="noopener noreferrer" target="_blank"><span class="fusion-button-text">Subscribe to Guy Kawasaki’s Remarkable People Podcast</span></a></div><div class="fusion-clearfix"/></div></div></div></div>
  1616. <p>The post <a href="" rel="nofollow">Julie Packard: Philanthropist, Antithesis of a Trust-Fund Baby, and Environmental Role Model</a> appeared first on <a href="" rel="nofollow">Guy Kawasaki</a>.</p>
  1617. <img alt="" height="1" src="" width="1"/></div>
  1618.    </content>
  1619.    <updated>2020-02-19T09:01:30Z</updated>
  1620.    <published>2020-02-19T09:01:30Z</published>
  1621.    <category scheme="" term="Blog"/>
  1622.    <category scheme="" term="Podcast"/>
  1623.    <category scheme="" term="Guy Kawasaki's Podcast"/>
  1624.    <category scheme="" term="Julie Packard"/>
  1625.    <category scheme="" term="Monterey Bay Aquarium"/>
  1626.    <category scheme="" term="Remarkable People Podcast"/>
  1627.    <author>
  1628.      <name>Guy Kawasaki</name>
  1629.      <uri></uri>
  1630.    </author>
  1631.    <source>
  1632.      <id></id>
  1633.      <icon></icon>
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  1636.      <link href="" rel="hub" type="text/html"/>
  1637.      <subtitle xml:lang="en">The Art of Changing Hearts, Minds, and Actions</subtitle>
  1638.      <title xml:lang="en">Guy Kawasaki</title>
  1639.      <updated>2020-02-21T00:32:11Z</updated>
  1640.    </source>
  1641.  </entry>
  1643.  <entry xml:lang="en-US">
  1644.    <id></id>
  1645.    <link href="" rel="alternate" type="text/html"/>
  1646.    <link href="" rel="replies" type="text/html"/>
  1647.    <link href="" rel="replies" type="application/atom+xml"/>
  1648.    <title xml:lang="en-US">Dutch national health insurance – probably not what you think</title>
  1649.    <summary xml:lang="en-US">A Dutch friend wrote this up for a list I’m on, and kindly gave me permission to post it. It turns out that the Netherlands is to the left of Bernie and Warren when it comes to national health insurance. Here are my friend’s comments. The Netherlands has privatised all government health funds in 2006. […]</summary>
  1650.    <updated>2020-02-17T02:06:20Z</updated>
  1651.    <published>2020-02-17T01:56:43Z</published>
  1652.    <category scheme="" term="culture"/>
  1653.    <category scheme="" term="politics"/>
  1654.    <category scheme="" term="bernie sanders"/>
  1655.    <category scheme="" term="election2020"/>
  1656.    <category scheme="" term="elizabeth warren"/>
  1657.    <category scheme="" term="healthcare"/>
  1658.    <author>
  1659.      <name>davidw</name>
  1660.      <uri></uri>
  1661.    </author>
  1662.    <source>
  1663.      <id></id>
  1664.      <link href="" rel="alternate" type="text/html"/>
  1665.      <link href="" rel="self" type="application/atom+xml"/>
  1666.      <subtitle xml:lang="en-US">David Weinberger's blog. Let's just see what happens  - Tagline (c) 1999</subtitle>
  1667.      <title xml:lang="en-US">Joho the Blog</title>
  1668.      <updated>2020-02-17T02:06:20Z</updated>
  1669.    </source>
  1670.  </entry>
  1672.  <entry xml:lang="en-us">
  1673.    <id></id>
  1674.    <link href="" rel="alternate" type="text/html"/>
  1675.    <link href="" rel="replies" type="application/xhtml+xml"/>
  1676.    <title xml:lang="en-us">Sally Leekie</title>
  1677.    <summary xml:lang="en-us">Happy Valentines! A day that celebrates love comes, in my mind, second only to the one that celebrates giving thanks. I didn’t do roses or chocolate, but I made dinner for a couple of people I love; one of the dishes was improvised and came out well, so this recipe is my valentine to the world</summary>
  1678.    <content type="xhtml" xml:lang="en-us"><div xmlns=""><p>Happy Valentines!
  1679. A day that celebrates love comes, in my mind, second only to the one that celebrates giving thanks. I
  1680. didn’t do roses or chocolate, but I made dinner for a couple of people I love; one of the dishes was improvised and came out well,
  1681. so this recipe is my valentine to the world.</p>
  1682. <p>The main ingredients are salmon and leeks; thus “Sally Leekie”.</p>
  1683. <h2 id="p-1">Ingredients</h2>
  1684. <ol>
  1685. <li><p><i>Salmon:</i> We use wild frozen-at-sea Pacific Sockeye, usually obtainable in Vancouver.  750g fed three generously.</p></li>
  1686. <li><p><i>Leeks:</i> A couple of big ones.</p></li>
  1687. <li><p><i>Garlic:</i> Confession: For this dish, I used minced garlic out of a jar that I bought in a supermarket; a couple of
  1688. heaping teaspoons-full.</p></li>
  1689. <li><p><i>Seasoning:</i> Oregano, Fennel, and black pepper, all served liberally.</p></li>
  1690. <li><p><i>Oil:</i> Now this is interesting. I started with olive oil because it was at the front of the cupboard, then thought
  1691. “Leeks? Everyone knows you cook them in butter!” so I added some of that too.  It came out nicely.</p></li>
  1692. </ol>
  1693. <img alt="Sauteeing leeks" src=""/>
  1694. <div class="caption"><p>Sauteeing leeks.</p></div>
  1695. <h2 id="p-2">Process</h2>
  1696. <ol>
  1697. <li><p>I covered the bottom of a sautee pan with oil, tossed in the garlic and seasoning, and heated it to not-quite-bubbling-or-smoking
  1698. for ten or fifteen minutes.</p></li>
  1699. <li><p>While this was happening, I chopped the leeks and salmon. If you haven’t done leeks before, you have to cut them
  1700. <em>lengthwise</em> then take them over to the sink and wash out the mud and gunk that tends to occur; leeks are just not hygenic
  1701. vegetables. Salmon into bite-size chunks.</p></li>
  1702. <li><p>I turned up the heat to the point that a few bubbles were occurring, and put the chopped leeks through in three
  1703. batches. Watch out; they cook down tremendously, so you want to start with more than you need.  Maybe five minutes a batch;
  1704. until they’ve lost their curl but not their color.
  1705. I used a bowl in the warming drawer under the oven to accumulate the leeks and keep them warm.</p></li>
  1706. <li><p>Once the leeks were done I dropped the salmon into the garlicky spiced leek-flavored oil and sauteed that for maybe ten
  1707. minutes, till all the sides were sealed and it was getting ready to eat.</p></li>
  1708. <li><p>Finally, I took the leeks out of the warming drawer, tossed them in with the salmon, turned the heat up so there was a bit of
  1709. smoke, and tossed the mixture together.</p></li>
  1710. </ol>
  1711. <p>It looked neat, the salmon pink contrasting with the leek green. There were no leftovers and sincere compliments.</p></div>
  1712.    </content>
  1713.    <updated>2020-02-15T19:11:52Z</updated>
  1714.    <published>2020-02-14T20:00:00Z</published>
  1715.    <category scheme="" term="The World/Food and Drink"/>
  1716.    <category scheme="" term="The World"/>
  1717.    <category scheme="" term="Food and Drink"/>
  1718.    <source>
  1719.      <id></id>
  1720.      <icon></icon>
  1721.      <logo></logo>
  1722.      <author>
  1723.        <name>Tim Bray</name>
  1724.      </author>
  1725.      <link href="" rel="hub" type="text/html"/>
  1726.      <link href="" rel="alternate" type="text/html"/>
  1727.      <link href="" rel="self" type="application/atom+xml"/>
  1728.      <link href="" rel="replies" type="text/html"/>
  1729.      <rights xml:lang="en-us">All content written by Tim Bray and photos by Tim Bray Copyright Tim Bray, some rights reserved, see /ongoing/misc/Copyright</rights>
  1730.      <subtitle xml:lang="en-us">ongoing fragmented essay by Tim Bray</subtitle>
  1731.      <title xml:lang="en-us">ongoing by Tim Bray</title>
  1732.      <updated>2020-02-22T18:55:03Z</updated>
  1733.    </source>
  1734.  </entry>
  1736.  <entry>
  1737.    <id></id>
  1738.    <link href="" rel="alternate" type="text/html"/>
  1739.    <title>encoding_rs</title>
  1740.    <summary>A Web-Compatible Character Encoding Library in Rust. (Used in Firefox.)</summary>
  1741.    <updated>2020-02-15T18:39:05Z</updated>
  1742.    <source>
  1743.      <id></id>
  1744.      <author>
  1745.        <name>Henri Sivonen</name>
  1746.        <email>[email protected]</email>
  1747.      </author>
  1748.      <link href="" rel="alternate" type="text/html"/>
  1749.      <link href="" rel="self" type="application/atom+xml"/>
  1750.      <rights>Copyright Henri Sivonen</rights>
  1751.      <subtitle>Articles and blogish notes</subtitle>
  1752.      <title>Henri Sivonen’s pages</title>
  1753.      <updated>2020-02-20T07:08:18Z</updated>
  1754.    </source>
  1755.  </entry>
  1757.  <entry xml:lang="en-US">
  1758.    <id></id>
  1759.    <link href="" rel="alternate" type="text/html"/>
  1760.    <link href="" rel="replies" type="text/html"/>
  1761.    <link href="" rel="replies" type="application/atom+xml"/>
  1762.    <title xml:lang="en-US">IBM Summer 2020 Internship Positions</title>
  1763.    <summary type="xhtml" xml:lang="en-US"><div xmlns=""><p>My team at IBM is looking to hire new interns. We have several new paid internship positions in Markham, Ontario (Canada), starting in the summer of 2020. This is an amazing opportunity if you meet the following requirements: You are legally allowed to work in Canada. You are enrolled in university or college. A start […]</p>
  1764. <p>The post <a href="" rel="nofollow">IBM Summer 2020 Internship Positions</a> appeared first on <a href="" rel="nofollow">Programming Zen</a>.</p></div>
  1765.    </summary>
  1766.    <content type="xhtml" xml:lang="en-US"><div xmlns=""><p>My team at IBM is looking to hire new interns. We have several new paid internship positions in Markham, Ontario (Canada), starting in the summer of 2020. </p>
  1770. <div class="wp-block-image"><figure class="aligncenter size-full is-resized"><img alt="IBM Summer 2020 Internship Positions" class="wp-image-2380" height="394" src=";ssl=1" width="470"/></figure></div>
  1774. <p>This is an amazing opportunity if you <strong>meet the following requirements</strong>:</p>
  1778. <ul><li>You are legally <strong>allowed to work in Canada</strong>.</li><li>You are <strong>enrolled in university or college</strong>.</li><li>A start date in <strong>May for 16 months</strong> (or in <strong>September for 12 months</strong>) works for you.</li></ul>
  1782. <p>I’m certainly biased, but I believe these are some of the best tech internships you can get in Canada.</p>
  1786. <p>We treat interns as peers and invest in their development. Previous interns <strong>rave about their experience and how it enabled them to grow professionally</strong>.</p>
  1790. <p>The best interns often end up coming back to us as full-time employees upon graduation. So this is a great way to get your foot into the industry.</p>
  1794. <h2>Apply for the internship positions</h2>
  1798. <p>Please use the following links to apply for the position. If you think you qualify for more than one role, feel free to apply for more than one:</p>
  1802. <ul><li><a href=";siteid=5016&amp;Areq=292451BR">Back-End Developer</a> </li><li><a href=";siteid=5016&amp;Areq=292455BR">Front End Developer</a> </li><li><a href=";siteid=5016&amp;Areq=292453BR">Cognitive Data Scientist</a> </li></ul>
  1806. <p>If you want to speed up the process, after applying, send me <a href="mailto:[email protected]?subject=&quot;Internship with your team&quot;">an email</a> with your resume attached.</p>
  1810. <h2>How the interviewing process works</h2>
  1814. <p>I will review all the applicants and select the most promising ones, scheduling a first video interview via web. This interview is with me and, usually, one of my developers (or a data scientist in the team, depending on the position).</p>
  1818. <p>We will ask you about your past experience as well as some technical questions. There will be no brain teasers or anything like that. The interview will last between 20-50 minutes.</p>
  1822. <p>The questions I tend to ask are foundational in nature. I might ask you about the difference between GET and POST requests, or 400s and 500s HTTP status codes, but not what 508 is used for. You don’t need to brush up on your Algorithms and Data Structures book either.</p>
  1826. <p>If you don’t know the answer, we change the subject. I’m hoping to surface your strengths during the interview, not drill you on your weaknesses.</p>
  1830. <p>As far as technical interviews go, <strong>this will likely be one of the least challenging and stressful you’ll encounter</strong>.</p>
  1834. <p>After this first interview, the most promising candidates will be invited to a second web interview with myself and my manager (an IBM Director). This second interview is much more focused on your interests and ambitions.</p>
  1838. <p>It will also be an opportunity for you to ask questions and learn more about our team and the work we do.</p>
  1842. <h2>What we value</h2>
  1846. <p>We love to have a diverse pool of interns.</p>
  1850. <p>If you are an amazing coder with weaker communication skills, that’s alright. Less technically strong but are an amazing communicator? That’s great. If you are keen on teaching others difficult technical concepts, we have room for you, too.</p>
  1854. <p>We value all the skills you can bring to the team, not just your ability to code. Above all, we value attitude and passion over raw experience.</p>
  1858. <p>If you are looking for a great internship opportunity, give this one a chance. I look forward to working with you.</p>
  1859. <p>The post <a href="" rel="nofollow">IBM Summer 2020 Internship Positions</a> appeared first on <a href="" rel="nofollow">Programming Zen</a>.</p>
  1860. <img alt="" height="1" src="" width="1"/></div>
  1861.    </content>
  1862.    <updated>2020-02-15T18:17:50Z</updated>
  1863.    <published>2020-02-15T02:27:15Z</published>
  1864.    <category scheme="" term="IBM"/>
  1865.    <category scheme="" term="hiring"/>
  1866.    <category scheme="" term="internship"/>
  1867.    <category scheme="" term="jobs"/><feedburner:origLink xmlns:feedburner=""></feedburner:origLink>
  1868.    <author>
  1869.      <name>Antonio Cangiano</name>
  1870.      <uri></uri>
  1871.    </author>
  1872.    <source>
  1873.      <id></id>
  1874.      <link href="" rel="alternate" type="text/html"/>
  1875.      <link href="" rel="self" type="application/atom+xml"/>
  1876.      <link href="" rel="hub" type="text/html"/>
  1877.      <subtitle xml:lang="en-US">Meditations on programming, startups, and technology</subtitle>
  1878.      <title xml:lang="en-US">Programming Zen</title>
  1879.      <updated>2020-02-15T18:17:50Z</updated>
  1880.    </source>
  1881.  </entry>
  1883.  <entry xml:lang="en-US">
  1884.    <id></id>
  1885.    <link href="" rel="alternate" type="text/html"/>
  1886.    <link href="" rel="replies" type="text/html"/>
  1887.    <link href="" rel="replies" type="application/atom+xml"/>
  1888.    <title xml:lang="en-US">Internet Ritual and Trust</title>
  1889.    <summary xml:lang="en-US">Trust in a root infrastructure of the Net depends on a ceremony that may be modeled on a British practice 738 years old.</summary>
  1890.    <updated>2020-02-15T15:37:37Z</updated>
  1891.    <published>2020-02-15T15:35:55Z</published>
  1892.    <category scheme="" term="culture"/>
  1893.    <category scheme="" term="internet"/>
  1894.    <category scheme="" term="policy"/>
  1895.    <category scheme="" term="dns"/>
  1896.    <category scheme="" term="trust"/>
  1897.    <author>
  1898.      <name>davidw</name>
  1899.      <uri></uri>
  1900.    </author>
  1901.    <source>
  1902.      <id></id>
  1903.      <link href="" rel="alternate" type="text/html"/>
  1904.      <link href="" rel="self" type="application/atom+xml"/>
  1905.      <subtitle xml:lang="en-US">David Weinberger's blog. Let's just see what happens  - Tagline (c) 1999</subtitle>
  1906.      <title xml:lang="en-US">Joho the Blog</title>
  1907.      <updated>2020-02-15T15:37:37Z</updated>
  1908.    </source>
  1909.  </entry>
  1911.  <entry>
  1912.    <id></id>
  1913.    <link href="" rel="alternate" type="text/html"/>
  1914.    <title>IME Smoke Testing</title>
  1915.    <summary>In early 2019, I found myself in a situation where I needed to check that I hadn’t broken IME integration code. Later in 2019, I needed to do it again and now I'm testing this again in 2020, so I’m writing this down.</summary>
  1916.    <updated>2020-02-14T09:16:44Z</updated>
  1917.    <source>
  1918.      <id></id>
  1919.      <author>
  1920.        <name>Henri Sivonen</name>
  1921.        <email>[email protected]</email>
  1922.      </author>
  1923.      <link href="" rel="alternate" type="text/html"/>
  1924.      <link href="" rel="self" type="application/atom+xml"/>
  1925.      <rights>Copyright Henri Sivonen</rights>
  1926.      <subtitle>Articles and blogish notes</subtitle>
  1927.      <title>Henri Sivonen’s pages</title>
  1928.      <updated>2020-02-20T07:08:18Z</updated>
  1929.    </source>
  1930.  </entry>
  1932.  <entry>
  1933.    <id></id>
  1934.    <link href="" rel="alternate" type="text/html"/>
  1935.    <title>The Apache News Round-up: week ending 14 February 2020</title>
  1936.    <content type="xhtml"><div xmlns=""><p>Happy Friday (and Valentine's Day for those who celebrate) --let's review what the Apache community has been up to over the past week:</p><strong>ASF Board</strong> – management and oversight of the business affairs of the corporation in accordance with the Foundation's bylaws.<br/> - Next Board Meeting: 19 February 2020. Board calendar and minutes <a href=""></a>
  1937.  <p><strong>ApacheCon™</strong> – the ASF's official global conference series, bringing Tomorrow's Technology Today since 1998.<br/> 1) Registration open; Sponsorship opportunities available: <strong><em>Apache Roadshow/DC</em></strong> --25 March in CHANTILLY, VA. Topics include Apache Projects &amp; CARE Initiatives (with  George Mason University Center for Assurance Research &amp; Engineering); Cybersecurity; and Open Source Software in Start-Ups. <a href=""></a><br/> 2) CFP open. Sponsorship opportunities available: <strong><em>Apache Roadshow/Chicago</em></strong> --18-19 May in CHICAGO, IL. <a href=""></a><br/> 3) Sponsorship opportunities available. <strong><em>Apache Roadshow/Seattle</em></strong> --10-12 June in REDMOND, WA. Topics include Data and Analytics, ML and AI, Java, Cloud, Containers, Servers, and Web Frameworks. <a href=""></a><br/> 4) CFP open; Registration open; Sponsorship opportunities available: <strong><em>ApacheCon North America</em></strong> --28 September - 2 October in NEW ORLEANS, LA. Topics include Big Data Integration, Community, IoT, Search, Geospatial, Graphing, Integration, Servers, and more. Apache Project content includes Camel, Cassandra, Cloudstack, Fineract, Flagon, Gobblin, Groovy, HTTP Server, Ignite, Karaf, Observability, Solr/Lucene, Tomcat, and Traffic Server/Traffic Control, among others. <a href=""></a></p>
  1938.  <p> </p>
  1939.  <p> </p>
  1940.  <p><strong>ASF Infrastructure</strong> – our distributed team on three continents keeps the ASF's infrastructure running around the clock.<br/> -
  1941. 7M+ weekly checks yield uptime at 99.85%. Performance checks across 50
  1942. different service components spread over more than 250 machines in data
  1943. centers around the world. <a href=""></a></p>
  1944.  <p><strong>Apache Code Snapshot</strong> – this week, 943 Apache contributors changed 3,276,658 lines of code over 3,818 commits. Top 5 contributors, in order, are: Andrea Tarocchi, Andrea Cosentino, Claus Ibsen, Lukasz Lenart, and Duo Zhang. </p>
  1945.  <p><strong>Apache Project Announcements</strong> – the latest updates by category.
  1946.  </p> <span class="il">
  1947.    <p>Big Data --<br/> - Apache Arrow 0.16.0 released <a href=""></a> <br/></p></span>
  1948.  <p><span>Content --<br/> - Apache Jackrabbit Oak 1.22.1 released <br/><br/>Cryptography<br/> - Apache Milagro (Incubating) Crypto-C V2.0.1 released <a href=""></a> <br/></span><br/>Libraries --<br/> - Apache Commons Compress 1.20 <span class="il">released </span><a href="" rel="noreferrer" target="_blank"></a><br/> - Apache Commons CSV 1.8 <span class="il">released <a href=""></a> </span><span class="il"/> <br/><br/>Programming Languages --<br/>
  1949.  - Apache <span class="il">Groovy</span> 3.0.0 released <a href="" rel="noreferrer" target="_blank">https://<span class="il">groovy</span></a><br/> <br/>Servers --<br/>
  1950.  - Apache <span class="il">Tomcat</span> 8.5.51 and 9.0.31 released <a href="" rel="noreferrer" target="_blank">http://<span class="il">tomcat</span></a><br/> </p>
  1951.  <p><strong><br/>Did You Know?</strong></p>
  1952.  <p> - Did you know that Apache Impala now supports Apache Hudi (incubating), Hive, and ORC? <a href=""></a></p>
  1953.  <p> - Did you know that the Apache NetBeans C/C++ donation by Oracle is nearing completion? Review and final stage countdown is on <a href=""></a></p>
  1954.  <p> - Did you know that you can access your favorite Apache project logos at <a href=""></a> ?<br/><br/></p>
  1955.  <p><strong>Apache Community Notices:</strong></p>
  1956.  <p> - Apache Month In Review: January 2020 – overview of events that have taken place within the Apache community <a href=""></a> </p>
  1957.  <p> - "Trillions and Trillions Served", the documentary on the ASF, is in post-production. Catch the teaser at <a href=""></a> </p>
  1958.  <p> - Apache in 2019 - By The Digits <a href=""></a> </p>
  1959.  <p> - The Apache Way to Sustainable Open Source Success <a href=""></a></p>
  1960.  <p> - ASF Operations Summary: Q2 FY2020 (August - October 2019) <a href=""></a></p>
  1961.  <p> - Celebrating 20 Years Community-led Development "The Apache Way" <a href=""></a></p>
  1962.  <p> - ASF Founders look back on 20 Years of the ASF <a href=""></a></p>
  1963.  <p> - Foundation Reports and Statements <a href=""></a></p>
  1964.  <p> - ApacheCon: Tomorrow's Technology Today since 1998 <a href=""></a></p>
  1965.  <p> - ASF Annual Report for FY2019 <a href=""></a></p>
  1966.  <p> - The Apache Software Foundation 2018 Vision Statement <a href=""></a></p>
  1967.  <p> - Foundation Statement –Apache Is Open. <a href=""></a></p>
  1968.  <p> - CFP and pre-registration open for the first Pulsar Summit <a href=""></a> </p>
  1969.  <div>
  1970.    <p> - "Success at Apache" focuses on the people and processes behind why the ASF "just works". <a href=""></a></p>
  1971.  </div>
  1972.  <div>
  1973.    <p> - Please follow/like/re-tweet the ASF on social media: @TheASF on Twitter (<a href=""></a>) and on LinkedIn at <a href=""></a></p>
  1974.    <p> - Do friend and follow us on the Apache Community Facebook page <a href=""></a> and Twitter account <a href=""></a></p>
  1975.  </div> <span class="LrzXr"/><span class="LrzXr"/>
  1976.  <div> - Find out how you can participate with Apache
  1977. community/projects/activities --opportunities open with Apache Camel,
  1978. Apache HTTP Server, and more! <a href=""></a></div>
  1979.  <div><br/> - Are your software solutions Powered by Apache? Download &amp; use our "Powered By" logos <a href=""></a></div>
  1980.  <div>
  1981.    <p>= = =</p>
  1982.    <p>For real-time updates, sign up for Apache-related news by sending
  1983. mail to [email protected] and follow @TheASF on Twitter.
  1984. For a broader spectrum from the Apache community, <a href=""></a> provides an aggregate of Project activities as well as the personal blogs and tweets of select ASF Committers.</p>
  1985.  </div>
  1986.  <p> </p></div>
  1987.    </content>
  1988.    <updated>2020-02-14T05:44:54Z</updated>
  1989.    <published>2020-02-14T05:44:54Z</published>
  1990.    <category label="Newsletter" term="Newsletter"/>
  1991.    <category scheme="" term="2020"/>
  1992.    <category scheme="" term="apache"/>
  1993.    <category scheme="" term="community"/>
  1994.    <category scheme="" term="foundation"/>
  1995.    <category scheme="" term="initiatives"/>
  1996.    <category scheme="" term="news"/>
  1997.    <category scheme="" term="projects"/>
  1998.    <category scheme="" term="round-up"/>
  1999.    <category scheme="" term="software"/>
  2000.    <category scheme="" term="summary"/>
  2001.    <category scheme="" term="weekly"/>
  2002.    <author>
  2003.      <name>Swapnil M Mane</name>
  2004.    </author>
  2005.    <source>
  2006.      <id></id>
  2007.      <link href="" rel="self" type="application/atom+xml"/>
  2008.      <link href="" rel="alternate" type="text/html"/>
  2009.      <subtitle>The voice of the ASF</subtitle>
  2010.      <title>The Apache Software Foundation Blog</title>
  2011.      <updated>2020-02-21T06:18:29Z</updated>
  2012.    </source>
  2013.  </entry>
  2015.  <entry>
  2016.    <id>,2020-02-13:Product-Service-Partnerships</id>
  2017.    <link href="" rel="alternate" type="text/html"/>
  2018.    <title>Product-Service Partnerships</title>
  2019.    <content type="xhtml"><div xmlns=""><p>When customer companies buy software products, they usually need
  2020.      skilled staff to install them. This staff is usually provided by a service
  2021.      provider company, since software product vendors don't find it makes
  2022.      business sense to build their own services arm. Customers need to be aware
  2023.      of the relationship between product vendors and service providers, and
  2024.      should require transparency on the relationship from those they work
  2025.      with. A transparency that is increasingly important as these partnerships
  2026.      grow in prominence with the rise of cloud vendors.</p>
  2028. <p><a class="more" href="">more…</a></p></div>
  2029.    </content>
  2030.    <updated>2020-02-13T17:02:00Z</updated>
  2031.    <source>
  2032.      <id></id>
  2033.      <author>
  2034.        <name>Martin Fowler</name>
  2035.        <email>[email protected]</email>
  2036.        <uri></uri>
  2037.      </author>
  2038.      <link href="" rel="self" type="application/atom+xml"/>
  2039.      <link href="" rel="alternate" type="text/html"/>
  2040.      <subtitle>Master feed of news and updates from</subtitle>
  2041.      <title>Martin Fowler</title>
  2042.      <updated>2020-02-13T17:02:00Z</updated>
  2043.    </source>
  2044.  </entry>
  2046.  <entry xml:lang="en">
  2047.    <id></id>
  2048.    <link href="" rel="alternate" type="text/html"/>
  2049.    <link href="" rel="replies" type="text/html"/>
  2050.    <link href="" rel="replies" type="application/atom+xml"/>
  2051.    <title xml:lang="en">Shaun Tomson: Surfer, Code Maker, and Flow Evangelist</title>
  2052.    <summary type="xhtml" xml:lang="en"><div xmlns=""><p>Meet Shaun Tomson, one of the greatest surfers of all time.  Welcome to Remarkable People. This episode’s guest is Shaun Tomson: Surfer, Code Maker, and Flow Evangelist. A few years ago I was in the Apple store in Santa Barbara getting my son’s iPhone screen fixed. A guy came up to me and [...]</p>
  2053. <p>The post <a href="" rel="nofollow">Shaun Tomson: Surfer, Code Maker, and Flow Evangelist</a> appeared first on <a href="" rel="nofollow">Guy Kawasaki</a>.</p></div>
  2054.    </summary>
  2055.    <content type="xhtml" xml:lang="en"><div xmlns=""><div class="fusion-fullwidth fullwidth-box fusion-builder-row-2 nonhundred-percent-fullwidth non-hundred-percent-height-scrolling" style="background-color: rgba(255,255,255,0); background-position: center center; padding-top: 0px; padding-right: 0px; padding-bottom: 0px; padding-left: 0px;"><div class="fusion-builder-row fusion-row "><div class="fusion-layout-column fusion_builder_column fusion_builder_column_1_1 fusion-builder-column-1 fusion-one-full fusion-column-first fusion-column-last 1_1" style="margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 20px;"><div class="fusion-column-wrapper"><div class="fusion-text"><h1 dir="ltr">Meet Shaun Tomson, one of the greatest surfers of all time.</h1>
  2056. <div/>
  2057. </div><div class="fusion-text"><p dir="ltr"><strong>Welcome to Remarkable People.</strong></p>
  2058. <p>This episode’s guest is Shaun Tomson: Surfer, Code Maker, and Flow Evangelist.</p>
  2059. <p>A few years ago I was in the Apple store in Santa Barbara getting my son’s iPhone screen fixed. A guy came up to me and asked, “Are you Hawaiian?” and I said no.</p>
  2060. <p>Then he said, “You look just like Guy Kawasaki..” I responded that I was Guy Kawasaki, but I’m Japanese, not Hawaiian. He introduced himself as Shaun Tomson.</p>
  2061. <p>I had just started surfing, so I didn’t know who Shaun was, but the Apple genius said to me, “Do you know who he is?”</p>
  2062. <p>“No.” I responded. The genius says, “He’s one of the greatest surfers ever.” Well, duh. From that humble beginning, Shaun and I became friends.</p>
  2063. <p><img alt="Surfer Shaun Tomson on Guy Kawasaki's Remarkable People Podcast" class="lazyload aligncenter wp-image-7427 size-large" height="768" src="" width="1024"/></p>
  2064. <p>He took me surfing a few days later, and not even the great Shaun Thomson could get me up on a wave!</p>
  2065. <p>Shaun is recognized one of the ten greatest surfers of all time. He won the IPS World Championship in 1977. He and a small group of surfers established surfing as a profession in the 1970s.</p>
  2066. <p>He is currently an author, speaker, and board member of the Surfrider Foundation. Besides being a remarkable surfer, he is also a remarkable human being.</p>
  2067. <p>Do you know about the state of consciousness called “flow?” Keep listening, and you’ll learn what it is and how to achieve it.</p>
  2068. <p>I’m Guy Kawasaki, and this is Remarkable People. Now here’s Shaun!</p>
  2069. </div><div class="fusion-text"><h2 dir="ltr">What did you learn from this episode of Remarkable People?</h2>
  2070. <p dir="ltr">This week’s tweetable: </p><hr/><p><em>Learn how to create a wave of purpose and positive change on the #RemarkablePeople podcast.</em><br/><a href=";text=Learn%20how%20to%20create%20a%20wave%20of%20purpose%20and%20positive%20change%20on%20the%20%23RemarkablePeople%20podcast.&amp;via=GuyKawasaki&amp;related=GuyKawasaki" rel="noopener noreferrer" target="_blank">Click To Tweet</a><br/></p><hr/><p/>
  2071. <p dir="ltr"><span> Use the #remarkablepeople hashtag to join the conversation!</span></p>
  2072. <p dir="ltr"><strong>Where to subscribe: <a href="" rel="noopener noreferrer" target="_blank">Apple Podcast</a> | <a href="" rel="noopener noreferrer" target="_blank">Google Podcasts</a></strong></p>
  2073. <h2 dir="ltr">Find more from Shaun Tomson</h2>
  2074. <ul>
  2075. <li dir="ltr">
  2076. <p dir="ltr"><a href="" rel="noopener noreferrer" target="_blank">Twitter</a></p>
  2077. </li>
  2078. <li dir="ltr">
  2079. <p dir="ltr"><a href="" rel="noopener noreferrer" target="_blank">Instagram</a></p>
  2080. </li>
  2081. <li dir="ltr"><a href="" rel="noopener noreferrer" target="_blank">Website</a></li>
  2082. <li dir="ltr"><a href="" rel="noopener noreferrer" target="_blank"><em>A Surfer’s Code: 12 Simple Lessons for Riding through Life</em></a></li>
  2083. </ul>
  2084. <h2 dir="ltr">Follow Remarkable People Host, Guy Kawasaki</h2>
  2085. <ul>
  2086. <li dir="ltr">
  2087. <p dir="ltr"><a href="" rel="noopener noreferrer" target="_blank">Twitter</a></p>
  2088. </li>
  2089. <li dir="ltr">
  2090. <p dir="ltr"><a href="" rel="noopener noreferrer" target="_blank">Facebook</a></p>
  2091. </li>
  2092. <li dir="ltr">
  2093. <p dir="ltr"><a href="" rel="noopener noreferrer" target="_blank">Instagram</a></p>
  2094. </li>
  2095. <li dir="ltr">
  2096. <p dir="ltr"><a href="" rel="noopener noreferrer" target="_blank">LinkedIn</a></p>
  2097. </li>
  2098. </ul>
  2099. </div><div class="fusion-text"><p style="text-align: center;"/>
  2100. </div><div class="fusion-button-wrapper fusion-aligncenter"><a class="fusion-button button-flat fusion-button-default-size button-default button-3 fusion-button-default-span fusion-button-default-type" href="" rel="noopener noreferrer" target="_blank"><span class="fusion-button-text">Subscribe to Guy Kawasaki’s Remarkable People Podcast</span></a></div><div class="fusion-text"><h2/>
  2101. <h2>FULL TRANSCRIPT of Guy Kawasaki’s Remarkable People Podcast with guest Shaun Tomson</h2>
  2102. <p><span>Guy Kawasaki:</span></p>
  2103. <p><span>A few years ago, I was in the Apple Store in Santa Barbara, getting my son’s iPhone screen fixed. That’s a monthly occurrence. A guy came up to me and asked, “Are you Hawaiian?” And I said, no. Then he said, “You look just like Guy Kawasaki.” I responded that I was Guy Kawasaki, but I’m Japanese, not Hawaiian. He introduced himself as Shaun Tomson. I had just begun surfing, so I didn’t know who Shaun was.</span></p>
  2104. <p><span>But, the Apple Genius said to me, “Do you know who he is?” “No. I responded.” The genius said he’s one of the greatest surfers ever. </span></p>
  2105. <p><span>Guy Kawasaki:</span></p>
  2106. <p><span>Well, duh. From that humble beginning, Shaun and I became friends. He took me surfing a few days later, and not even the great Shaun Tomson, could get me up on a wave. Shaun is recognized as one of the ten greatest surfers of all time. He won the IPS World Championship in 1977. He and a small group of others established surfing as a profession in the 1970s. He is currently an author, speaker and board member of the Surfrider Foundation.</span></p>
  2107. <p><span>Guy Kawasaki:</span></p>
  2108. <p><span>Besides being a remarkable surfer, he is also a remarkable human being. Do you know about the state of consciousness called flow? Keep listening, and you’ll learn what it is and how to achieve it. And by the way, you need to understand one surfing term in this episode. </span></p>
  2109. <p><span>It’s called the tube. The tube is when the wave breaks and forms a little tunnel. And, riding in the tube is a religious experience as you’ll hear. I have never ridden in a tube, so I only understand it from the perspective of other surfers. And, looking at pictures and watching videos. I’m Guy Kawasaki, and this is Remarkable People. And now, here’s Shaun Tomson.</span></p>
  2110. <p><span>Shaun Tomson:</span></p>
  2111. <p><span>I grew up in this coastal town. It was quite a big city. It was about three million people, one of the biggest ports in South Africa. And I grew up in a segregated society. I’m of a Jewish extract. My ancestors came from Europe during the pogroms in Latvia. They all fled in the late 1800s, the 1900s. My mom ended up in South Africa, after being evacuated from the Island of Malta in the Second World War.</span></p>
  2112. <p><span>Shaun Tomson:</span></p>
  2113. <p><span>Which was the most heavily bombed place in the history of the world. So, I come from refugee stock. And ended up in South Africa. I was born in South Africa. And, it was a very unusual time to grow up in this sort of segregated society. It was really the last westernized country that was still segregated. The massive civil movement in the 60s in the United States.</span></p>
  2114. <p><span>Shaun Tomson:</span></p>
  2115. <p><span>The early 60s was with Martin Luther King. Sidney influenced South African leadership, a big influence on Nelson Mandela. And, the other leaders of the time for liberation. And, we were part of a very liberal household. We were both English speaking and Jews. Because it was pretty much in the wide population group. There was Afrikaans speaking people, which were traditionally, were a lot more conservative.</span></p>
  2116. <p><span>Shaun Tomson:</span></p>
  2117. <p><span>Originated from Dutch stock. They also fled for religious persecution. And then, the English words were a little bit more or a lot more liberal. And then, also being Jewish, we had quite a liberal family. But, I grew up in this segregated society. And, at the time, when you’re just on the beach.</span></p>
  2118. <p><span>Shaun Tomson:</span></p>
  2119. <p><span>When you’re fourteen or fifteen, you don’t really realize the import of these regulations. And, for me, the big change in my life happened when this famous Hawaiian surfer guy called Eddie Aikau. This Hawaiian legend, who my father had actually invited to compete in South Africa, was denied entry to his hotel called the Malibu hotel of all places.</span></p>
  2120. <p><span>Shaun Tomson:</span></p>
  2121. <p><span>And, we went and picked him up, and it was so sad to see this state of South Africa through someone else’s eyes. And finally, realize the sort of injustice of the structure. And then, he came and stayed with us, and that’s kind was really sort of the first time, when I really came to this realization. That wow, this is not the way it should be.</span></p>
  2122. <p><span>Guy Kawasaki:</span></p>
  2123. <p><span>Because he was Hawaiian or, simplistically because he was too brown, was not allowed to check into the hotel?</span></p>
  2124. <p><span>Shaun Tomson:</span></p>
  2125. <p><span>Into the Malibu hotel. Like one of the greatest surfers in the world. Someone who’d been invited out to surf in a pro surfing contest wasn’t allowed to check into the Malibu hotel. And, it created a very big sort of media sensation in South Africa. Because, obviously, the media was very anti-discrimination, anti-apartheid, way more liberal. But, as a young boy, I think I was fifteen or sixteen at the time.</span></p>
  2126. <p><span>Shaun Tomson:</span></p>
  2127. <p><span>And, I would go surfing with Eddie, and I could see this impact that this had on him. And, how it sort of crushed his spirit, and how these dehumanizing regulations are so like impactful. And, you can live in a society, and it’s like you’re almost like an ostrich with your head stuck in the sand. Not really realizing what’s happening around you.</span></p>
  2128. <p><span>Guy Kawasaki:</span></p>
  2129. <p><span>Could you spend a few minutes and explain just; what was the manifestation of segregation in South Africa at that time? What could blacks, not do?</span></p>
  2130. <p><span>Shaun Tomson:</span></p>
  2131. <p><span>So what happened in 1948, after the Second World War. Jun Smuts, who was a great South African leader, was defeated in the election. The Nationalist Party came to power. Which was a very conservative party, dominated by primarily Afrikaners. This is not to point a finger and say that all Afrikaners are evil and racist. But, at the time, it was a very much an Afrikaner dominated party. And, they instituted a series of laws. That would suppress both black opportunity, and also the places where blacks could live. It was called the group areas act.</span></p>
  2132. <p><span>Shaun Tomson:</span></p>
  2133. <p><span>So, blacks could only live in certain areas. They could only attend certain schools. They were only allowed out in certain areas, at particular times. For instance, they had to carry this passbook, around with them. For instance, I was at a Jewish school. There were no black kids in my school. Very few black kids in the university. I’m talking the 70s here. It wasn’t like it was a hundred years ago.</span></p>
  2134. <p><span>Shaun Tomson:</span></p>
  2135. <p><span>There were separate toilets for blacks and whites. It was this apartheid. It means apartness, it’s an Afrikaan’s. Apart and hate means the quality. So, it means the state of being apart. And, the concept, the moral sort of imperative that they used to state, was; separate but equal. And, if you go back to Animal Farm and George Orwell. All people are equal, but some are more equal than others. All pigs are equal, but some are more equal than others.</span></p>
  2136. <p><span>Shaun Tomson:</span></p>
  2137. <p><span>That was the way that their sensibility at the time. But, ultimately, over a period, the country came to this realization that things had to change. And, was this country going to end up in a radical civil war? And, certainly, there was massive unrest, massive disturbances, massive uprisings, the young black kids in Soweto in 1976. When I was at university, they had an uprising.</span></p>
  2138. <p><span>Shaun Tomson:</span></p>
  2139. <p><span>I stopped going to school, because Afrikans, which was perceived as the language of enslavement. They tried to make it a compulsory language for black kids to learn. So, the massive strike in Soweto in 1976, Steve Biko was killed in 1976. That was sort of a big turning point. And then, ultimately, ten years later, Mandela was released from prison in 1990. And, four years later, in 1994, we had our first democratically elected elections. And, South Africa became a free and democratic country.</span></p>
  2140. <p><span>Shaun Tomson:</span></p>
  2141. <p><span>I was competing around the world and didn’t spend a lot of time in the country back then. But, I had retired from the tour. I was in the country through the last four years of the transition to democracy. And, it was amazing to see that at the time, a lot of us thought the country was going to go up in flames. We thought the country was going to be absolutely destroyed, and hundreds of thousands of people were going to die.</span></p>
  2142. <p><span>Shaun Tomson:</span></p>
  2143. <p><span>People talk about leadership, and all lack thereof. And, here’s a guy who’s been in prison for twenty-seven years, comes out of jail and unites this dis-united country. And creates a relatively peaceful transition to democracy. It was amazing the power that this man had. </span></p>
  2144. <p><span>This fundamental mojo, and this fundamental value structure. That he could persuade 60 million people to be on the same page. It has never happened before, and it will never happen again.</span></p>
  2145. <p><span>Nelson Mandela:</span></p>
  2146. <p><span>The time for the healing of the wounds has come, the moment to bridge, the causes that divide us has come time. The time to build is upon us.</span></p>
  2147. <p><span>Guy Kawasaki:</span></p>
  2148. <p><span>Did you ever interact or meet with him?</span></p>
  2149. <p><span>Shaun Tomson:</span></p>
  2150. <p><span>No, I always wanted to. I always wanted to meet him, but I never did. I had so much admiration for him and for what he did. </span></p>
  2151. <p><span>And, for that spirit of reconciliation, that spirit of openness, that spirit of kindness, the deep humanity, the morality and the connectivity to sport too. He was a great boxer in his youth, and he was a fitness guy. And, he was just a truly remarkable individual. Well-read.</span></p>
  2152. <p><span>Guy Kawasaki:</span></p>
  2153. <p><span>Wow.</span></p>
  2154. <p><span>Shaun Tomson:</span></p>
  2155. <p><span>His lawyers and attorney fought cases, had this tremendous steel will. And, this great spirit of honor.</span></p>
  2156. <p><span>Guy Kawasaki:</span></p>
  2157. <p><span>So meanwhile, you’re a World Champion Surfer.</span></p>
  2158. <p><span>Shaun Tomson:</span></p>
  2159. <p><span>Yeah, switching gears.</span></p>
  2160. <p><span>Guy Kawasaki:</span></p>
  2161. <p><span>You had to break a little bit of your own, sort of closed society. When you came to Oahu and entered the North Shore scene. So, what was that like? I mean, it wasn’t apartheid, but I bet you have some stories is there.</span></p>
  2162. <p><span>Shaun Tomson:</span></p>
  2163. <p><span>Yeah. So, growing up in South Africa, my father was a champion swimmer and his youth. He loved swimming, and his dream was to compete in the Olympics. He was in the Second World War, and he’s South African swimming champion at thirteen years old. And then, he started his swimming career again to try to make the ’48 Olympics and was very badly attacked by a shark. When he was out there, on his little wooden surfboard. It nearly bit his arm off. But, his hero in his youth, was Duke Kahanamoku.</span></p>
  2164. <p><span>Guy Kawasaki:</span></p>
  2165. <p><span>Oh, really?</span></p>
  2166. <p><span>Shaun Tomson:</span></p>
  2167. <p><span>And, he would tell me about Duke. And Duke became my hero too. And after my dad’s shark attack nearly killed him, but he survived. His father sent him to have arm surgery in San Francisco. One of the top hand surgeons. And, after the surgery, he sent him to Hawaii to recuperate. And, he stayed in the Royal on the beach. When there was any two hotels on the beach, the Moana and the Royal. And met Duke Kahanamoku. So, it was wonderful for my dad.</span></p>
  2168. <p><span>Shaun Tomson:</span></p>
  2169. <p><span>And, I really think that the spirit of aloha, really connected with my father very deeply. And, he came back to South Africa with this wonderful love. And in my youth, Hawaii was always the place that one day as a surfer you have to go. </span></p>
  2170. <p><span>I had pictures of Hawaii in my room. And, my dad would tell me these stories about Hawaii and the Kahanamokus. I think we were the only house in the whole of South Africa where you had to leave your shoes outside if you wanted to walk inside.</span></p>
  2171. <p><span>Shaun Tomson:</span></p>
  2172. <p><span>And, it was quite a conservative society. But, it was shoes off. And, I used to have these pictures of the Banzai Pipeline on my wall. And, Waimea Bay. And, then my first exposure to Hawaii was for my bar mitzvah present. My dad gave me a trip to Hawaii, and he took me to Hawaii when I was fourteen years old. And, I surfed all the big waves over the North Shore and Makaha.</span></p>
  2173. <p><span>Shaun Tomson:</span></p>
  2174. <p><span>And, just fell in love with the place. And, from then afterward, I would go almost every single winter. At fifteen, sixteen years old, flying around the world going to Hawaii to try to compete. And, it was sort of a few years later, by the time I was about eighteen that I started to get pretty good. And was able to take it on. Take on the big waves at Sunset, and Pipeline and all that sort of thing.</span></p>
  2175. <p><span>Shaun Tomson:</span></p>
  2176. <p><span>And, then with that notoriety obviously comes that profile in the lineup. And, sometimes there’s some tough guys out there, that don’t like it when some young kid out there is sort of blazing a new trail. So, at the same time that I was starting to succeed, there was a whole group of young Australians, Rabbit Bartholomew, Mark Richards, Ian Cairns, Peter Townend, who also had this sort of desire. To take it on, and kind of change the way waves are written.</span></p>
  2177. <p><span>Shaun Tomson:</span></p>
  2178. <p><span>And, we had this sort of collective vision, that one day it would be possible to make a living out of going surfing. That they would actually be like a career path. It wasn’t just like going out there, having an amazing session, and coming in. But, there would actually be a career pathway. That there would be sponsorships, and that there would be a professional tour. And that there would be an industry.</span></p>
  2179. <p><span>And, we helped build it, we helped create it. I mean, us guys built the surfing industry, we built professional surfing.</span></p>
  2180. <p><span>Shaun Tomson:</span></p>
  2181. <p><span>And, it was wonderful to sort of be a part of that movement. That youthful desire, and that youthful energy. And, we were just willing to put it all on the line. And fierce competition. But, friendly and respectful. </span></p>
  2182. <p><span>But yes, we did end up on the wrong side of some gangsters in Hawaii. Some tough guys that were running drugs, and felt that we were in some way insulting Hawaiian heritage and culture. Professionalizing and promoting and popularizing this lifestyle. Which, nothing was further from the truth.</span></p>
  2183. <p><span>Shaun Tomson:</span></p>
  2184. <p><span>I mean Duke Kahanamoku was my hero, as far I know I was like ten years old. And, Hawaii was sort of for me, the center of the universe. And, my heroes were with the Hawaiian surfers. Barry Kanaiaupuni and Jeff Hackman, and all these sort of amazing individuals. </span></p>
  2185. <p><span>Ultimately there were some tough times. I mean, we went through some very tough times. I was interviewed by this magazine, this racy men’s magazine called Penthouse magazine.</span></p>
  2186. <p><span>Shaun Tomson:</span></p>
  2187. <p><span>It was like Playboy but hardcore version. And, the journalist had some things to say about this group of gangsters, the Black Shorts. And, they perceived that I’d written this article. And, so I was punched out. And then, a guy tried to hit me with a bottle, and smashed around a bit. Eventually, I was told that I was going to get killed so many times that I went and picked up a, from the local gun store in Wahiawa, I drove out to Tropic Lightning to Schofield Barracks. And, now I’m like twenty two years old.</span></p>
  2188. <p><span>Shaun Tomson:</span></p>
  2189. <p><span>And, I remember walking into the gun shop and saying to the guy behind the counter, saying, “Look, there’s a group of badass guys, there’s a lot of them, and they want to kill me.” I said, what you got for me? And, he showed me the whole line up. M16, AR-15, 44 Magnum 357. I mean, I’d been in the Army, I knew my way around weapons. And he said, “This is what you need, pal.” And, he picked up a 12-gauge Remington pump-action, ten shells.</span></p>
  2190. <p><span>Shaun Tomson:</span></p>
  2191. <p><span>He said, “You’ll hold up an army with this.” And, I remember I lashed of a 240 bucks. And, here I am. All I’ve got is an international driver’s license. And I walked out with my Remington, and I carried that around with me for a while. Until we finally managed to resolve our differences. </span></p>
  2192. <p><span>And, peace was declared, but it was a tough time. And, Rabbit Bartholomew, Ian Cairns, a number of Australians went through the same drama that I did.</span></p>
  2193. <p><span>Shaun Tomson:</span></p>
  2194. <p><span>But at the time, none of us even considered leaving. This was our life. Staying on the Island and building pro surfing. It was our life, and yes, we were in literally in the crosshairs there for awhile. But, it was relatively a short time period. And, it was just like one of those hiccups along the way, that ultimately I think gave surfing the character that it has today.</span></p>
  2195. <p><span>Guy Kawasaki:</span></p>
  2196. <p><span>You develop the surfer’s code. Your twelve, I Will-isms. Can you tell us how you came up with that?</span></p>
  2197. <p><span>Shaun Tomson:</span></p>
  2198. <p><span>Yes. <i>The Surfer’s Code</i> is actually the title of my first book. And, it started out, just as a gift to a group of young people that were coming down to the beach at a place called Rincon. Which is one of the most famous waves in the world. It’s about ten miles from our house here in Santa Barbara. Very popular wave. And, it was facing an environmental challenge.</span></p>
  2199. <p><span>Shaun Tomson:</span></p>
  2200. <p><span>The homeowners were connected up to septic tanks. And, when it rained, the septics filled up, and the crap overflowed in the river. And, would float out in the break and get the surface sick. So, this guy, Glenn Hening, had started Surfrider Foundation, contacted me, and he said, “Shaun, I want to do something about it. It’s a big problem.” He said, “I want to use kids to really heighten the awareness of this problem.”</span></p>
  2201. <p><span>Shaun Tomson:</span></p>
  2202. <p><span>He said, “I’m going to bring a hundred kids or about fifty or hundred kids down at the beach. And I want you to give them something to empower them. I’m going to bring the media down. I’m going to bring some of the local government down, and we want to just highlight this issue. And, if we can do it with kids, we think we can really create a lot of awareness.</span></p>
  2203. <p><span>Shaun Tomson:</span></p>
  2204. <p><span>So, I went home, and I thought like, “Oh, what am I going to do?” At the time, my wife and I had an apparel company called Solitude. I said, “Well, maybe I’ll give them some gear.” Or, find out Quicksilver, Billabong, all the famous surf companies, and get some like sponsorship for the kids. And then I thought, now I’m going to do something different.</span></p>
  2205. <p><span>Shaun Tomson:</span></p>
  2206. <p><span>And I got out a sheet of paper, and I wrote down twelve lines, the twelve lessons that surfing had taught me about life. And I wrote it in twenty-five minutes. Every single line beginning with, I will. As sort of a commitment as a province, a promise, as almost like a covenant with me, and surfing. And it was very simple. </span></p>
  2207. <p><span>Every single line was a metaphor. I will always paddle back out. I will never turn my back on the ocean.</span></p>
  2208. <p><span>Shaun Tomson:</span></p>
  2209. <p><span>I’ll take the drop with commitment. I will know that there will always be another way. I will honor the Sport of Kings, I’ll pass on my stoke to a non-surfer. I’ll never fight a riptide. So, I printed this piece of paper upon a little laminated card. </span></p>
  2210. <p><span>And, Glenn had said to me, “Shaun, you’ve got a hundred dollars budget.” So, I went down to the local print shop and laminated these cards and printed a hundred cards. Cost me one hundred bucks, and I gave them out to the young people that came down to the beach, and the cards just turned into a groundswell, became very popular.</span></p>
  2211. <p><span>Shaun Tomson:</span></p>
  2212. <p><span>The kids wanted them, moms and dads wanted them. A lot of people wanted them, because I think to people a code is power. A code is core, a code is at the center of our existence, a code is just a collection of values. And, that’s what makes us who we are. </span></p>
  2213. <p><span>The values that we subscribe, and when we subscribed to. And, these were simple values about perseverance, and courage and honor and bravery. And, in the context of serve metaphors. So, people just loved them, and then we kept printing more.</span><br/>
  2214. </p>
  2215. <p><span>Shaun Tomson:</span></p>
  2216. <p><span>And then, we started putting them in our clothing, we were making a lot of codes back then. And, tens of thousands of these codes and cards were sort of being distributed out into the community. And, people started finding me up and saying, “Hey Shaun, why don’t you come and talk to us about a code. At a businesses and religious groups, and conferences.</span></p>
  2217. <p><span>Shaun Tomson:</span></p>
  2218. <p><span>The first conference I spoke at was a big leadership conference, like 3000 people and I opened it. I remember the next dude was Malcolm Gladwell, and the next dude was a Richard Branson, and there I am just talking about my twelve lines, my code.</span></p>
  2219. <p><span>Guy Kawasaki:</span></p>
  2220. <p><span>This is Shaun Tomson’s surfer’s code. I’ll tell you the twelve lessons, and then interpret it for you in case you’re not a surfer. Number one, I will never turn my back on the ocean. The reason why he says this is because turning your back on the ocean is dangerous. There could be a rogue wave, there could be other surfers coming in, there could be a lot of things that are happening behind you.</span></p>
  2221. <p><span>Guy Kawasaki:</span></p>
  2222. <p><span>So, never turn your back on the ocean. Keep watching the ocean. The ocean is a powerful force, and it’s going to clean you out if you’re not careful. </span></p>
  2223. <p><span>Number two, I will paddle around the impact zone. By this, he means that you should stay out of the way of other surfers. After you’ve caught a wave and you’re going back out, don’t paddle back out through where other surfers are now surfing. Because you’ll be a pain in the ass, and you might get yourself, or another surfer hurt.</span></p>
  2224. <p><span>Guy Kawasaki:</span></p>
  2225. <p><span>Lesson three, I will take the drop with commitment. The drop is when you’ve popped up, and you’re going down the face of the wave, and you’re either going to make it or you’re going to crash and burn. Taking the drop with commitment means that you’re not going to do this in a halfhearted way. You’re going to go for it and expect to make the drop. You’re not going to hesitate because if you hesitate, you will not make the drop. </span></p>
  2226. <p><span>Number four, I will never fight a riptide. A riptide is a tide that is pulling water away from the shore. So, if you are trying to get back into the shore, and you fight the riptide, you are going to lose.</span></p>
  2227. <p><span>Guy Kawasaki:</span></p>
  2228. <p><span>Because, the ocean is more powerful than you are. You should not fight a riptide. You should just paddle parallel to the shore until you get out the riptide, and then it’ll be much easier to come back in. The life lesson here is there are some forces that are more powerful than you. Don’t fight them, avoid them.</span></p>
  2229. <p><span>Guy Kawasaki:</span></p>
  2230. <p><span>Number five, I will paddle back out. I will paddle back out means that you are not going to give up. You could be crushed, you could be tumbled, you could be nearly drowned. But, you have to go back out, face your fears, and get back on that wave. Number six, I will watch out for other surfers. Watching out for other surfers is a matter of courtesy, of etiquette, of doing the right thing. Watch out for other surfers.</span></p>
  2231. <p><span>Guy Kawasaki:</span></p>
  2232. <p><span>Number seven, there will always be another wave. This is an important life lesson. There’s always going to be other opportunities. It means that you don’t have to be greedy, you don’t have to be selfish, you don’t have to always be taking the wave. Because there will be another wave. Don’t get depressed, don’t get despondent, there are always more opportunities.</span></p>
  2233. <p><span>Guy Kawasaki:</span></p>
  2234. <p><span>Number eight, I will always ride into shore. I will always ride into shore means that, at the end of your session, you’re going to catch a wave into the shore. You’re going to get that last great ride. You’re going to quit on a high point. You’re not going to paddle in, prone like a loser, you ride in. You don’t paddle in. </span></p>
  2235. <p><span>Guy Kawasaki:</span></p>
  2236. <p><span>Number nine, I will pass along my stoke. Passing along my stoke means that you have this love for surfing, or entrepreneurship, or marketing, or music, or writing, whatever it is. But, you’re going to pass that enthusiasm along to other people. You love surfing. You’re going to other people to love surfing. You’re going to share the stoke, share the enthusiasm. Share the love for whatever you do.</span></p>
  2237. <p><span>Guy Kawasaki:</span></p>
  2238. <p><span>Number ten, I will catch a wave every day. I will catch a wave every day, means that you’re going to be dedicated. That you’re going to go out there. You’re going to go out there, conditions are lousy, you’re going to go out there, if you’re sick or you’re tired, or you’re hurt. You’re dedicated, you’re going to keep grinding at it, and one day you’ll be a great surfer because you tried every day.</span></p>
  2239. <p><span>Guy Kawasaki:</span></p>
  2240. <p><span>Number eleven, all surfers are joined by one ocean. Sometimes surfers get mad at each other. Sometimes they compete for waves, sometimes it gets ugly out there. But, really, we all share this one love. The love of the ocean. We are all joined by one ocean. Remember that. It’s not a zero-sum game. </span></p>
  2241. <p><span>Lesson twelve, I will honor the sport of Kings. Surfing is the sport of Kings. It was started by Hawaiian Kings. So, what Shaun is trying to express here is that this is a great sport.</span></p>
  2242. <p><span>Guy Kawasaki:</span></p>
  2243. <p><span>It’s a sport of royalty, it’s a sport of elite people, it’s a sport of people who love something. So, this is not a mundane thing. This is not a boring thing, this is not something that you do without passion. You have to honor the sport. Because it is a sport of Kings. And, that’s the twelve lessons of the Surfer’s Code of Shaun Tomson. At least that’s how I interpret it. And, when he listens to this podcast, maybe he’ll correct me. But Shaun, when you listen to this, that’s how I interpret your Surfer’s Code.</span></p>
  2244. <p><span>Shaun Tomson:</span></p>
  2245. <p><span>Ultimately it resulted in a book. I collaborated with them, with the mates. [crosstalk 00:27:37].</span></p>
  2246. <p><span>Guy Kawasaki:</span></p>
  2247. <p><span>That’s like me saying the first time I went surfing, was with Shaun Tomson.</span></p>
  2248. <p><span>Shaun Tomson:</span></p>
  2249. <p><span>And, then that’s sort of how it all started. And, it took my life down a different path. And now, I get tens of thousands of people around the world to write their codes. From some of the big business dudes to young students to young entrepreneurs. And, it’s so empowering for people to do this process, and then to share it.</span></p>
  2250. <p><span>Shaun Tomson:</span></p>
  2251. <p><span>Guy, it’s mind-blowing. I do this all the time. It’s become my life now.</span></p>
  2252. <p><span>And, when people share their values and share their code, it creates this engagement that’s mind-blowing. Because the single biggest social problem in the world today is the lack of engagement. </span></p>
  2253. <p><span>The single biggest social problem in the world today is lack of engagement. And, this little tool that sort of I dropped into my lap so many years ago is a fundamental way that people can just get engaged internally with their purpose. With what’s important in their lives, find what’s important, refined, and defined their purpose. And then externally, when they read their code to others, they engage with people at a deeply emotional level. You know what they call it in Hawaii?</span></p>
  2254. <p><span>Guy Kawasaki:</span></p>
  2255. <p><span>What?</span></p>
  2256. <p><span>Shaun Tomson:</span></p>
  2257. <p><span>How about this? I did this precious at Kamiomicho School. So, the repository for Hawaiian heritage and culture. I think it’s a school that was one of the biggest endowments in the world. Amazing school. I spoke in their chapel, to three, 4,000 kids. And, the chaplain said to me, Shaun, this is spirit language. This is mana, this is you speaking in the language of mana here.</span></p>
  2258. <p><span>Shaun Tomson:</span></p>
  2259. <p><span>It’s amazing, when people write their code and they say, make these commitments to themselves. It’s just beautiful. And I like to say now, my life has been through ups and downs. As a surfer businessman, and lost my beautiful, lost my beautiful son. We lost our beautiful son Matthew in 2006. And, this has just given me so much strength to carry forward on a new path.</span></p>
  2260. <p><span>Shaun Tomson:</span></p>
  2261. <p><span>Is just getting people to connect with their true purpose their true values. And, helping them connect with others. And, ultimately become more engaged internally, more engaged externally. To solve this big social problem, that results in a million deaths every year.</span></p>
  2262. <p><span>Shaun Tomson:</span></p>
  2263. <p><span>Disengagement results in one million deaths in America. Every year, 2.4 million Americans die. One million of Americans die every year from preventable deaths, from bad decisions. Decisions related to be disengaged, eating bad food, smoking, drinking, dope, traffic accidents, homicides. Just being disengaged from the world, and disengaged from others. I learned this gift that surfing has given me, and I just give it away every single day, and I love it.</span></p>
  2264. <p><span>Guy Kawasaki:</span></p>
  2265. <p><span>A lot of your talks and writing is about achieving the state of flow. So, can you tell us how to achieve flow?</span></p>
  2266. <p><span>Shaun Tomson:</span></p>
  2267. <p><span>The term flow was developed, a Hungarian psychologist, a guy called me Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi. And, it’s a state of optimal human functioning. It’s a state of absolute connectivity internally and externally. It’s a state of a high performance, it’s a state that athletes, creative people achieve when they are operating at the absolute audit age of their ability.</span></p>
  2268. <p><span>Shaun Tomson:</span></p>
  2269. <p><span>So for me, growing up surfing, I think I really started experiencing the flow state in the early 70s. When I started riding inside the tube, which is the most amazing moment in surfing. When you ride through this spinning tunnel of water. When you’re riding inside this watery hurricane when in dangerous waves, like the Banzai pipeline, you ride on the cusp of life and death. Which, really heightens that experience.</span></p>
  2270. <p><span>Shaun Tomson:</span></p>
  2271. <p><span>There’s an amazing poem by William Butler Yeats, a famous Irish poet. And, he wrote:</span></p>
  2272. <p><span>“A lonely impulse of delight</span></p>
  2273. <p><span>drove me to these two mouths, </span></p>
  2274. <p><span>I balanced all, bought all to mind. </span></p>
  2275. <p><span>The years to come seemed a waste of breath, </span></p>
  2276. <p><span>in balance with this life, this death. </span></p>
  2277. <p><span>So, that closeness to death.”</span></p>
  2278. <p><span> </span></p>
  2279. <p><span>Guy Kawasaki:</span></p>
  2280. <p><span>You just happen to know that?</span></p>
  2281. <p><span>Shaun Tomson:</span></p>
  2282. <p><span>Yeah, I love that poem. I read that poem for the first time when I was fifteen years old and just memorized it. It’s called </span><em><span>An Irish Airman Foresees His Death</span></em><span>. It’s about First World War on this guy that goes flying. Doesn’t fly for patriotism, he doesn’t fly to kill, he just flies for the sensation. And only impulsive delight.</span></p>
  2283. <p><span>Shaun Tomson:</span></p>
  2284. <p><span>And, that’s very much about what tube riding is all about is this sort of extrasensory sensation, this feeling of being in absolute control. This feeling of pushing beyond your limits, in the context of being connected with nature and riding this band of energy as well.</span></p>
  2285. <p><span>Shaun Tomson:</span></p>
  2286. <p><span>I felt that I could control the wave, I felt that I could really curve that wall to my will. I felt I could be in time and space. You feel that omnipotence, in some ways you feel God-like. You feel that you are just this superhuman in a way. And, it feels like time has expanded like it just lasts so long.</span></p>
  2287. <p><span>Shaun Tomson:</span></p>
  2288. <p><span>And, that nothing can go wrong. And, it’s almost like you’re plugged in, to what’s driving the universe, this energy socket. It’s like we’re all powered by our internal mojo, by our life force, but it feels like you’re plugged into a much greater life force. And, it just feels like you’re electric and that you’re in your own world.</span></p>
  2289. <p><span>Shaun Tomson:</span></p>
  2290. <p><span>And everything is effortless. Everything is perfect, and you’re the master of this universe, this absolute state of flow. And, I love the word flow that he used. Because it represents effortlessness, it represents the synchronization with nature. </span></p>
  2291. <p><span>So, the state of flow, how can you get the state of flow? I think absolute dedication, discipline, concentration.</span></p>
  2292. <p><span>Shaun Tomson:</span></p>
  2293. <p><span>Focus on the matter at hand and creative. It’s not physical, it’s not just physical. But, it’s creative as well. It’s emotional as well. So, you have this emotional creative, plus physical. This internal and external connectivity, that just makes it this sort of existential experience. And, in surfing, you have the closeness to danger too. You, riding over sharp coral reefs at any moment, you could get smashed into that coral. So, it just adds and adds to and heightens that sensory aspect of the moment.</span></p>
  2294. <p><span>Shaun Tomson:</span></p>
  2295. <p><span>I met Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi, actually spoken with him at a Positive Psychology Conference. And, it was wonderful to meet this man, who’s developed this groundbreaking theory of wellbeing. Because essentially, that’s what it is. </span></p>
  2296. <p><span>If people can find their flow, they can find their purpose, can find something beyond hitting their target for the next quarter. Or, I think people can be more engaged and flourish. Opening a state of engagement.</span></p>
  2297. <p><span>Shaun Tomson:</span></p>
  2298. <p><span>Of engagement with oneself, of engagement with nature, of engagement with creative acts. And for this whole new field of positive psychology. They say that flow is part of a state of wellbeing and human flourishing. That we all need to experience to be better people, and to be more fulfilled, to be more satisfied, to ultimately just be better.</span></p>
  2299. <p><span>Guy Kawasaki:</span></p>
  2300. <p><span>If we could only bottle that, huh? I mean.</span></p>
  2301. <p><span>Shaun Tomson:</span></p>
  2302. <p><span>Exactly. It’s like stoke.</span></p>
  2303. <p><span>Guy Kawasaki:</span></p>
  2304. <p><span>Yes.</span></p>
  2305. <p><span>Shaun Tomson:</span></p>
  2306. <p><span>People laugh about that word, about that word stoke. But, I love that word. And, when I see people when I met you, and I see how surfing has empowered you. And, how stoked you’ve become, you flip your book over. And, you see that picture on the back cover of your book there, and you just had this aura. And, you exuding this feeling of just absolute wellbeing.</span></p>
  2307. <p><span>Shaun Tomson:</span></p>
  2308. <p><span>And, so many people get this feeling in the water, and it just makes people better. Because surfing’s not easy surfing’s hard. And it’s really hard to start learning at 63. But, when you get that wave, it is such a feeling of joy and accomplishment. And, it’s all part of this whole feeling of like stoke. This feeling of exhilaration.</span></p>
  2309. <p><span>Guy Kawasaki:</span></p>
  2310. <p><span>Shaun, I have never had greater joy. Well, other than being a father and husband. But, in terms of an individual thing, then surfing. Surfing is just the most addictive thing you can do that’s legal. </span></p>
  2311. <p><span>I thank the Lord that I didn’t come upon surfing until my sixties. Because, if I had discovered surfing in my teens, the whole arc of my life might’ve changed. I don’t think I would have accomplished as much in business if I had found surfing earlier.</span></p>
  2312. <p><span>Shaun Tomson:</span></p>
  2313. <p><span>Definitely. I’ll guarantee you wouldn’t have. I’ve got to say during my time as a pro surfer, I competed for my first Pro event in 1969. I competed in my last Pro event into 1989. I would say there was not one surfer in the entire world, I will categorically state, who surfed more than me. And I didn’t do it because I wanted to win contests.</span></p>
  2314. <p><span>Shaun Tomson:</span></p>
  2315. <p><span>I did it because I loved it more. I’ve got to make two lectures up at Stanford, and he said to me, “Shaun, I was lecturing to my students, my law students. And, I was talking to them about success. And, he said I’d spoken to this surfer guy Shaun Tomson. I asked him what does he attribute his success to? He said to me, I loved it more.” And, that’s what I did in surfing.</span></p>
  2316. <p><span>Shaun Tomson:</span></p>
  2317. <p><span>I think I loved it more. I loved my time in the water. And, surfing just has that sort of addictive, but in a good way. It’s sort of addictive, obsessive quality of just wanting to be out there in the water, catching waves.</span></p>
  2318. <p><span>Guy Kawasaki:</span></p>
  2319. <p><span>Before I took up surfing, I played ice hockey. And, ice hockey is also addictive. Because there’s so much, especially if you start late. First of all, you have to skate. So, that’s a skill that you’re not born with. So, you have to learn how to skate, and then you have to keep track of your stick. And then there’s a puck, and then there are your four teammates, and then there’s the other goalie.</span></p>
  2320. <p><span>Guy Kawasaki:</span></p>
  2321. <p><span>And, there’s five other people protecting that goalie. There’s a lot of variables. I thought hockey was hard, and then I take up surfing and like, holy shit. So, you got to think of every other surfer, the ocean, the wind, the rocks, the tide, the size of the wave. And I thought hockey was complex but surfing. My God.</span></p>
  2322. <p><span>Shaun Tomson:</span></p>
  2323. <p><span>Every now and then, a great white shark will cruise you.</span></p>
  2324. <p><span>Guy Kawasaki:</span></p>
  2325. <p><span>I’ve never surfed in South Africa, so I don’t know about that.</span></p>
  2326. <p><span>Shaun Tomson:</span></p>
  2327. <p><span>Yeah. But, I think in that difficulty is the attraction. And, also that sort of obsession. Because it’s not like you can just master it and go, “okay, I’ve done that one. That’s, I’ve got that under control.” Even for me now, having served for decades, it’s still a great challenge, and it still keeps me very achieve.</span></p>
  2328. <p><span>Shaun Tomson:</span></p>
  2329. <p><span>When they are operating at the absolute outer edge of their ability. So for me, growing up surfing, I think I really started experiencing the flow state in the early 70s. </span></p>
  2330. <p><span>When I started riding inside the tube, which is the most amazing moment in surfing, when you ride through this spinning tunnel of water. When you’re riding inside this watery hurricane.</span></p>
  2331. <p><span>Shaun Tomson:</span></p>
  2332. <p><span>But yeah, just to sum up, so over the last ten years since I’ve embarked on a new path and writing books and primarily speaking at organizations, schools, and universities, I’ve found that disengagements are fundamental problem in society today.</span></p>
  2333. <p><span>Shaun Tomson:</span></p>
  2334. <p><span>If you look at the latest Gallup poll, they did a 2018 workplace study, 85% of employees are disengaged. So, it’s not just employees that are disengaged from the company’s purpose. And their own purpose, but it’s young people too. Young people are getting involved with bad stuff. I mean the drug use is at an all-time high.</span></p>
  2335. <p><span>Shaun Tomson:</span></p>
  2336. <p><span>School shootings are at an all-time high. People are just disengaged from their own purpose, and they disengage from each other. So, this concept, it’s a social malaise. </span></p>
  2337. <p><span>And, I mean there is a tenuous link between lack of purpose and lack of engagement and making bad decisions. There is a tenuous link between lack of purpose and lack of engagement and making bad decisions. </span></p>
  2338. <p><span>In my work over the last ten years, I’ve found that a really simple way for people to find, refine, and define their purpose. And it takes thirty minutes.</span></p>
  2339. <p><span>Shaun Tomson:</span></p>
  2340. <p><span>You take out a sheet of paper, and you write twelve lines. Every line beginning with I will. And, you write your code, you write your values, you write what you’re going to do. You write the next step.</span></p>
  2341. <p><span> From a surfing metaphor, you’re writing about your next wave. It’s a really simple process. It’s free. And, when you’ve written your code, keep your code because that’s your guidepost.</span></p>
  2342. <p><span>Shaun Tomson:</span></p>
  2343. <p><span>I like to say that this code is your purpose in the context of twelve promises. And, I like to say there’s a simple acronym for this purpose that you’re writing. And, it’s AIMYST. Your purpose and your code is aspirational. It’s inspirational, it’s moral. It’s yours, it’s no one else’s, and it’s timeless. It’s not like a smart goal, specific, measurable, achievable, relevant, time-sensitive. </span></p>
  2344. <p><span>It’s timeless. When you write your code, it’s forever.</span></p>
  2345. <p><span>Shaun Tomson:</span></p>
  2346. <p><span>I wrote my code twenty years ago. I still carry it around with me in my wallet. And, I look at it every second day. If things go sideways, I look at my code in it. I’m going well. That kind of inspires me because it’s my words. It’s no one else’s word. </span></p>
  2347. <p><span>So, I encourage people, write your code. And then, as step two, share your code. Share it with your family, share it with your coworkers. Share it with anyone who you might think might need it. Because your code can inspire others.</span></p>
  2348. <p><span>Guy Kawasaki:</span></p>
  2349. <p><span>Does it always, is it always like lofty things? I will be myself, I will be kinder on me. Can it be really tactical and small? Like I will walk to the nose? I mean-</span></p>
  2350. <p><span>Shaun Tomson:</span></p>
  2351. <p><span>Yeah, it’s-</span></p>
  2352. <p><span>Guy Kawasaki:</span></p>
  2353. <p><span>Nothing lofty.</span></p>
  2354. <p><span>Shaun Tomson:</span></p>
  2355. <p><span>It’s a variety. Generally, it’s a higher-level purpose. It’s aspirational and inspirational, but often like for a person to state a statement like, “I will be present.” So, I will be present is both aspirational and also it’s both very tactical.</span></p>
  2356. <p><span>Guy Kawasaki:</span></p>
  2357. <p><span>Yes.</span></p>
  2358. <p><span>Shaun Tomson:</span></p>
  2359. <p><span>I will be present. I will be a better dad. How about that?</span></p>
  2360. <p><span>Guy Kawasaki:</span></p>
  2361. <p><span>Yes.</span></p>
  2362. <p><span>Shaun Tomson:</span></p>
  2363. <p><span>I will be a better husband. This is often written. I’ll be a better husband, I’ll be a better dad, I’ll be a better mom, I will do what I say I will do. I will be a better team player. </span></p>
  2364. <p><span>The words that people write are both goal-orientated and aspiration-orientated. I have never ever, in the thousands and tens of hundreds of thousands of lines of code that I’ve received from people.</span></p>
  2365. <p><span>Shaun Tomson:</span></p>
  2366. <p><span>No one has ever said, I will hit my sales goal, ever. And, I’ll do a group of fifty tough salespeople that are like sales driven. And, no one writes, I will hit my sales goal. Everyone just looks beyond that immediate target, to a bigger target. Even though that is in their minds obviously. They’re going hit their sales goal. How are they going to hit the sales goal? Yes, by being a better team player, by doing what they say they will do.</span></p>
  2367. <p><span>Shaun Tomson:</span></p>
  2368. <p><span>By being committed, by being accountable. I will be accountable, I will be committed. It’s sort of, I like the same philosophy. </span></p>
  2369. <p><span>You’re trying to hit the target, but you’re abandoning that hope of that fruition. And, it just sort of comes to be.</span></p>
  2370. <p><span>Shaun Tomson:</span></p>
  2371. <p><span>It’s beautiful. It’s a beautiful thing. When I do this process Guy, I say to people, “Man, I got the best job in the world.” When I see people sharing this goodness, and it just gives you so much hope for the human condition. And, it gives you so much hope, for the world to see that while we all different Republican, Democratic, independent, who knows what.</span></p>
  2372. <p><span>Shaun Tomson:</span></p>
  2373. <p><span>But, when people write their codes, there’s this collective, a wonderful spirit of very tactical. So, write it down. Twelve lines, every line begins with I will and share it. And, that’s what I’d like to say to sum up. Write your code and share it.</span></p>
  2374. <p><span>Guy Kawasaki:</span></p>
  2375. <p><span>If nothing else, one lesson from this episode is that you should hang around Apple Stores. Because you can meet the most remarkable people there. The nerd you’re sitting next to at the Genius Bar could be <a href="" rel="noopener noreferrer" target="_blank">Woz</a> or Shaun. One of the world’s greatest engineers, or one of the world’s greatest surfers. </span></p>
  2376. <p><span>I’m Guy Kawasaki, and this is Remarkable People. My thanks to Jeff Sieh and Peg Fitzpatrick, who helped me achieve the state of flow, with every podcast episode. And, thanks to the Apple Genius who told me who Shaun Tomson was.</span></p>
  2377. <p><span>This is Remarkable People.</span></p>
  2378. </div><div class="fusion-button-wrapper fusion-aligncenter"><a class="fusion-button button-flat fusion-button-default-size button-default button-4 fusion-button-default-span fusion-button-default-type" href="" rel="noopener noreferrer" target="_blank"><span class="fusion-button-text">Subscribe to Guy Kawasaki’s Remarkable People Podcast</span></a></div><div class="fusion-clearfix"/></div></div></div></div>
  2379. <p>The post <a href="" rel="nofollow">Shaun Tomson: Surfer, Code Maker, and Flow Evangelist</a> appeared first on <a href="" rel="nofollow">Guy Kawasaki</a>.</p>
  2380. <img alt="" height="1" src="" width="1"/></div>
  2381.    </content>
  2382.    <updated>2020-02-12T09:01:11Z</updated>
  2383.    <published>2020-02-12T09:01:11Z</published>
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  2391.    <author>
  2392.      <name>Guy Kawasaki</name>
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  2401.      <subtitle xml:lang="en">The Art of Changing Hearts, Minds, and Actions</subtitle>
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  2407.  <entry>
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  2410.    <title>Bliki: OutcomeOverOutput</title>
  2411.    <content type="xhtml"><div xmlns=""><p>Imagine a team writing software for a shopping website. If we look at the
  2412.  team's output, we might consider how many new features they produced in the
  2413.  last quarter, or a cross-functional measure such as a reduction in page load
  2414.  time. An outcome measure, however, would consider measure increased sales
  2415.  revenue, or reduced number of support calls for the product. Focusing on
  2416.  outcomes, rather than output, favors building features that do more to improve
  2417.  the effectiveness of the software's users and customers.</p>
  2419. <div class="photo "><img src=""/>
  2420. <p class="photoCaption"/>
  2421. </div>
  2423. <p>As with any professional activity, those of us involved in software
  2424.  development want to learn what makes us more effective. This is true of an
  2425.  individual developer trying to improve her own performance, for managers looking
  2426.  to improve teams within an organization, or a maven like me trying to raise
  2427.  the game of the entire industry. One of the things that makes this difficult
  2428.  is that there's no clear way to measure the productivity of a software team.
  2429.  And this measurement question gets further complicated by whether we base
  2430.  effectiveness on output or outcome.</p>
  2432. <div class="tweet tweet-sidebar">
  2433. <blockquote class="twitter-tweet" lang="en"><a href="">--</a></blockquote>
  2434. </div>
  2436. <p>I've always been of the opinion that outcome is what we should concentrate
  2437.  on. If a team delivers lots of functionality - whether we measure it in lines
  2438.  of code, function points, or stories - that functionality doesn't matter if it
  2439.  doesn't help the user improve their activity. Lots of unused features are
  2440.  wasted effort, indeed worse than that they bloat the code base making it
  2441.  harder to add new features in the future. Such a software development team needs
  2442.  to care about the usefulness of the new functionality, they improve as they
  2443.  deliver less features, but of greater utility.</p>
  2445. <p>One argument I've heard against using outcome-based observations is that it's
  2446.  harder to come up with repeatable measures for outcomes than it is for output.
  2447.  I find this point difficult to fathom. Measuring pure output for software is
  2448.  famously difficult. Lines of code are a useless measure even if they weren't
  2449.  so easily gamed. There's poor replicability with Function Point or Story
  2450.  Points - different people will give the same things different point scores.
  2451.  Compared to this, we are very good at measuring financial outcomes. Of course,
  2452.  many outcome observations are more tricky to make - consider customer satisfaction -
  2453.  but I don't see any of them as more difficult than software functionality.</p>
  2455. <p>Just calling something an “outcome”, of course, doesn't make something the
  2456.  right thing to focus on, and there is certainly a skill to picking the right
  2457.  outcomes to observe. One handy notion is that of <a href=";tag=martinfowlerc-20&amp;linkCode=as2&amp;camp=1789&amp;creative=9325&amp;creativeASIN=B07QJ1Y8Y5">Seiden</a><img alt="" border="0" height="1" src=";l=as2&amp;o=1&amp;a=0321601912" style="width: 1px !important; height: 1px !important; border: none !important; margin: 0px !important;" width="1"/>, who says that an outcome should be a change in
  2458.  behavior of a user, employee, or customer that drives a good thing for the
  2459.  organization. He makes a distinction between “outcomes”, which are behavioral
  2460.  changes that are easier to observe, and “impacts” which are broader effects upon
  2461.  the organization. In developing EDGE, <a href=";tag=martinfowlerc-20&amp;linkCode=as2&amp;camp=1789&amp;creative=9325&amp;creativeASIN=0135263077">Highsmith, Luu,
  2462.  and Robinson</a><img alt="" border="0" height="1" src=";l=as2&amp;o=1&amp;a=0321601912" style="width: 1px !important; height: 1px !important; border: none !important; margin: 0px !important;" width="1"/> advise that outcomes about customer value (reliability of
  2463.  a dishwasher) should be given more weight than outcomes about business value
  2464.  (warranty repair costs).</p>
  2466. <p>A consequential concern about using outcome observations is that it's harder to
  2467.  apportion them to a software development team. Consider a customer team that uses software
  2468.  to help them track the quality of goods in their supply chain. If we assess
  2469.  them by how many rejects there are by the final consumer, how much of that is
  2470.  due to the software, how much due the quality control procedures
  2471.  developed by quality analysts, and how much due to a separate initiative to
  2472.  improve the quality of raw materials? This difficulty of apportionment is a
  2473.  huge hurdle if we want to compare different software teams, perhaps in order
  2474.  to judge whether using Clojure has helped teams be more effective. Similarly
  2475.  there is  the case that
  2476.  the developers work well and deliver excellent and valuable software to track
  2477.  quality, but the quality control procedures are no good. Consequently rejects
  2478.  don't go down and the initiative is seen as a failure, despite the developers
  2479.  doing a great job on their part.</p>
  2481. <p>But the problems of apportionment shouldn't be taken as a reason to observe
  2482.  the wrong thing. The common phrase says "you get what you measure", in this
  2483.  case it's more like "you get what you try to measure". If you focus appraisal
  2484.  of success on output, then everyone is thinking about how to increase the
  2485.  output. So even if it's tricky to determine how a team's work affects outcome, the
  2486.  fact that people are instead thinking about outcomes and how to improve them
  2487.  is worth more than any effort to compare teams' proficiency in producing the
  2488.  wrong things. </p>
  2490. <div class="furtherReading">
  2491. <h2>Further Reading</h2>
  2493. <p><a href=";tag=martinfowlerc-20&amp;linkCode=as2&amp;camp=1789&amp;creative=9325&amp;creativeASIN=B07QJ1Y8Y5">Seiden</a><img alt="" border="0" height="1" src=";l=as2&amp;o=1&amp;a=0321601912" style="width: 1px !important; height: 1px !important; border: none !important; margin: 0px !important;" width="1"/> provides a nice framework for
  2494.    thinking of outcomes, one that's informed by experiences with non-profits
  2495.    who have a similarly tricky job of evaluating the impact of their work.</p>
  2497. <p>My colleagues developed <a href=";tag=martinfowlerc-20&amp;linkCode=as2&amp;camp=1789&amp;creative=9325&amp;creativeASIN=0135263077">EDGE</a><img alt="" border="0" height="1" src=";l=as2&amp;o=1&amp;a=0321601912" style="width: 1px !important; height: 1px !important; border: none !important; margin: 0px !important;" width="1"/> as an
  2498.    operating model for transforming businesses to work in the digital world.
  2499.    Focusing on outcomes is a core part of their philosophy.</p>
  2501. <p>Focusing on outcomes naturally leads to favoring <a href="">Outcome Oriented</a> teams.</p>
  2502. </div>
  2504. <div class="acknowledgements">
  2505. <h2>Acknowledgements</h2>
  2507. <p>My fellow pioneers in the early days of Extreme Programming were very
  2508.    aware of the faults of assessing software development in terms of output. I
  2509.    remember Ron Jeffries and I arguing at an early agile conference workshop
  2510.    that any measures of a team's effectiveness should focus on outcome rather
  2511.    than output - although we did not use those words yet. That thinking is also
  2512.    reflected in my post <a href="">Cannot Measure Productivity</a>.</p>
  2514. <p>I recall starting to hear my colleagues at ThoughtWorks talking about a
  2515.    distinction between outcome and output appearing in the 2000s, leading
  2516.    Daniel Terhorst-North to suggest that outcome over features should be a
  2517.    <a href="">fifth agile value</a>. This favor to outcomes is a
  2518.    regular theme in ThoughtWorks-birthed books such as <a href=";tag=martinfowlerc-20&amp;linkCode=as2&amp;camp=1789&amp;creative=9325&amp;creativeASIN=1449368425">Lean Enterprise</a><img alt="" border="0" height="1" src=";l=as2&amp;o=1&amp;a=0321601912" style="width: 1px !important; height: 1px !important; border: none !important; margin: 0px !important;" width="1"/>, <a href=";tag=martinfowlerc-20&amp;linkCode=as2&amp;camp=1789&amp;creative=9325&amp;creativeASIN=0135263077">EDGE</a><img alt="" border="0" height="1" src=";l=as2&amp;o=1&amp;a=0321601912" style="width: 1px !important; height: 1px !important; border: none !important; margin: 0px !important;" width="1"/>, and
  2519.    the <a href=";tag=martinfowlerc-20&amp;linkCode=as2&amp;camp=1789&amp;creative=9325&amp;creativeASIN=1492054399">Digital Transformation Game Plan</a><img alt="" border="0" height="1" src=";l=as2&amp;o=1&amp;a=0321601912" style="width: 1px !important; height: 1px !important; border: none !important; margin: 0px !important;" width="1"/>.</p>
  2521. <p>Alexander Steinhart, Alexandra Mogul, Andy Birds, Dale Peakall, Dean Eyre, Gabriel Sixel, Jeff Mangan, Job Rwebembera, Kief Morris, Linus
  2522.    Karsai, Mariela Barzallo, Peter
  2523.    Gillard-Moss, Steven Wilhelm, Vanessa Towers, Vikrant Kardam, and Xiao Ran discussed drafts of this post
  2524.    on our internal mailing list. Peter Gillard-Moss led me to the Seiden
  2525.    book and other work from the non-profit world.</p>
  2526. </div></div>
  2527.    </content>
  2528.    <updated>2020-02-11T15:16:00Z</updated>
  2529.    <category term="bliki"/>
  2530.    <source>
  2531.      <id></id>
  2532.      <author>
  2533.        <name>Martin Fowler</name>
  2534.        <email>[email protected]</email>
  2535.        <uri></uri>
  2536.      </author>
  2537.      <link href="" rel="self" type="application/atom+xml"/>
  2538.      <link href="" rel="alternate" type="text/html"/>
  2539.      <subtitle>Master feed of news and updates from</subtitle>
  2540.      <title>Martin Fowler</title>
  2541.      <updated>2020-02-13T17:02:00Z</updated>
  2542.    </source>
  2543.  </entry>
  2545.  <entry xml:lang="en-US">
  2546.    <id></id>
  2547.    <link href="" rel="alternate" type="text/html"/>
  2548.    <title xml:lang="en-US">OpenID Connect Logout Certifications Available</title>
  2549.    <summary xml:lang="en-US">I’m pleased to announce that certification for RP logout implementations is now available. Give it a spin at! This joins that OP logout certification that launched in August 2019, which is described at Both are in pilot mode, and so certifications are currently available at no cost to OpenID Foundation members. If you’ve [...]</summary>
  2550.    <content type="xhtml" xml:lang="en-US"><div xmlns=""><p>I’m pleased to announce that certification for RP logout implementations is now available.  Give it a spin at <a href=""></a>!  This joins that OP logout certification that launched in August 2019, which is described at <a href=""></a>.  Both are in pilot mode, and so certifications are currently available at no cost to OpenID Foundation members.</p>
  2551. <p>If you’ve implemented any form of logout (RP-Initiated, Session Management, Front-Channel, or Back-Channel), please run these tests and report your results.  Getting test coverage of logout implementations is important for the OpenID Connect working group to have confidence that these specs are ready to take to Final status.</p></div>
  2552.    </content>
  2553.    <updated>2020-02-11T02:01:45Z</updated>
  2554.    <published>2020-02-11T02:01:45Z</published>
  2555.    <category scheme="" term="Certification"/>
  2556.    <category scheme="" term="OpenID Connect"/>
  2557.    <category scheme="" term="Logout"/>
  2558.    <author>
  2559.      <name>Mike Jones</name>
  2560.      <uri></uri>
  2561.    </author>
  2562.    <source>
  2563.      <id></id>
  2564.      <link href="" rel="alternate" type="text/html"/>
  2565.      <link href="" rel="self" type="application/atom+xml"/>
  2566.      <link href="" rel="hub" type="text/html"/>
  2567.      <subtitle xml:lang="en-US">The Internet Identity Layer</subtitle>
  2568.      <title xml:lang="en-US">OpenID</title>
  2569.      <updated>2020-02-21T18:57:42Z</updated>
  2570.    </source>
  2571.  </entry>
  2573.  <entry xml:lang="en-US">
  2574.    <id></id>
  2575.    <link href="" rel="alternate" type="text/html"/>
  2576.    <link href="" rel="replies" type="text/html"/>
  2577.    <link href="" rel="replies" type="application/atom+xml"/>
  2578.    <title/>
  2579.    <summary xml:lang="en-US">Brink has just posted a piece of mine that suggests that the Internet and machine learning have been teaching companies that our assumptions about the predictability of the future — based in turn on assumptions about the law-like and knowable nature of change — don’t hold. But those are the assumptions that have led to […]</summary>
  2580.    <updated>2020-02-10T21:55:20Z</updated>
  2581.    <published>2020-02-10T21:55:20Z</published>
  2582.    <category scheme="" term="business"/>
  2583.    <category scheme="" term="everyday chaos"/>
  2584.    <category scheme="" term="future"/>
  2585.    <category scheme="" term="too big to know"/>
  2586.    <category scheme="" term="everydaychaos"/>
  2587.    <author>
  2588.      <name>davidw</name>
  2589.      <uri></uri>
  2590.    </author>
  2591.    <source>
  2592.      <id></id>
  2593.      <link href="" rel="alternate" type="text/html"/>
  2594.      <link href="" rel="self" type="application/atom+xml"/>
  2595.      <subtitle xml:lang="en-US">David Weinberger's blog. Let's just see what happens  - Tagline (c) 1999</subtitle>
  2596.      <title xml:lang="en-US">Joho the Blog</title>
  2597.      <updated>2020-02-10T21:55:20Z</updated>
  2598.    </source>
  2599.  </entry>
  2601.  <entry>
  2602.    <id>,</id>
  2603.    <link href="" rel="replies" title="Post Comments" type="application/atom+xml"/>
  2604.    <link href=";postID=3763758119461647938" rel="replies" title="0 Comments" type="text/html"/>
  2605.    <link href="" rel="edit" type="application/atom+xml"/>
  2606.    <link href="" rel="self" type="application/atom+xml"/>
  2607.    <link href="" rel="alternate" title="Joining Planet!" type="text/html"/>
  2608.    <title>Joining Planet!</title>
  2609.    <content type="xhtml"><div xmlns=""><div style="text-align: center;"/><div style="text-align: center;"><a href="" style="clear: right; float: right; margin-bottom: 1em; margin-left: 1em;"/><img alt="Image result for planet labs" src=""/></div><br/>I'm excited to announce I'm joining the machine learning team at Planet! I will be applying machine and deep learning to remote sensing imagery of the Earth's surface. Planet has built a constellation of nanosats in Low Earth Orbit that image the entirety of the Earth daily to monitor changes and pinpoint trends. The ultimate goal is to enable a <a href="">Queryable Earth</a>, indexing physical change on Earth and making it searchable for all. I'm excited that I'll continue to get working at the intersection of space and machine learning. My first day is Tuesday, February 18th.<br/><br/><br/><div style="text-align: center;"/></div>
  2610.    </content>
  2611.    <updated>2020-02-10T20:41:45Z</updated>
  2612.    <published>2020-02-10T20:40:00Z</published>
  2613.    <author>
  2614.      <name>Brad Neuberg</name>
  2615.      <email>[email protected]</email>
  2616.      <uri></uri>
  2617.    </author>
  2618.    <source>
  2619.      <id>,1999:blog-3191291</id>
  2620.      <category term="open source"/>
  2621.      <category term="coworking"/>
  2622.      <category term="gears"/>
  2623.      <category term="open web"/>
  2624.      <category term="ajax"/>
  2625.      <category term="svg"/>
  2626.      <category term="announcement"/>
  2627.      <category term="dojo"/>
  2628.      <category term="dojo offline toolkit"/>
  2629.      <category term="hypertext geekery"/>
  2630.      <category term="release"/>
  2631.      <category term="svgweb"/>
  2632.      <category term="dojo storage"/>
  2633.      <category term="google"/>
  2634.      <category term="html5"/>
  2635.      <category term="purple include"/>
  2636.      <category term="video"/>
  2637.      <category term="flash"/>
  2638.      <category term="rsh"/>
  2639.      <category term="engelbart"/>
  2640.      <category term="google gears"/>
  2641.      <category term="hyperscope"/>
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  2643.      <category term="politics"/>
  2644.      <category term="projects"/>
  2645.      <category term="space"/>
  2646.      <category term="yahoo"/>
  2647.      <category term="aboutme"/>
  2648.      <category term="dhtml"/>
  2649.      <category term="flash storage provider"/>
  2650.      <category term="inkling"/>
  2651.      <category term="internet explorer"/>
  2652.      <category term="invention"/>
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  2654.      <category term="news"/>
  2655.      <category term="personal"/>
  2656.      <category term="presentation"/>
  2657.      <category term="press"/>
  2658.      <category term="pubtools"/>
  2659.      <category term="really simple history"/>
  2660.      <category term="scoble"/>
  2661.      <category term="3d"/>
  2662.      <category term="PR"/>
  2663.      <category term="aria"/>
  2664.      <category term="astrobiology"/>
  2665.      <category term="berkeley"/>
  2666.      <category term="bio"/>
  2667.      <category term="bootstrapping"/>
  2668.      <category term="brainstorming"/>
  2669.      <category term="brian dillard"/>
  2670.      <category term="brilliant"/>
  2671.      <category term="browser"/>
  2672.      <category term="community"/>
  2673.      <category term="computer history"/>
  2674.      <category term="css3"/>
  2675.      <category term="daniel perez"/>
  2676.      <category term="definition"/>
  2677.      <category term="developer advocate"/>
  2678.      <category term="documentary"/>
  2679.      <category term="dot"/>
  2680.      <category term="dwr"/>
  2681.      <category term="email missive"/>
  2682.      <category term="exoplanets"/>
  2683.      <category term="film"/>
  2684.      <category term="fixtheweb"/>
  2685.      <category term="freedom"/>
  2686.      <category term="funny"/>
  2687.      <category term="future studies"/>
  2688.      <category term="gdata"/>
  2689.      <category term="google app engine"/>
  2690.      <category term="gwt"/>
  2691.      <category term="hackery"/>
  2692.      <category term="health care"/>
  2693.      <category term="history"/>
  2694.      <category term="insurance"/>
  2695.      <category term="ios"/>
  2696.      <category term="ipad"/>
  2697.      <category term="java"/>
  2698.      <category term="jibjab"/>
  2699.      <category term="jobs"/>
  2700.      <category term="joe walker"/>
  2701.      <category term="jquery"/>
  2702.      <category term="keynote"/>
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  2704.      <category term="libraries"/>
  2705.      <category term="mcallen"/>
  2706.      <category term="microformats"/>
  2707.      <category term="notes"/>
  2708.      <category term="ohloh"/>
  2709.      <category term="openid"/>
  2710.      <category term="owdn"/>
  2711.      <category term="personal research agenda"/>
  2712.      <category term="photos"/>
  2713.      <category term="research"/>
  2714.      <category term="resume"/>
  2715.      <category term="review"/>
  2716.      <category term="sabbatical"/>
  2717.      <category term="sandbox suites"/>
  2718.      <category term="semantic web"/>
  2719.      <category term="sitepen"/>
  2720.      <category term="ski"/>
  2721.      <category term="spec"/>
  2722.      <category term="sprint"/>
  2723.      <category term="storage"/>
  2724.      <category term="study"/>
  2725.      <category term="tahoe"/>
  2726.      <category term="texas"/>
  2727.      <category term="travel"/>
  2728.      <category term="tv sucks"/>
  2729.      <category term="videoblog"/>
  2730.      <category term="web extension mechanisms"/>
  2731.      <category term="weblog"/>
  2732.      <category term="xml"/>
  2733.      <author>
  2734.        <name>Brad Neuberg</name>
  2735.        <email>[email protected]</email>
  2736.        <uri></uri>
  2737.      </author>
  2738.      <link href="" rel="" type="application/atom+xml"/>
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  2743.      <subtitle>Brad Neuberg's Weblog</subtitle>
  2744.      <title>Coding In Paradise</title>
  2745.      <updated>2020-02-14T09:01:47Z</updated>
  2746.    </source>
  2747.  </entry>
  2749.  <entry xml:lang="en-us">
  2750.    <id></id>
  2751.    <link href="" rel="alternate" type="text/html"/>
  2752.    <link href="" rel="replies" type="application/xhtml+xml"/>
  2753.    <title xml:lang="en-us">Why Google Did Android</title>
  2754.    <summary type="xhtml" xml:lang="en-us"><div xmlns="">What happened was, in the late stages of my career at Sun Microsystems, as we were sliding into Oracle’s loathsome embrace, I had discovered Android.  The programming language was Java, and not a dorky “ME” subset. My employer was <a href="">saying nice things about it</a>, and I’d long craved something I could both carry in my pocket and program.  I discovered it was pretty easy to program and eventually published the <a href="">Android Diary</a> series in this space, which got pretty lively readership</div>
  2755.    </summary>
  2756.    <content type="xhtml" xml:lang="en-us"><div xmlns=""><p>What happened was, in the late stages of my career at Sun Microsystems, as we were sliding into Oracle’s loathsome embrace, I had
  2757. discovered Android.  The programming language was Java, and not a dorky “ME” subset. My employer was
  2758. <a href="">saying nice
  2759. things about it</a>, and I’d long craved something I could both carry in my pocket and program.  I discovered it was pretty easy to
  2760. program and eventually published the
  2761. <a href="">Android Diary</a> series in this space, which got pretty lively
  2762. readership.</p>
  2763. <p>Thus, I shouldn’t have been surprised when, shortly after
  2764. <a href="">leaving Sun</a>, I got outreach from Google’s Developer Relations org.  I was
  2765. receptive and almost immediately I found myself in Mountain View for the famous Google Interview Day. My first session was with
  2766. <a href="">Vic Gundotra</a>, who was a major Google V.I.P. at the time.  He opened by
  2767. saying “I’ve been reading your blog and I think I know a lot about you. What would you like to know about us?”</p>
  2768. <p>That was easy. I asked “Why is Google doing Android?  Are you serious or is it just a hobby?”  (Because at Sun we’d had a lot of
  2769. hobbies<span class="dashes"> —</span> sideline technologies that we couldn’t seem to give up<span class="dashes"> —</span> and that
  2770. sucked and I didn’t want to work on one.)</p>
  2771. <p>Vic said something like (It’s ten years later and I’m paraphrasing) “The iPhone is really good.  The way things are going,
  2772. Apple’s going to have a monopoly on Internet-capable mobile devices. That means they’ll be the gatekeepers for everything, including
  2773. advertising, saying who can and can’t, setting prices, taking a cut. That’s an existential threat to Google. Android doesn’t have to
  2774. win, to win. It just has to get enough market so there’s a diverse and competitive mobile-advertising market.”</p>
  2775. <p>I don’t know about you, but I found that totally convincing.  And I suppose a lot of industry insiders are thinking “Well of
  2776. course everyone knew that!” I didn’t. I made it through the interviews and they offered me the job and I
  2777. had four good years at Google.</p>
  2778. <p>I wonder if Vic was right about what would’ve happened if they hadn’t done Android?</p></div>
  2779.    </content>
  2780.    <updated>2020-02-10T06:45:48Z</updated>
  2781.    <published>2020-02-09T20:00:00Z</published>
  2782.    <category scheme="" term="Technology/Android"/>
  2783.    <category scheme="" term="Technology"/>
  2784.    <category scheme="" term="Android"/>
  2785.    <category scheme="" term="Business/Google"/>
  2786.    <category scheme="" term="Business"/>
  2787.    <category scheme="" term="Google"/>
  2788.    <source>
  2789.      <id></id>
  2790.      <icon></icon>
  2791.      <logo></logo>
  2792.      <author>
  2793.        <name>Tim Bray</name>
  2794.      </author>
  2795.      <link href="" rel="hub" type="text/html"/>
  2796.      <link href="" rel="alternate" type="text/html"/>
  2797.      <link href="" rel="self" type="application/atom+xml"/>
  2798.      <link href="" rel="replies" type="text/html"/>
  2799.      <rights xml:lang="en-us">All content written by Tim Bray and photos by Tim Bray Copyright Tim Bray, some rights reserved, see /ongoing/misc/Copyright</rights>
  2800.      <subtitle xml:lang="en-us">ongoing fragmented essay by Tim Bray</subtitle>
  2801.      <title xml:lang="en-us">ongoing by Tim Bray</title>
  2802.      <updated>2020-02-22T18:55:03Z</updated>
  2803.    </source>
  2804.  </entry>
  2806.  <entry xml:lang="en-us">
  2807.    <id></id>
  2808.    <link href="" rel="alternate" type="text/html"/>
  2809.    <link href="" rel="replies" type="application/xhtml+xml"/>
  2810.    <title xml:lang="en-us">Seasonturn</title>
  2811.    <summary xml:lang="en-us">It’s still February, winter obviously, and yet there was a bit of chilly sun today to greet 2020’s crocuses, the photo-introduction of which has become an annual ritual in this space</summary>
  2812.    <content type="xhtml" xml:lang="en-us"><div xmlns=""><p>It’s still February, winter obviously, and yet there was a bit of chilly sun today to greet 2020’s crocuses, the
  2813. photo-introduction of which has become an annual ritual in this space.</p>
  2814. <p>Here are two shots from January 15th, just twenty-four days ago.</p>
  2815. <img alt="January snow, Vancouver" src=""/>
  2816. <img alt="January snow, Vancouver" src=""/>
  2817. <p>The snow was considerable but didn’t last long.  The rain’s been extreme even by Vancouver standards, just relentless; we’re all
  2818. feeling a bit climatically bruised.
  2819. There could be more snow, but I’m ignoring that. Because of this:</p>
  2820. <img alt="Crocuses" src=""/>
  2821. <img alt="Crocuses" src=""/>
  2822. <img alt="Crocuses" src=""/>
  2823. <img alt="Crocuses" src=""/>
  2824. <div class="caption"><p>These photos shot with the recently-acquired<br/>
  2825. <a href="">steampunk Pentax M 100/2.8.</a></p></div>
  2826. <p>This year they’re up a little earlier and there are lots! They’re spreading a little wider, inhabiting parts of the front garden
  2827. they haven’t previously.  Fine by me.</p></div>
  2828.    </content>
  2829.    <updated>2020-02-08T23:02:30Z</updated>
  2830.    <published>2020-02-08T20:00:00Z</published>
  2831.    <category scheme="" term="Arts/Photos"/>
  2832.    <category scheme="" term="Arts"/>
  2833.    <category scheme="" term="Photos"/>
  2834.    <source>
  2835.      <id></id>
  2836.      <icon></icon>
  2837.      <logo></logo>
  2838.      <author>
  2839.        <name>Tim Bray</name>
  2840.      </author>
  2841.      <link href="" rel="hub" type="text/html"/>
  2842.      <link href="" rel="alternate" type="text/html"/>
  2843.      <link href="" rel="self" type="application/atom+xml"/>
  2844.      <link href="" rel="replies" type="text/html"/>
  2845.      <rights xml:lang="en-us">All content written by Tim Bray and photos by Tim Bray Copyright Tim Bray, some rights reserved, see /ongoing/misc/Copyright</rights>
  2846.      <subtitle xml:lang="en-us">ongoing fragmented essay by Tim Bray</subtitle>
  2847.      <title xml:lang="en-us">ongoing by Tim Bray</title>
  2848.      <updated>2020-02-22T18:55:03Z</updated>
  2849.    </source>
  2850.  </entry>
  2852.  <entry xml:lang="en-US">
  2853.    <id></id>
  2854.    <link href="" rel="alternate" type="text/html"/>
  2855.    <title xml:lang="en-US">Google Cloud goes low-code with AppSheet</title>
  2856.    <summary xml:lang="en-US">Google Cloud Platform kicked off 2020 with the acquisition of AppSheet, a low-code application development platform. Given Google Cloud CEO Thomas Kurian’s experience and history at Oracle it’s really no surprise Google is turning its attention to tools for building business applications. Different parts of the Google Cloud portfolio have not always seemed a natural fit,</summary>
  2857.    <content type="xhtml" xml:lang="en-US"><div xmlns=""><p><a href=""><img alt="" class=" wp-image-5076" height="430" src="" width="650"/></a></p>
  2858. <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Google Cloud Platform kicked off 2020 with the acquisition of </span><a href=""><span style="font-weight: 400;">AppSheet</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400;">, a low-code application development platform. Given Google Cloud CEO Thomas Kurian’s experience and history at Oracle it’s really no surprise Google is turning its attention to tools for building business applications. </span><span style="font-weight: 400;">Different parts of the Google Cloud portfolio have not always seemed a natural fit, beyond financial reporting – G Suite and Google Cloud are very very different businesses: but AppSheet gives Google a productivity narrative for discussions with enterprise customers in either or both of camps. Google has a massive customer base of G Suite users. Finding ways to get Docs customers excited about other Google Cloud infrastructure and platform services should be job one for the company. AppSheet is just such an opportunity. This week Alphabet began breaking out its Google Cloud revenues for the first time- $2.6bn for the quarter; that’s the financial context.</span></p>
  2859. <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">As a bridge, or portfolio duct tape acquisition, AppSheet also helps to sell Google’s Apigee API management platform, as a process integration play. Apigee can be used to expose and manage APIs and data services, which can then be consumed using AppSheet’s spreadsheet design metaphor. The industry is frankly crying out for a solid serverless integration play, as I wrote recently in my <a href="">post on TriggerMesh’s funding round</a>. </span><span style="font-weight: 400;">On the integration with low-code side, AppSheet offers Dropbox, Salesforce, SAP, ServiceNow integrations out of the box. Integration with Robotic Process Automation (RPA) is coming. Low-code is all about integration with existing apps. </span></p>
  2860. <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">AppSheet has won customers in the situational app space for factory floor automation. Front line workers is one area where Google Docs is particularly strong. Digital skills are lacking, but domain experience is absolutely crucial for many reasons: not just productivity and automation, but also health and safety. The application development story often starts with the line of business here. Start simple, and then scale from there. Adoption by non technical users has certainly not been a strength for Google Cloud, outside G Suite, up until this point. </span><span style="font-weight: 400;">One obvious question regarding the AppSheet acquisition is about portfolio rationalisation. Google Cloud AppMaker is an existing low-code platform built on Google Docs. I expect this overlap to come out in the wash however, it’s not a huge problem at this point.</span></p>
  2861. <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Further context for the deal – the industry is seeing a fair bit of activity in the burgeoning low-code/no-code space. Skills shortages remain a key blocker on IT adoption and or much hyped Digital Transformation initiatives. Google sees low-code as an opportunity to drive more workloads to Google Cloud Platform.</span></p>
  2862. <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Selling to and through business users, Google is explicitly leaning into a narrative around “Citizen Developers”, rather than focusing on low-code augmenting the skillsets of professional developers (for example Betty Blocks or Neptune Software).</span></p>
  2863. <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Outsystems is achieving critical mass in terms of both revenue and developer adoption numbers. Salesforce is pushing low-code tools running on its Lightning platform. Microsoft has completely retooled its Power Apps platform and will be making a strong marketing and ecosystem push through 2020. One really nice idea with PowerApps is the marketplace idea – business users creating PowerApps are likely to want design help or custom code integration help to extend their apps. Microsoft plans to build “match-making” into its ecosystem model.</span></p>
  2864. <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">This balance regarding using low-code and no-code tools to augment developer teams, or bypass them, is one of the questions about this market and how to position tools. </span><span style="font-weight: 400;">AppSheet was originally intended as a platform to make apps as easy to develop as spreadsheets. The entire software industry effectively competes with spreadsheets in the hands, or rather on the laptops, of business users. Behind every great business process is an excel spreadsheet!</span></p>
  2865. <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Excel is the lingua franca of most business users. A new generation of spreadsheet-esque tools has emerged to help this user constituency channel their spreadsheet knowledge into more built-for-purpose software. These tools have primarily focused on productivity and collaboration use cases. Software like AirTable and Smartsheet are examples of companies that built upon the user’s familiarity with the spreadsheet while adding more powerful functionality and pre-built application templates.  Rather than forcing users to learn a new system, these tools can act as the ultra-familiar and flexible spreadsheet with added features.</span></p>
  2866. <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Low-code tools are nothing new – Lotus Notes or Visual Basic were an earlier take on the idea. But in terms of the industry’s tendency to implement, re-implement, rinse and repeat, it’s no surprise Cloud companies would be moving ahead with tools for business users at this point. The new platforms need new tools for business users to do their own thing. </span><span style="font-weight: 400;">It would be surprising if Amazon Web Services doesn’t deliver some kind of low-code tooling with the next 12-18 months. Microsoft, as we have said, has a strong play around Power Apps. </span><span style="font-weight: 400;">But AppSheet is a solid tuck in acquisition by Google Cloud. It should be a good opportunity for customer engagement discussions. </span></p>
  2867. <p> </p>
  2868. <p> </p>
  2869. <p>disclosure: Microsoft, Neptune Software and Salesforce are all RedMonk clients, but this research is not commissioned by our clients.</p>
  2870. <p>Additional analysis and writing by Rachel Stephens.</p>
  2871. </div>
  2872.    </content>
  2873.    <updated>2020-02-07T19:43:14Z</updated>
  2874.    <category term="Uncategorized"/>
  2875.    <category term="low-code"/>
  2876.    <category scheme="" term="RPA"/><feedburner:origLink xmlns:feedburner="">;utm_medium=rss&amp;utm_campaign=5075</feedburner:origLink>
  2877.    <author>
  2878.      <name>James Governor</name>
  2879.    </author>
  2880.    <source>
  2881.      <id></id>
  2882.      <logo></logo>
  2883.      <link href="" rel="alternate" type="text/html"/>
  2884.      <link href="" rel="self" type="application/atom+xml"/>
  2885.      <link href="" rel="self" type="application/rss+xml"/>
  2886.      <link href="" rel="hub" type="text/html"/>
  2887.      <link href="" rel="license" type="text/html"/>
  2888.      <subtitle xml:lang="en-US">An industry analyst blog looking at software ecosystems and convergence</subtitle>
  2889.      <title xml:lang="en-US">James Governor's Monkchips</title>
  2890.      <updated>2020-02-24T18:09:15Z</updated>
  2891.    </source>
  2892.  </entry>
  2894.  <entry xml:lang="en-US">
  2895.    <id></id>
  2896.    <link href="" rel="alternate" type="text/html"/>
  2897.    <title xml:lang="en-US">Announcing New OpenID Foundation Board Leadership in 2020</title>
  2898.    <summary xml:lang="en-US">Thank you to all members who voted in the 2020 elections for representatives to the OpenID Foundation Board of Directors. Per Foundation bylaws, three individual community board members are elected to the Board of Directors.  Nat Sakimura and John Bradley have an additional year remaining on their 2-year terms. I want to thank Nat and John [...]</summary>
  2899.    <content type="xhtml" xml:lang="en-US"><div xmlns=""><p>Thank you to all members who voted in the 2020 elections for representatives to the OpenID Foundation Board of Directors.</p>
  2900. <p>Per Foundation bylaws, three individual community board members are elected to the Board of Directors.  Nat Sakimura and John Bradley have an additional year remaining on their 2-year terms. I want to thank Nat and John for their continued service to a global community of technologists and leadership of the OpenID Foundation. It’s a substantial commitment both Nat and John have and continued to make over the years.</p>
  2901. <p>George Fletcher with Verizon Media, whose two-year term ended in 2019, was nominated again for the 2020 election for the individual board seat. I’m pleased to announce that George was re-elected and will begin a new two-year term as a community board representative. His continued leadership on the Executive Committee ensures continuity on important initiatives including the OpenID Certification Program and representing the Foundation’s in a wide variety of venues.</p>
  2902. <p>Each year Corporate Members of the OpenID Foundation elect a member to represent them on the Board of Directors. All Corporate members were eligible to nominate, second, and vote for candidates.  I am pleased to announce the re-election of Dale Olds with VMware to the OpenID Foundation Board. Dale served in this role for the last year and in the past and has been an active contributor to and support of the OpenID Foundation. We also thank Ashish Jain bringing his expertise and the eBay identity team into the work of the Foundation.</p>
  2903. <p>Board participation is a substantial investment of time and energy and requires diligent consensus building. Please join me in thanking George and Dale as well as the other Directors for their service to the OpenID Foundation and the identity community at large.</p>
  2904. <p> </p>
  2905. <p>Don Thibeau<br/>
  2906. OpenID Foundation Executive Director</p></div>
  2907.    </content>
  2908.    <updated>2020-02-07T18:16:15Z</updated>
  2909.    <published>2020-02-07T13:20:16Z</published>
  2910.    <category scheme="" term="Election"/>
  2911.    <category scheme="" term="Foundation"/>
  2912.    <category scheme="" term="board election"/>
  2913.    <category scheme="" term="board elections"/>
  2914.    <category scheme="" term="community board representative"/>
  2915.    <category scheme="" term="corporate board representative"/>
  2916.    <category scheme="" term="dale olds"/>
  2917.    <category scheme="" term="george fletcher"/>
  2918.    <author>
  2919.      <name>Mike Leszcz</name>
  2920.    </author>
  2921.    <source>
  2922.      <id></id>
  2923.      <link href="" rel="alternate" type="text/html"/>
  2924.      <link href="" rel="self" type="application/atom+xml"/>
  2925.      <link href="" rel="hub" type="text/html"/>
  2926.      <subtitle xml:lang="en-US">The Internet Identity Layer</subtitle>
  2927.      <title xml:lang="en-US">OpenID</title>
  2928.      <updated>2020-02-21T18:57:42Z</updated>
  2929.    </source>
  2930.  </entry>
  2932.  <entry xml:lang="en-US">
  2933.    <id></id>
  2934.    <link href="" rel="alternate" type="text/html"/>
  2935.    <link href="" rel="replies" type="text/html"/>
  2936.    <link href="" rel="replies" type="application/atom+xml"/>
  2937.    <title xml:lang="en-US">The case for learning sign language as an accessibility engineer</title>
  2938.    <summary xml:lang="en-US">Once upon a time I was writing a story in my free time with a Deaf 1 character in it (long since condemned to my draft graveyard). My background research suggested knowing a little about ASL (American Sign Language) to get the character right, so I took a 6-week course to get some of the […]</summary>
  2939.    <content type="xhtml" xml:lang="en-US"><div xmlns=""><p><img alt="A smiling woman signs &#x2018;Correct.&#x2019;" class="alignright size-full wp-image-7822" height="200" src="" width="300"/></p>
  2940. <p>Once upon a time I was writing a story in my free time with a Deaf <a href="" id="footnote1-return"><sup>1</sup></a> character in it (long since condemned to my draft graveyard). My background research suggested knowing a little about ASL (American Sign Language) to get the character right, so I took a 6-week course to get some of the basics. One class in and I was hooked – ASL clicked with my brain in a way that all the other languages I’d tried to learn never did. A year later I was conversant and going to regular Deaf socials. And now, in preparation for <a href="">CSUN</a>, I’m taking the time to brush up on my ASL again so I can network effectively with Deaf attendees.</p>
  2941. <p>Most of us working in accessibility engineering only deal with Deaf people in theory – we know videos need captions, audio recordings need transcripts, and sounds conveying information need an accompanying visual cue. Or else we work with Deaf people in the context of available accommodations, like an interpreter, chat application, or our colleague’s ability to lipread. Personally I think everyone should learn at least a little of their local signed language, but for this post I’d like to lay out how ASL has benefited me as an accessibility engineer, and perhaps how it might benefit you too.</p>
  2942. <p>First and foremost, learning ASL means your social network opens up to a whole world of fantastic people. I met my best friend through ASL. She has degenerative hearing and vision loss and a wicked sense of humor, and I look forward to many years swapping recipes and tea recommendations through Facebook and Tactile Sign Language (which is a related but separate endeavor of mine). CSUN’s own 2019 keynote speaker, <a href="">Johanna Lucht, delivered her entire keynote entirely in ASL</a>. Clearly there are tons of brilliant, awesome people who communicate with ASL, and all of us have a lot to learn from speaking with each other.</p>
  2943. <p>And once you’ve started building your network, suddenly once-abstract accessibility concerns become personal. When my Deafblind friend can’t come visit because Brooklyn’s plows have piled snow over every curb cut and she and her guide dog can’t get through them safely, I’ve got something new to raise hell over when I call my city councilwoman. When she reads the closed captions on a Youtube video with her Braille reader, it makes me wonder whether the <a href="">W3C should revisit standard 1.2.2</a> and its lack of distinction between closed captions, which are available to her, and open captions, which aren’t. And when you personally know several people who grew up language-deprived for whom written English is far, far less accessible than ASL, you begin to rethink whether standard <a href="">1.2.6 Sign Language (Prerecorded)</a> should be a triple-A standard after all.</p>
  2944. <p>Learning your local sign language as a hobby is also easier than ever in this day and age. Community colleges everywhere, or in my case, <a href="">the Sign Language Center</a> in NYC, all offer ASL classes at a fair price, and<a href=""> local meetups with students and Deaf folks</a> are in every major city (and most minor ones) everywhere. Online resources can be tricky to navigate since unfortunately many are made by inexperienced signers (especially song interpretations), but there are still a lot of great places online to supplement your sign language education.<a href=""> For ASL, anything by Dr. Bill Vicars is dynamite</a>, and the<a href=""> Spread the Sign app</a> is great for expanding vocabulary.</p>
  2945. <p>Many of us came to this profession with a desire to remove barriers between disabled people and the world. And many of us enjoy self-improving hobbies outside of our working hours, from bodybuilding to baking to ballet. Learning sign language as a hobby is a great way to remove one more of those barriers, as well as learn something new, meet neat people, and become better engineers for your trouble. And finally, if any Deaf folks attending CSUN 2020 read this, come say hi… and please finger spell slowly.</p>
  2946. <p><a href="" id="footnote1"><sup>1</sup></a> “Deaf” with a capital D refers to people who don’t hear that also identify culturally as Deaf, and use a signed language to communicate. This is in contrast to lower case d “deaf,” which refers solely to people who don’t hear, who may or may not be a part of the Deaf community.</p></div>
  2947.    </content>
  2948.    <updated>2020-02-07T14:20:58Z</updated>
  2949.    <published>2020-02-07T14:20:58Z</published>
  2950.    <category scheme="" term="Development"/>
  2951.    <category scheme="" term="WCAG"/>
  2952.    <author>
  2953.      <name>Liz Certa</name>
  2954.    </author>
  2955.    <source>
  2956.      <id></id>
  2957.      <link href="" rel="alternate" type="text/html"/>
  2958.      <link href="" rel="self" type="application/atom+xml"/>
  2959.      <subtitle xml:lang="en-US">The Accessibility Experts</subtitle>
  2960.      <title xml:lang="en-US">Blog – TPG</title>
  2961.      <updated>2020-02-07T14:20:58Z</updated>
  2962.    </source>
  2963.  </entry>
  2965.  <entry>
  2966.    <id></id>
  2967.    <link href="" rel="alternate" type="text/html"/>
  2968.    <title>The Apache News Round-up: week ending 7 February 2020</title>
  2969.    <content type="xhtml"><div xmlns=""><p>Welcome, February! We're wrapping up another great week with the following activities:</p>
  2970.  ASF Security Report 2019 – the state of security across all Apache projects with key metrics, specific vulnerabilities, and the most common ways users of ASF projects were affected by security issues <a href=""></a>
  2971.  <p>Success at <span class="il">Apache</span> – the monthly blog series that focuses on the people and processes behind why the ASF "just works".<br/> - "Success at Apache: Literally" by Chris Thistlethwaite <a href=""></a> </p>
  2972.  <p>Apache Month In Review: January 2020 – a new monthly overview of events that have taken place within the Apache community <a href=""></a></p>
  2973.  <p>ASF Board – management and oversight of the business affairs of the corporation in accordance with the Foundation's bylaws.<br/> - Next Board Meeting: 19 February 2020. Board calendar and minutes <a href=""></a></p>
  2974.  <p>ApacheCon™ – the ASF's official global conference series, bringing Tomorrow's Technology Today since 1998.<br/> - CFP Open: ApacheCon North America - 28 September - 2 October - tracks include Big Data, Cloud, Community, Content Delivery, FinTech, Geospatial, Graphing, IoT, Observability, Search, Servers, and more. <a href=""></a><br/> - Registration Open: Apache Roadshow/DC - 25 March - topics include Apache projects in CARE initiatives, cybersecurity, start-ups, and more. <a href=""></a></p>
  2975.  <p>ASF Infrastructure – our distributed team on three continents keeps the ASF's infrastructure running around the clock.<br/> -
  2976. 7M+ weekly checks yield uptime at 99.89%. Performance checks across 50
  2977. different service components spread over more than 250 machines in data
  2978. centers around the world. <a href=""></a></p>
  2979.  <p>Apache Code Snapshot – this week, 879 Apache contributors changed 2,008,768 lines of code over 3,559 commits. Top 5 contributors, in order, are: Andrea Cosentino, Claus Ibsen, Jean-Baptiste Onofré, Mark Thomas, and Tilman Hausherr.     </p>
  2980.  <p>Apache Project Announcements – the latest updates by category.
  2981.  </p> <span class="il">
  2982.    <p>Big Data --<br/> - Apache Flink 1.9.2 released <a href=""></a><br/> - Apache Beam 2.19.0 released <a href=""></a> <br/> - Apache NiFi 1.11.1 released <a href=""></a> <br/></p></span>
  2983.  <p>Content --<br/> - Apache Jackrabbit Oak 1.6.20 and 1.8.20 released <a href=""></a> <br/></p>
  2984.  <p>  Enterprise Processes Automation / ERP --<br/>
  2985.  - Apache <span class="il">OFBiz</span> 16.11.07 released <a href="" rel="noreferrer" target="_blank">https://<span class="il">ofbiz</span></a><br/><br/>Libraries --<br/> - Apache Velocity Engine 2.2 released <a href=""></a><br/> - Apache DeltaSpike 1.9.3 released <a href=""></a> <br/><br/>Network Client --<br/> - Apache Guacamole 1.1.0 released <a href=""></a> <br/> <br/> </p>
  2986.  <p><strong>Did You Know?</strong></p>
  2987.  <p> - Did you know that the following Apache projects are celebrating their anniversaries this month? Many happy returns to Apache HTTP Server (25 years!); Gump and Portals (16 years); Directory, MyFaces, and Xerces (15 years); Tapestry (14 years); Roller (13 years); Cassandra and Subversion (10 years); Chemistry (9 years); BVal and OpenNLP (8 years); Clerezza and Crunch (7 years); Knox, Open Climate Workbench, and Spark (6 years); DataFu (2 years); and Unomi (1 year). <a href=""></a></p>
  2988.  <p> - Did you know that, over past year, the ASF processed 759 Individual Contributor License Agreements, 34 Corporate Contributor License Agreements, and 40 Software Grants? <a href=""></a></p>
  2989.  <p> - Did you know that Apache Airflow is having its first MeetUp in Bangalore? <a href=""></a><br/><br/></p>
  2990.  <p><strong>Apache Community Notices:</strong></p>
  2991.  <p> - "Trillions and Trillions Served", the documentary on the ASF, is in post-production. Catch the teaser at <a href=""></a> </p>
  2992.  <p> - Apache in 2019 - By The Digits <a href=""></a> </p>
  2993.  <p> - The Apache Way to Sustainable Open Source Success <a href=""></a></p>
  2994.  <p> - ASF Operations Summary: Q2 FY2020 (August - October 2019) <a href=""></a></p>
  2995.  <p> - Celebrating 20 Years Community-led Development "The Apache Way" <a href=""></a></p>
  2996.  <p> - ASF Founders look back on 20 Years of the ASF <a href=""></a></p>
  2997.  <p> - Foundation Reports and Statements <a href=""></a></p>
  2998.  <p> - ApacheCon: Tomorrow's Technology Today since 1998 <a href=""></a></p>
  2999.  <p> - ASF Annual Report for FY2019 <a href=""></a></p>
  3000.  <p> - The Apache Software Foundation 2018 Vision Statement <a href=""></a></p>
  3001.  <p> - Foundation Statement –Apache Is Open. <a href=""></a></p>
  3002.  <p> - CFP and pre-registration open for the first Pulsar Summit <a href=""></a> </p>
  3003.  <div>
  3004.    <p> - "Success at Apache" focuses on the people and processes behind why the ASF "just works". <a href=""></a></p>
  3005.  </div>
  3006.  <div>
  3007.    <p> - Please follow/like/re-tweet the ASF on social media: @TheASF on Twitter (<a href=""></a>) and on LinkedIn at <a href=""></a></p>
  3008.    <p> - Do friend and follow us on the Apache Community Facebook page <a href=""></a> and Twitter account <a href=""></a></p>
  3009.  </div>
  3010.  <div>
  3011.    <p> - The list of Apache project-related MeetUps can be found at <a href=""></a></p>
  3012.  </div><span class="LrzXr"/><span class="LrzXr"/>
  3013.  <div> - Find out how you can participate with Apache
  3014. community/projects/activities --opportunities open with Apache Camel,
  3015. Apache HTTP Server, and more! <a href=""></a></div>
  3016.  <div><br/> - Are your software solutions Powered by Apache? Download &amp; use our "Powered By" logos <a href=""></a></div>
  3017.  <div>
  3018.    <p>= = =</p>
  3019.    <p>For real-time updates, sign up for Apache-related news by sending
  3020. mail to [email protected] and follow @TheASF on Twitter.
  3021. For a broader spectrum from the Apache community, <a href=""></a> provides an aggregate of Project activities as well as the personal blogs and tweets of select ASF Committers.</p>
  3022.  </div>
  3023.  <p> </p></div>
  3024.    </content>
  3025.    <updated>2020-02-07T05:20:54Z</updated>
  3026.    <published>2020-02-07T05:20:54Z</published>
  3027.    <category label="Newsletter" term="Newsletter"/>
  3028.    <category scheme="" term="2020"/>
  3029.    <category scheme="" term="apache"/>
  3030.    <category scheme="" term="community"/>
  3031.    <category scheme="" term="foundation"/>
  3032.    <category scheme="" term="initiatives"/>
  3033.    <category scheme="" term="news"/>
  3034.    <category scheme="" term="projects"/>
  3035.    <category scheme="" term="round-up"/>
  3036.    <category scheme="" term="software"/>
  3037.    <category scheme="" term="summary"/>
  3038.    <category scheme="" term="weekly"/>
  3039.    <author>
  3040.      <name>Swapnil M Mane</name>
  3041.    </author>
  3042.    <source>
  3043.      <id></id>
  3044.      <link href="" rel="self" type="application/atom+xml"/>
  3045.      <link href="" rel="alternate" type="text/html"/>
  3046.      <subtitle>The voice of the ASF</subtitle>
  3047.      <title>The Apache Software Foundation Blog</title>
  3048.      <updated>2020-02-21T06:18:29Z</updated>
  3049.    </source>
  3050.  </entry>
  3052.  <entry xml:lang="en-US">
  3053.    <id></id>
  3054.    <link href="" rel="alternate" type="text/html"/>
  3055.    <link href=";utm_medium=rss&amp;utm_campaign=a-fun-space-opera-series#comments" rel="replies" type="text/html"/>
  3056.    <link href="" rel="replies" type="application/atom+xml"/>
  3057.    <title xml:lang="en-US">A fun space opera series!</title>
  3058.    <summary type="xhtml" xml:lang="en-US"><div xmlns="">I’ve been looking for a fun space opera series and I found one in the Wayfarer series by Becky Chambers. It’s a fun series that combines space travel, human societies in space and other planets and alien species. What I love most about science fiction is how the people and societies adapt to technologies and … <p class="link-more"><a class="more-link" href="">Continue reading<span class="screen-reader-text"> "A fun space opera series!"</span></a></p><div class="yarpp-related-rss">
  3060. Related posts:<ol>
  3061. <li><a href="" rel="bookmark" title="Tango Midnight">Tango Midnight </a></li>
  3062. <li><a href="" rel="bookmark" title="What&#x2019;s your fun New Year&#x2019;s Resolution?">What’s your fun New Year’s Resolution? </a></li>
  3063. <li><a href="" rel="bookmark" title="Free ride in space?">Free ride in space? </a></li>
  3064. </ol>
  3065. </div></div>
  3066.    </summary>
  3067.    <content type="xhtml" xml:lang="en-US"><div xmlns=""><p/><div class="asa_product_box" style="border: 1px solid #000; padding: 5px; margin-bottom: 15px;"> <div style="width: 50px; float: left; margin-right: 5px;"> <a href=";linkCode=ogi&amp;th=1&amp;psc=1" rel="nofollow" target="_blank"><img border="0" height="75" src="" width="50"/></a> </div> <div> <p><a href=";linkCode=ogi&amp;th=1&amp;psc=1" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">The Long Way to a Small, Angry Planet (Wayfarers Book 1)</a> (Kindle Edition)<br/> <span style="font-size: 0.8em;">by <strong>Chambers, Becky (Author)</strong></span></p> <p><strong>Price:</strong> <span style="color: #990000; font-weight: bold;">$7.99</span><br/> <strong>1 used &amp; new</strong> available from <span style="color: #990000; font-weight: bold;">$7.99</span></p> </div> <div style="clear: both;"/></div> I’ve been looking for a fun space opera series and I found one in the Wayfarer series by Becky Chambers. It’s a fun series that combines space travel, human societies in space and other planets and alien species. What I love most about science fiction is how the people and societies adapt to technologies and the new discoveries in the universe.<p/>
  3071. <p>In the first book, <a href="">A Long Way to Small, Lonely Planet</a>, a group of friends live and work on a space ship. The characters were instantly likeable – if you work in tech you’ve probably met a few of them. I nicknamed a few of them after people I know. </p>
  3072. <div class="yarpp-related-rss">
  3073. <p>Related posts:</p><ol>
  3074. <li><a href="" rel="bookmark" title="Tango Midnight">Tango Midnight </a></li>
  3075. <li><a href="" rel="bookmark" title="What&#x2019;s your fun New Year&#x2019;s Resolution?">What’s your fun New Year’s Resolution? </a></li>
  3076. <li><a href="" rel="bookmark" title="Free ride in space?">Free ride in space? </a></li>
  3077. </ol><p/>
  3078. </div>
  3079. </div>
  3080.    </content>
  3081.    <updated>2020-02-06T21:43:40Z</updated>
  3082.    <published>2020-02-05T20:11:33Z</published>
  3083.    <category scheme="" term="Books"/>
  3084.    <category scheme="" term="scifi"/><feedburner:origLink xmlns:feedburner="">;utm_medium=rss&amp;utm_campaign=a-fun-space-opera-series</feedburner:origLink>
  3085.    <author>
  3086.      <name>stormy</name>
  3087.    </author>
  3088.    <source>
  3089.      <id></id>
  3090.      <link href="" rel="alternate" type="text/html"/>
  3091.      <link href="" rel="self" type="application/atom+xml"/>
  3092.      <link href="" rel="hub" type="text/html"/>
  3093.      <title xml:lang="en-US">Stormy's Corner</title>
  3094.      <updated>2020-02-06T21:43:40Z</updated>
  3095.    </source>
  3096.  </entry>
  3098.  <entry xml:lang="en">
  3099.    <id></id>
  3100.    <link href="" rel="alternate" type="text/html"/>
  3101.    <link href="" rel="replies" type="text/html"/>
  3102.    <link href="" rel="replies" type="application/atom+xml"/>
  3103.    <title xml:lang="en">Sparkplug: Standardizing Industrial IoT Communications</title>
  3104.    <summary xml:lang="en">With the launch this week of the Sparkplug Working Group, we’re bringing together the industry leaders and technologies needed to drive development and broad adoption of the Eclipse Sparkplug specification for open, interoperable, Industrial IoT (IIoT) solutions that use the MQTT protocol. MQTT is an open and lightweight publish-subscribe messaging protocol that was first developed […]</summary>
  3105.    <content type="xhtml" xml:lang="en"><div xmlns=""><p>With the <a href="" rel="noopener" target="_blank">launch this week</a> of the <a href="" rel="noopener" target="_blank">Sparkplug Working Group</a>, we’re bringing together the industry leaders and technologies needed to drive development and broad adoption of the Eclipse Sparkplug specification for open, interoperable, Industrial IoT (IIoT) solutions that use the MQTT protocol.</p>
  3106. <p>MQTT is an open and lightweight publish-subscribe messaging protocol that was first developed in the late 1990s for real-time message transport in Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems. Because it’s designed for low-bandwidth, low-power environments, it’s ideal for IIoT and industrial automation applications that rely on data from massive numbers of sensors.</p>
  3107. <p><b>Sparkplug Augments MQTT With IIoT Interoperability Essentials</b></p>
  3108. <p>Today, MQTT is the dominant messaging protocol for IIoT applications, but it doesn’t define the data format and it doesn’t address issues around device compatibility and interoperability — capabilities that are essential in IoT environments where all device and software services must share a common data format and support the same life cycle stages of device information.</p>
  3109. <p>The Sparkplug specification will resolve these issues. It will define an MQTT topic namespace, payload, and session state management approach that can be applied generically. The goal is to provide standardization for most MQTT devices out of the box so vendors, manufacturers, and industrial end users can develop an ecosystem of solutions and devices that can easily interoperate.</p>
  3110. <p><b>Broad Support Across Industries</b></p>
  3111. <p>With the Sparkplug Working Group’s focus on specifications and implementations that rationalize industrial data and improve the interoperability and scalability of IIoT solutions, companies in industries ranging from oil and gas to energy, manufacturing, and smart cities will have an overall framework to support their evolution to Industry 4.0.</p>
  3112. <p>The breadth and stature of the Sparkplug Working Group’s founding members confirm the huge need for industrial system interoperability and the value of the Sparkplug initiative across industries. Founding members include global leaders, such as Chevron, Canary Labs, Cirrus Link Solutions, HiveMQ, Inductive Automation, and ORing.</p>
  3113. <p>These companies, and others, are embracing Sparkplug to take IIoT applications to the next level with MQTT implementations that provide valuable, real-time information in a highly reliable, scalable, and secure way.</p>
  3114. <p><b>Get Involved With Sparkplug</b></p>
  3115. <p>I’m very excited about the huge potential and opportunities that will open up for everyone involved in IIoT and industrial automation as the Sparkplug Working Group pushes forward to standardize MQTT device communications. This is truly transformative technology, and I want to sincerely thank all of the corporations and individuals who have brought us to this point.</p>
  3116. <p>To get involved with the Eclipse Sparkplug Working Group and contribute to the project, please visit<a href=""></a>.</p>
  3117. <p>Also, the Eclipse Foundation and our member companies will be showcasing the Sparkplug Working Group at the ARC Advisory Group’s 24th Annual Industry Forum, February 3-6 in Orlando. If you’re at the Forum, be sure to drop by Inductive Automation’s booth (booth #25) to learn more.</p></div>
  3118.    </content>
  3119.    <updated>2020-02-05T22:10:36Z</updated>
  3120.    <published>2020-02-06T13:08:43Z</published>
  3121.    <category scheme="" term="Foundation"/>
  3122.    <category scheme="" term="Open Source"/>
  3123.    <author>
  3124.      <name>Mike Milinkovich</name>
  3125.      <uri></uri>
  3126.    </author>
  3127.    <source>
  3128.      <id></id>
  3129.      <icon></icon>
  3130.      <link href="" rel="alternate" type="text/html"/>
  3131.      <link href="" rel="self" type="application/atom+xml"/>
  3132.      <link href="" rel="search" title="Life at Eclipse" type="application/opensearchdescription+xml"/>
  3133.      <link href="" rel="search" title="" type="application/opensearchdescription+xml"/>
  3134.      <link href="" rel="hub" type="text/html"/>
  3135.      <subtitle xml:lang="en">Musings on the Eclipse Foundation, the community and the ecosystem</subtitle>
  3136.      <title xml:lang="en">Life at Eclipse</title>
  3137.      <updated>2020-02-05T22:10:36Z</updated>
  3138.    </source>
  3139.  </entry>
  3141.  <entry xml:lang="en-US">
  3142.    <id></id>
  3143.    <link href="" rel="alternate" type="text/html"/>
  3144.    <title xml:lang="en-US">Release Notes for Safari Technology Preview 💯</title>
  3145.    <summary xml:lang="en-US">Safari Technology Preview Release 100 is now available for download for macOS Catalina and macOS Mojave.</summary>
  3146.    <content type="xhtml" xml:lang="en-US"><div xmlns=""><p><a href="">Safari Technology Preview</a> Release 100 is now <a href="">available for download</a> for macOS Catalina and macOS Mojave. If you already have Safari Technology Preview installed, you can update in the Software Update pane of System Preferences on macOS.</p>
  3147. <p>This release covers WebKit revisions <a href=";rev=255473&amp;limit=999">254696-255473</a>.</p>
  3148. <h3>Web Inspector</h3>
  3149. <ul>
  3150. <li>Added links to <a href="">Web Inspector Reference documentation</a> (<a href="">r254730</a>)</li>
  3151. <li>Renamed the Canvas Tab to be the Graphics Tab, and included basic information and graphical representations of all Web Animation objects that exist in the inspected page (<a href="">r255396</a>)</li>
  3152. <li>Allowed developers to evaluate arbitrary JavaScript in isolated worlds created by Safari App Extensions via the execution context picker in the Console (<a href="">r255191</a>)</li>
  3153. </ul>
  3154. <h3>Web Animations</h3>
  3155. <ul>
  3156. <li>Added support for the <code>options</code> parameter to <code>getAnimations()</code> (<a href="">r255149</a>)</li>
  3157. <li>Changed animations to run accelerated even if other animations targeting the same element are not accelerated (<a href="">r255383</a>)</li>
  3158. <li>Fixed changing the delay of an accelerated animation to correctly seek (<a href="">r255422</a>)</li>
  3159. <li>Fixed a leak of CSS Animations when removing its <code>animation-name</code> property (<a href="">r255371</a>)</li>
  3160. <li>Separated setting a timeline’s current time from updating its animations (<a href="">r255260</a>)</li>
  3161. <li>Updated all <code>DocumentTimeline</code> objects when updating animations (<a href="">r255141</a>)</li>
  3162. </ul>
  3163. <h3>WebAuthn</h3>
  3164. <ul>
  3165. <li>Fixed User Verification (UV) option present on a CTAP2 authenticatorMakeCredential while the authenticator has not advertised support for it (<a href="">r254710</a>)</li>
  3166. </ul>
  3167. <h3>Media</h3>
  3168. <ul>
  3169. <li>Added support for <code>allow="fullscreen"</code> feature policy (<a href="">r255162</a>)</li>
  3170. <li>Changed EME to only emit an array of <code>persistent-usage-records</code> when more than one record is discovered (<a href="">r254896</a>)</li>
  3171. <li>Corrected VTT Cue Style handling to match the specification (<a href="">r255151</a>, <a href="">r255227</a>)</li>
  3172. <li>Fixed decoder glitches when watching videos on (<a href="">r254761</a>)</li>
  3173. <li>Fixed AirPlay placard not visible when AirPlay is entered in fullscreen mode (<a href="">r255103</a>)</li>
  3174. <li>Fixed video sound sometimes continuing to play in page cache (<a href="">r254814</a>)</li>
  3175. <li>Fixed HTMLMediaElement to not remove the media session at DOM suspension time (<a href="">r255116</a>)</li>
  3176. </ul>
  3177. <h3>Web API</h3>
  3178. <ul>
  3179. <li>Added finite timeout when synchronously terminating a service worker (<a href="">r254706</a>)</li>
  3180. <li>Fixed <code>:matches()</code> to correctly combine with pseudo elements (<a href="">r255059</a>)</li>
  3181. <li>Fixed automatic link replacement via “Smart links” to emit <code>insertLink</code> input events (<a href="">r254945</a>)</li>
  3182. <li>Disabled Service Workers before terminating an unresponsive service worker process (<a href="">r255438</a>)</li>
  3183. <li>Implemented “create a potential-CORS request” (<a href="">r254821</a>)</li>
  3184. <li>Implemented transferable property of OffscreenCanvas (<a href="">r255315</a>)</li>
  3185. <li>Improved performance speed of index records deletion in IndexedDB (<a href="">r255318</a>)</li>
  3186. <li>Made pasteboard markup sanitization more robust (<a href="">r254800</a>)</li>
  3187. <li>Used Visible Position to calculate Positions for highlights (<a href="">r254785</a>)</li>
  3188. </ul>
  3189. <h3>CSS</h3>
  3190. <ul>
  3191. <li>Fixed EXIF orientation ignored for some CSS images (<a href="">r254841</a>)</li>
  3192. <li>Fixed elements no longer stay fixed with elastic overscroll (<a href="">r255037</a>)</li>
  3193. </ul>
  3194. <h3>WebRTC</h3>
  3195. <ul>
  3196. <li>Added support for <code>MediaRecorder.requestData</code> (<a href="">r255085</a>)</li>
  3197. </ul>
  3198. <h3>JavaScript</h3>
  3199. <ul>
  3200. <li>Fixed DateMath to accept more ISO-8601 timezone designators even if they are not included in ECMA262 to produce expected results in the wild code (<a href="">r254939</a>)</li>
  3201. </ul>
  3202. <h3>WebGL2</h3>
  3203. <ul>
  3204. <li>Implemented sub-source <code>texImage2D</code> and <code>texSubImage2D</code> (<a href="">r255316</a>)</li>
  3205. </ul></div>
  3206.    </content>
  3207.    <updated>2020-02-05T21:13:48Z</updated>
  3208.    <published>2020-02-05T21:10:06Z</published>
  3209.    <category scheme="" term="Safari Technology Preview"/>
  3210.    <author>
  3211.      <name/>
  3212.    </author>
  3213.    <source>
  3214.      <id></id>
  3215.      <link href="" rel="alternate" type="text/html"/>
  3216.      <link href="" rel="self" type="application/atom+xml"/>
  3217.      <subtitle xml:lang="en-US">Open Source Web Browser Engine</subtitle>
  3218.      <title xml:lang="en-US">Blog – WebKit</title>
  3219.      <updated>2020-02-19T21:36:11Z</updated>
  3220.    </source>
  3221.  </entry>
  3223.  <entry>
  3224.    <id></id>
  3225.    <link href="" rel="alternate" type="text/html"/>
  3226.    <title>Apache Month in Review: January 2020</title>
  3227.    <content type="xhtml"><div xmlns=""><p><strong><em>We're pleased to introduce a new monthly overview of events that have taken place within the Apache community. Below is the wrap-up of our activities in January:</em></strong></p>
  3228.  <p><strong>New this month --</strong></p>
  3229.  <p> - Apache in 2019 - By The Digits <a href=""></a></p>
  3230.  <p> - Apache Software Foundation 2019 Security Report <a href=""></a></p>
  3231.  <p> - Launch of 2020 ASF Community Survey <a href=""></a></p>
  3232.  <p> - Update on "Trillions and Trillions Served", the documentary on the ASF <a href=""></a> </p>
  3233.  <p><strong><br/>Important Dates --</strong></p>
  3234.  <p> - Registration open: Apache Roadshow/DC 25 March --tracks include Apache Projects and CARE Initiatives, Cybersecurity, and Start‑Ups. <a href=""></a></p>
  3235.  <p> - Now open: CFP for ApacheCon North America --tracks include Big Data, Cloud, Community, Content Delivery, FinTech, Geospatial, Graphing, IoT, Observability, Search, Servers, and more. <a href=""></a></p>
  3236.  <p> - Next Board Meeting: 19 February 2020. <a href=""></a> </p>
  3237.  <p> </p>
  3238.  <p> </p>
  3239.  <p><strong><br/>Infrastructure -- </strong></p>
  3240.  <p>The ASF's distributed, seven-member Infrastructure team oversees our highly-reliable, distributed network under the leadership of VP Infrastructure David Nalley and Infrastructure Administrator Greg Stein. ASF Infrastructure supports 300+ Apache projects and their communities across ~200 individual machines, 1,400+ repositories, more than half a petabyte of software source releases, and 2-3M daily emails on 2,000+ lists. ASF Infra performs 7M+ weekly checks to ensure services are available around the clock. The average uptime in January was 99.94%.</p>
  3241.  <p> </p>
  3242.  <p> </p>
  3243.  <p><strong><br/>Committer Activity --</strong></p>
  3244.  <div>
  3245.    <div>
  3246.      <p>In January, 898 Apache Committers changed 4,835,906 lines of code over 14,064 commits. The Committers with the top 5 highest contributions, in order, were: Dan Haywood, Andrea Cosentino, Jean-Baptiste Onofré, Claus Ibsen, and Andi Huber.<br/><br/></p>
  3247.      <p> </p>
  3248.    </div>
  3249.  </div>
  3250.  <p> </p>
  3251.  <p><strong>Project Releases and Updates --</strong> </p>
  3252.  <p>New releases from Apache Beam (Big Data), Commons Codec (Libraries), Commons VFS (Libraries), Crail (incubating; Libraries), Daffodil (incubating; Libraries), Drill (Big Data), Druid (Big Data), Geode (Big Data), Groovy (Programming Languages), HttpComponents (4 releases; Servers), IoTDB (incubating; IoT); Jackrabbit (5 releases; Content), Juneau (Libraries), Libcloud (2 releases; Cloud Computing), Lucene/Solr (2 releases; Search), NiFi (Big Data), OpenNLP (Machine Learning), OpenWebBeans (Libraries), Parquet (Big Data), Pulsar (Messaging), Qpid (Messaging), SpamAssassin (Mail), and Wicket (2 releases; Web Frameworks).</p>
  3253.  <p>The Apache Incubator is the primary entry path for projects and codebases wishing to become part of the efforts at The Apache Software Foundation. YuniKorn (Resource Scheduler) is the latest podling undergoing development in the Apache Incubator <a href=""></a></p>
  3254.  <p> </p>
  3255.  <p>The Apache Attic provides process and solutions to make it clear when an Apache project has reached its end of life. Apache ODE (Orchestration) has retired to the Attic <a href=""></a> </p>
  3256.  <p># # #</p></div>
  3257.    </content>
  3258.    <updated>2020-02-05T18:58:31Z</updated>
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  3289.    <title xml:lang="en">Steve Wozniak: Pirate, Co-founder of Apple, and Hardware Wizard</title>
  3290.    <summary type="xhtml" xml:lang="en"><div xmlns=""><p>Steve Wozniak: The Wonderful Wizard of Woz  Welcome to Remarkable People. This episode’s guest is Steve Wozniak, more commonly and intimately known as simply “Woz.” He is the co-founder of Apple, prankster, iconoclast, concert producer, Dancing with the Stars contestant, and college graduate. True or false? Woz is still an Apple employee. Keep [...]</p>
  3291. <p>The post <a href="" rel="nofollow">Steve Wozniak: Pirate, Co-founder of Apple, and Hardware Wizard</a> appeared first on <a href="" rel="nofollow">Guy Kawasaki</a>.</p></div>
  3292.    </summary>
  3293.    <content type="xhtml" xml:lang="en"><div xmlns=""><div class="fusion-fullwidth fullwidth-box fusion-builder-row-3 nonhundred-percent-fullwidth non-hundred-percent-height-scrolling" style="background-color: rgba(255,255,255,0); background-position: center center; padding-top: 0px; padding-right: 0px; padding-bottom: 0px; padding-left: 0px;"><div class="fusion-builder-row fusion-row "><div class="fusion-layout-column fusion_builder_column fusion_builder_column_1_1 fusion-builder-column-2 fusion-one-full fusion-column-first fusion-column-last 1_1" style="margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 20px;"><div class="fusion-column-wrapper"><div class="fusion-text"><h1 dir="ltr">Steve Wozniak: The Wonderful Wizard of Woz</h1>
  3294. <div/>
  3295. </div><div class="fusion-text"><p dir="ltr"><strong>Welcome to Remarkable People.</strong></p>
  3296. <p>This episode’s guest is Steve Wozniak, more commonly and intimately known as simply “Woz.”</p>
  3297. <p>He is the co-founder of Apple, prankster, iconoclast, concert producer, Dancing with the Stars contestant, and college graduate.</p>
  3298. <p>True or false? Woz is still an Apple employee. Keep listening, and you’ll find out.</p>
  3299. <p>IMHO, he is one of the purest examples of the profession of engineering. No matter how you cut it, no Woz, no Apple.</p>
  3300. <p>If you, or someone you like, is a tech entrepreneur, listening to this episode is a must.</p>
  3301. <p>I’m Guy Kawasaki, and this is Remarkable People. Now here’s the wizard of Woz.</p>
  3302. </div><div class="fusion-text"><h2 dir="ltr">What did you learn from this episode of Remarkable People?</h2>
  3303. <p dir="ltr">This week’s tweetable:  </p><hr/><p><em>Does Woz have to wait in line for the new iPhone? #remarkablepeople #technology Find out here </em><br/><a href=";text=Does%20Woz%20have%20to%20wait%20in%20line%20for%20the%20new%20iPhone%3F%20%23remarkablepeople%20%23technology%20Find%20out%20here%20&amp;via=GuyKawasaki&amp;related=GuyKawasaki" rel="noopener noreferrer" target="_blank">Click To Tweet</a><br/></p><hr/><p/>
  3304. <p dir="ltr"><span> Use the #remarkablepeople hashtag to join the conversation!</span></p>
  3305. <p dir="ltr"><strong>Where to subscribe: <a href="" rel="noopener noreferrer" target="_blank">Apple Podcast</a> | <a href="" rel="noopener noreferrer" target="_blank">Google Podcasts</a></strong></p>
  3306. <p>Why is Woz a pirate? In <a href="" rel="noopener noreferrer" target="_blank">January 1983</a>, “Steve Jobs gathered a group of Apple employees at an off-site retreat in Carmel, California. The group was in the midst of developing the Mac, the company’s hugely ambitious personal computer—and some employees felt the project was losing its scrappy spirit. And so Jobs offered a maxim meant to motivate the developers: “It’s better to be a pirate than join the navy.”</p>
  3307. <p>This wasn’t about treasure maps and eyepatches. “Being a pirate meant moving fast, unencumbered by bureaucracy and politics,” software engineer Andy Hertzfeld, an original member of the Macintosh team. “It meant being audacious and courageous, willing to take considerable risks for greater rewards.”</p>
  3308. <p>The pirate metaphor also involved a certain willingness to plunder. “Steve also never minded occasionally stealing good ideas from others, like the Picasso quote—’good artists copy, great artists steal,’” Hertzfeld adds.</p>
  3309. <h2 dir="ltr">Find more from Steve Wozniak</h2>
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  3318. <h2 dir="ltr">Follow Remarkable People Host, Guy Kawasaki</h2>
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  3333. </div><div class="fusion-button-wrapper fusion-aligncenter"><a class="fusion-button button-flat fusion-button-default-size button-default button-5 fusion-button-default-span fusion-button-default-type" href="" rel="noopener noreferrer" target="_blank"><span class="fusion-button-text">Subscribe to Guy Kawasaki’s Remarkable People Podcast</span></a></div><div class="fusion-text"><h2/>
  3334. <h2>FULL TRANSCRIPT of Guy Kawasaki’s Remarkable People Podcast with guest Steve Wozniak</h2>
  3335. <p>Guy Kawasaki: This episode’s guest is Steve Wozniak, more commonly and intimately known as simply, Woz. He is the co-founder of Apple, a prankster, iconoclast, concert producer, Dancing with the Stars contestant, and college graduate.</p>
  3336. <p>True or false, Woz is still an Apple employee? Keep listening, and you’ll find out. In my humble opinion, he is the purest example of the profession of engineering. No matter how you cut it. No Woz, no Apple.</p>
  3337. <p>If you or someone you like is a tech entrepreneur, listening to this episode is a must. I’m Guy Kawasaki, and this is Remarkable People. Now, here’s the Wizard of Woz.</p>
  3338. <p>Guy Kawasaki: I want to know how that first conversation went with Steve when you decided to start Apple.</p>
  3339. <p>Steve Wozniak: Trouble is there were two different conversations because there were two different starts of Apple, and the very first start was for just a little partnership, and the second was the corporation. The corporation started with a great product that was going to carry the company for ten years and really helped start the company. The first one was a little product that was hastily put together and never even designed to be a computer. It was the Apple I in the end, and we knew before we ever delivered Apple I, we had the Apple II, and we knew we had the product that would make a company.</p>
  3340. <p>Steve Wozniak: So the Apple I was almost incidental. But before that, when we first had the discussion, I had developed this computer. I had a terminal to get on the ARPANET because I love the newest things going on, and I found out there was this phone number that you could reach about five different computers in the United States, log in as a guest. They were out in Boston, and Utah, and UCLA, and places like that. You could log in as a guest, read files, run programs. So I built my own just from scratch, just how to put things on a TV set from game experience.</p>
  3341. <p>Steve Wozniak: And then I went to the Homebrew Computer Club. Steve did not go to the Homebrew Computer Club ever. He didn’t even know that I was going really. He was up in Oregon, and I went there, and I got really inspired, and I saw the first night that these 8-bit processors had finally gone up to the level I could build the sort of computer I wanted my whole life, one that I could type in programs and really solve things.</p>
  3342. <p>Steve Wozniak: So I built the computer. I passed out my designs for free to everyone at the club, no copyright or anything. I helped some people in the club build their own versions of it, and Steve still didn’t know it existed. So he came into town, and there’s a movie with Ashton Kutcher that shows Steve dragging me from a basement down to some club. I bet every day since the club started, he’d never been there. I was the one who brought Steve down to see the excitement and feel what we were all talking about, and he got to see my computer too for the first time, see it there.</p>
  3343. <p>Steve Wozniak: And then he approached me after the meeting. He saw there was a lot of interest in people looking over my shoulder, and one little board, the size of a piece of paper with chips on it, was doing the whole thing that any 4K computer programming language could do. He saw the excitement, and he said we should start a company because he’d been turning some of my stuff into money for both of us for five years.</p>
  3344. <p>And he said, let’s start a company. There was not a computer company. His idea was what he knew. He’d sold surplus electronic parts.</p>
  3345. <p>Steve Wozniak: He knew how to buy switches and capacitors and transistors and sell them and even some little low-level chips. Chips [inaudible 00:03:43] in those days and sell them for a big huge… He knew it was a good deal. So he wanted to make a PC board. See, I’d already passed out my design. People were building my computer already. He wanted to start out and just make a PC board. It would cost us 20 bucks a board to build, he estimated, and we’d sell them for 40 bucks. Neither one of us could really come up with a good argument that we’d make money, but he said, “Well, at least for once in our life, we’d have a company.</p>
  3346. <p>Steve Wozniak: One thing he wanted was to somehow be important in the world, but he didn’t have the academic background or really business background, but he had at least me. And so he said, “Let’s start a company.”</p>
  3347. <p>And my gosh, I froze at that point because when I start a company buying Hewlett Packard’s back, when I was determined and told everyone in my life I would be a Hewlett Packard engineer forever. My loyalty to that company was extreme on even for this product that really didn’t seem like a company, a business. I was going to make a lot of money. I said, “Oh, I got to make sure that Hewlett Packard is okay with it. They’ve got to turn it down.</p>
  3348. <p>Steve Wozniak: And I approached it, implored them to build it. So they turned me down for the first of five times. And then when the owner of the local store called the Byte Shop, there was Paul Terrell. He believed there was going to be a market for home computers, and he contacted Steve and said he wanted to buy a bunch, but they’ve got to be more ready-made, like a hi-fi. You pull it out of a box and use it.</p>
  3349. <p>And so Steve did all the business deals with him and called me up and said he got a $50,000 order, back when my engineering salary at Hewlett Packard designing the hottest product at the time, the handheld scientific calculators was only $25,000.</p>
  3350. <p>Steve Wozniak: He had a $50,000 order, and I was shocked. This is big time. We have no bank accounts. We have no savings accounts. We have no rich relatives. So it’s scary like that’s a big risk. You’re going way beyond what you have.</p>
  3351. <p>And he said, “We’d have to come up with maybe 1,000 bucks,” between us to put together 108 boards, and I sold my most valuable possession. He sold something valuable, but then he went past when he first brought up the subject. He really was just inspired by all these people looking at it that there might be something in this just as you’ve seen with other things I’ve developed.</p>
  3352. <p>Steve Wozniak: I don’t think he understood to see how makes shift this little computer thing was that it was [inaudible 00:06:10] something that he could call a computer far away into being a computer on its own. I don’t think he knew that it wasn’t designed from the ground up as a computer because he didn’t really know the insides of a computer and all that.</p>
  3353. <p>But anyway, it was a really, really good… I wouldn’t… If somebody else came up to me and said, “Hey, you want to start a company, I would’ve said, “No, no. I just do all this little business stuff on the side for projects with Steve.”</p>
  3354. <p>Steve Wozniak: My loyalty to him as a friend, he’s the only one I’ve never sold some of my technical designs through because I was way too shy to talk to normal people.</p>
  3355. <p>But Steve, at least, would talk to me and understand me. We were friends, so that was beneficial, and that came in more into play, of course, with the Apple II computer. That was the one… With the Apple I, we started the company, and Steve got a few friends that he met that had skills and analog engineer. This one guy who had been in company startups before, we gave him 10% so… No, Steve had 45%, I have 45%, and Ron Wayne had 10%, and he would be the adult who could settle any disputes. It sounded good to me.</p>
  3356. <p>Steve Wozniak: And looking back, I didn’t know anything about the world and people. I was so naive, and he was just one of these, what you call libertarians today, reading all the libertarian journals of the time, None Dare Call It Treason was a big one, he’d referred to.</p>
  3357. <p>But it makes him sound like I have experienced and I have knowledge and I can… Really, you need that when you’re starting something. The second start was the one you really read about where we had this Apple II computer, and we kept it quiet, kind of quiet.</p>
  3358. <p>Steve Wozniak: I did show it off at the club at least one time, running game written in a color arcade game. See, this computer was not just a computer; this thing that was the Apple II going to become the Apple II that was not just a great computer, which is what people acknowledge. It was the first time ever that arcade games, a new industry being pioneered by companies like Atari was the first time arcade games would be color. It was the first time arcade games would be software.</p>
  3359. <p>Steve Wozniak: A nine-year-old could write a good game with colors moving on a screen in one day rather than a skilled engineer hooking up thousands of wires to a hundred chips over six months to get a prototype done.</p>
  3360. <p>This was a huge step for gaming, and gaming was the key to the whole market. So we had a great computer. We knew it. Other people commented on it. Even friends at Hewlett Packard. Although Hewlett Packard turned me down five times, friends at Hewlett Packard said it was the greatest product they’d ever seen, and Steve started looking for the big money because he knew we had something good, and he finally found the angel.</p>
  3361. <p>Steve Wozniak: He took a lot of good paths, and I’m sort of thankful. Right now, I’m saying, “Thank heavens, they didn’t buy in the offers that we were making to them.”</p>
  3362. <p>Because we really wound up doing the whole thing. And we were young. You start a company, you have a big company, it lasts forever. But you don’t get acquired, bought out and merged into other things.</p>
  3363. <p>No, you start a good company, or you’ve got one of those electronic companies that’s out on the street. They all just started, and they live forever. We had a computer we knew we could sell a thousand of these easy right away.</p>
  3364. <p>Steve Wozniak: $250,000 when you have absolutely no checking accounts, no money, nothing like that, and that’s where we both were, and Mike Markkula was willing to put it in. Mike felt we were going to be a $500 million company in five years, and I just sort of said, “Well, if you’ve had success in your life,” which he had, “you’re allowed to talk big numbers.”</p>
  3365. <p>But it wasn’t really until we showed off the computer and Mike put his arm around my shoulder and said, “This thing is actually going to go. We are going to be… Some people say things so assuredly from their own background and knowledge, and he had the background that Steve and I didn’t have. We were young, young 20s. Like I said, no experience. So Mike was really an important part of this company.</p>
  3366. <p>Guy Kawasaki: Did this naivete and this lack of capital with hindsight, were they good? I mean, aren’t you glad you had that attitude?</p>
  3367. <p>Steve Wozniak: It not about accomplishment. It was not about success. It was not about money, ever. I had told everyone I knew I was going to be an engineer at Hewlett Packard for life because I loved it, and I didn’t want to ever be corrupted by big money.</p>
  3368. <p>I read too many stories that were not the person I wanted to wind up being. It could be you read stories about big politicians maybe. I don’t want to ever be that person. And I’d already decided that.</p>
  3369. <p>So I had been developing a lot of things, developing incredible skills at using very few of the parts of the day, the building at blocks of the day. I call it the lumber of computers called chips. Very skilled at using fewer than anybody in thinking out strange solutions and always sharing parts.</p>
  3370. <p>Steve Wozniak: So to me, that was… I always did that because I couldn’t afford more, but when I worked at Hewlett Packard, I could at least get a few chips, but nothing else. I had to design things small, so I could afford the parts I had to buy.</p>
  3371. <p>So not having money was sort of an incentive. You’ve got to design things yourself because you can’t go out and buy stuff like some people can. Some people, the head of digital equipment corporation, could just put out all the money in the world to have his own little personal set up on one of their computers acting like a personal computer, but it costs $1 million.</p>
  3372. <p>Steve Wozniak: So I wanted things all for normal people. My whole life was about building appliances for the home. I decided that when I was very, very young, and my father told me that engineers build things like dishwashers, and before dishwashers, we had to do it all by hand before washing the things. We had to do it all by hand, and I thought, “Oh my gosh, making life nice at home was going to be my purpose in life.”</p>
  3373. <p>Just building things good in the home. I don’t care about the corporate market, and big, and the industrial, and financial, and all that. I didn’t ever want to get close to it.</p>
  3374. <p>Steve Wozniak: So, lack of capital was something that I always credited with making me such an extreme engineer in a certain sense, which was the right sense to develop personal computers.</p>
  3375. <p>But I also credited one other thing. I had somehow, through all my experience, I had gotten so good at thinking so deeply into problems. You give me something you want you want to be built, and I have never been [inaudible 00:12:51] before that it needs. I would go back and study all the diagrams and the timing diagrams, the voltage diagrams of all the parts and figure out a way to do things that I had never done before.</p>
  3376. <p>Steve Wozniak: For example, I had never used a microprocessor before the Apple I, but okay, study it, study it, see how it works into a circuit. That was my forte, something I was very good at of dynamic memories. Everybody else was trying to build little affordable computers based on the Intel datasheet. Here’s how you hook a microprocessor to memory, to a couple of switches and a bus.</p>
  3377. <p>Wait a minute, the only thing that they could show on their datasheets, that’s very, very expensive is static memory.</p>
  3378. <p>Steve Wozniak: And there in the summer of 1975, three companies introduced the 4K dynamic for the first time that real chips memory were less expensive than… It’s very complicated for any individual who never really consider making core-based memories. So this was a huge step.</p>
  3379. <p>Well, things are harder to design. Intel can’t show them on the datasheet because you have to have ways to get addresses in so that every single address on the chip gets accessed every 2,000th of a second.</p>
  3380. <p>Steve Wozniak: This is a whole separate job that almost all of these little starting people that wanted their own computers, kind of little hobbyists and all that, they couldn’t really design that stuff.</p>
  3381. <p>My gosh, for me it was so trivial. For one thing, I’m starting with how do I get all these addresses? I need a counter that counts up and down addresses constantly. I already had horizontal and video accounts for the video. So I just shared those accounts, and it was really easy for me to come up with the formula that made a real affordable, complete computer.</p>
  3382. <p>Steve Wozniak: It had to have 4K memory, and here’s why. A programming language where even a young kid could sit down and start typing in some commands in a simple language to solve problems.</p>
  3383. <p>To run a programming language you needed a 4K computer. That was where the number came from. And so here I was at the computer club showing off [inaudible 00:14:57] on one board with the chips, and it was the size of a piece of paper.</p>
  3384. <p>It connects to a TV, connects to a keyboard, and does the whole job. I know it was rather shocking for the people in the club who saw it and that was before we thought there was really going to be some big money here maybe.</p>
  3385. <p>Guy Kawasaki: Okay. I understand that role of yours. Now was Steve, similar to you or complimenting you? He was about selling and money.</p>
  3386. <p>Steve Wozniak: No, no, no. Steve was very complimentary and not similar because I had a lot of values about kind of disdaining money even and not wanting to do that. Also, I had the computer skills, engineering skills, and Steve had electronics knowledge to a decent level. He could understand us, but he couldn’t really design things.</p>
  3387. <p>Now, Steve wanted to be important, and he had zero money. I had a job as an engineer. So anything we did, I give it all to Steve if he wanted it. He was my friend.</p>
  3388. <p>Steve Wozniak: So he had zero money. So he was always looking for little ways to make the next step in money. But he wanted to be that important person in life.</p>
  3389. <p>And this was his big chance because now he was founder of a company. That’s a title. Founder of a company with big money being put in.</p>
  3390. <p>And he didn’t really have any executive skills. He didn’t really have a title that he could merit. I was easy, vice president of engineering. That was trivial. Steve didn’t really have one for a while. Mike Markkutan was sat down and told us, “Here are the people you hire to have a technical company. Here are the various categories, and here’s what their responsibilities are, and here’s how you interview them.”</p>
  3391. <p>Steve Wozniak: He kind of taught us a lot of business, and he taught marketing principles, which were so important to him. And Steve not being technical, hung on to the marketing principles because you can understand things like it’s important when you take a picture, to have it not look sloppy, and that sort of stuff. And Steve had always been a little more kind of favor in the arts because he wasn’t technical.</p>
  3392. <p>Steve Wozniak: How do things look to the eye, that kind of beauty. So that was the role that he took on, and he did an excellent job. He basically was marketing… Well, first of all, turning my design, the Apple II computer into a product and second, marketing it and talking to the press and the world that, “Here’s the reason you need to do it.”</p>
  3393. <p>Those two skills are critical. We’re talking three skills that any startup really has to have business orientation and that can from Steve, and then marketing. And Mike Markkula started it with the Apple II computer, which was really all of our income for the first ten years at Apple.</p>
  3394. <p>Steve Wozniak: The marketing was, I built the computer I wanted. That I couldn’t see anything in the world that came close to. I built it for myself. When you build something for yourself, it’s the best marketing.</p>
  3395. <p>But then from that point on you have to have the sort of marketing that goes along with sales and maybe thinking out new products, and Steve Jobs was very much instrumental in that. Although Mike Markkula was the teacher about marketing principles. Steve picked it up because that was going to be one of his strong points in the company. Not engineering. And then I did the engineering.</p>
  3396. <p>Steve Wozniak: So we had business marketing, engineering.</p>
  3397. <p>We kind of split it up except I deliberately stayed the furthest from the marketing because, to me it was kind of political, and I was going to be a non-political person, never vote. This is just something I’ve actually stayed true to this day because I don’t want to get into all this vying against other people competing, backstabbing, pushing, trying to get a better opportunity in the company.</p>
  3398. <p>No, I wasn’t going to be like that. So I didn’t want to go near the business, and I just got put off in a different corner and never really heard the business discussions except at board meetings and staff meetings.</p>
  3399. <p>Guy Kawasaki: When you say that Steve wanted to be somebody, do you mean that in a negative way, inferiority complex, or this was a positive thing that inspired him?</p>
  3400. <p>Steve Wozniak: No, from the day we met, he was talking about important people like Shakespeare that have really changed humanity forever. Steps forward not steps backwards. Because he talked about those people all the time, he wanted to be one of them, and he felt he had it.</p>
  3401. <p>He had the motivation and sometimes motivation, wanting something is a lot more important than having the real skill. So he was good.</p>
  3402. <p>So Steve was really just trying to be, “I want to do some good for the world, and I’ve got to find the path there.” And probably the biggest thing he had was me. But then again, we had [inaudible 00:19:35]. We started Apple with the big money.</p>
  3403. <p>Steve Wozniak: Mike Markkula, our investor told me on the phone that I had to leave Hewlett Packard, and I said, “Wait a minute. Well, I don’t have to leave Hewlett Packard. I’ve developed two computers in the last year moonlighting, and I wrote a programming language. I’d built mass storage on cassette tapes and all this stuff. I did it all just on the side.</p>
  3404. <p>I can keep my job at Hewlett Packard in the daytime because that’s my job forever, and I’ll do Apple on the side.” And he said no.</p>
  3405. <p>So Mike Markkula wanted me, said I had to quit Hewlett Packard, and I said, “No. Look in the last year moonlighting just on the side, keeping my job at Hewlett Packard. I developed two computers, and I had things signed off by Hewlett Packard vice-presidents is two. We owned it.</p>
  3406. <p>Steve Wozniak: I developed two computers and an operating system. A language I wrote, basic. Mass storage on cassette tapes and lots of other things. And I’ve done all this on the side, the Apple II computer with color and everything, and I can just keep doing that.</p>
  3407. <p>And Mike Markkula said, “No, you’ve got to decide on Tuesday.” So I drove up to his cabana, and Steve was there, and I said that I had gone inside myself searching for answers in my own soul and that I came up with, “No, I would not take the big money. I would not do Apple.”</p>
  3408. <p>I owned Apple II computer. It was all mine. And I said, “No, I’m not going to do it because I want to be an engineer for life at Hewlett Packard, and I love designing computers, but I don’t need a company, a new company of my own to do it.”</p>
  3409. <p>Steve Wozniak: And Mike kind of said, “Okay,” and Steve went into a kind of a frenzy and started calling everybody that I knew and asking them to call me. My relatives called me. And finally, one friend called me, and he said the right thing. He said, “You could start this company, and you could just start it and be an engineer forever. Just stay an engineer, and just use it to make money off it.”</p>
  3410. <p>And the fact that it was okay to start a company and not have to run it was what I was scared of. If I tried to run a company, I’d be kicked out and overrun by others.</p>
  3411. <p>Steve Wozniak: And so I changed my mind. Right there, when I got that phone call at Hewlett-Packard one day, I picked up the phone, called Steve Jobs and said, “I am going to leave,” and probably left that very day.</p>
  3412. <p>Guy Kawasaki: Oh my God, I had never heard that story. That is a story. And the whole universe…</p>
  3413. <p>Steve Wozniak: It was actually Allen Baum. Allen Baum called me, and what he said specifically was, “Look, you could be an engineer, start a company and become a manager and get rich, or you could be an engineer, start a company and just stay an engineer and get rich.” And that was really what one other person is saying in it, made me feel that now I can say it.</p>
  3414. <p>Guy Kawasaki: Wow. Are you still an Apple employee?<br/>
  3415. Steve Wozniak: I’m still an Apple employee. The only person who’s received the paycheck every week since we started the company. I get a small paycheck and out of it after whatever goes into… Whatever the funds that companies have for saving your money. I mean, I don’t even know. I’m so non-financial. I’ve never read financial papers. I’ve never invested in the stock. I’ve never used Apple stock app. I just stay away from finances. But it’s whatever companies have to do. After all, that’s paid. I think I get $50 a week or something into my bank account after taxes.</p>
  3416. <p>Steve Wozniak: So it’s small. It’s small. But it’s out of loyalty because what could I do that’s more important in my life, even to me.</p>
  3417. <p>And nobody’s going to fire me. And I really do have strong feelings always for Apple. The thing is, I can’t really be inside operations because I’m just too outspoken and honest, and I don’t want to give that up.</p>
  3418. <p>Guy Kawasaki: Do you think Apple should or could tap you more?<br/>
  3419. Steve Wozniak: I think that Apple could tap me more, but only in some very easy to do high-level areas. Why don’t you look at these choices? Which one do you think is better and why or where do you think we ought to take it? The high-level stuff is kind of easy to do.</p>
  3420. <p>You’re not really the inventor, you’re not the engineer. To me, my life was about being an engineering work. I don’t do that anymore. I haven’t programmed in a long time, just like Linux’s Turbolinux.</p>
  3421. <p>Guy Kawasaki: Yeah, Turbo.<br/>
  3422. Steve Wozniak: I can’t be that engineer that I loved that I wanted to be my whole life is it takes your full-time concentration work, nothing else. And I have family now and everything, so all I could do is kind of one of these little high-level jobs, but I don’t rate them as high in my opinion as the real engineering.</p>
  3423. <p>We’re going to make this computer for real. Steve’s going to finish up the productizing of it. I’ve finished up the important parts, all the code that makes it run. So we’ve got these… We were the first users of the 2K byte ROMs, and in the room, I had extra space on the… It wasn’t used. I’d finished up everything the Apple II needed.</p>
  3424. <p>Steve Wozniak: Oh my gosh, I started writing more code, more code, little things. I wrote a little emulator called Sweet16 that saved the code on occasions. And that’s what I was doing.</p>
  3425. <p>Steve was working on getting a case. He’d met a guy who makes motorcycle seats with a press, kind of a press. They put this foam stuff in, press it and heat it, and you get a motorcycle seat. I haven’t had one, made one eventually, but this guy could make these little cases for us and that was a disaster.</p>
  3426. <p>Steve Wozniak: They weren’t real plastic and they almost put us out of business and thank God we’ve managed to get on the ball and get real plastic made. We had to introduce the computer. We had to have advertising, talking to press. That was all Steve Jobs’ role.</p>
  3427. <p>And his personality changed. The day that he was founder of a company with big money. This was his key to being an important person, and his personality changed. No more of this.</p>
  3428. <p>All the fun, all the Bob Dylan albums, and the liner notes and the lyrics and all that. Because he didn’t have albums, he was only 16 years old.</p>
  3429. <p>Steve Wozniak: Steve was now one of the founders of a company with big money. This was the key to his stepping into being someone important in life, and your personality settles between 18 and 23 years old, and then it stays that way forever. That’s who you are.</p>
  3430. <p>And he’d been just a fun guy, go running off to concerts with me and chasing concert paraphernalia, driving around, playing pranks, doing the blue boxes and all that. We had a lot of fun time. He’s all of a sudden disdained that. He didn’t want to talk about jokes, fun, kid things, only business suit on the front of magazines, talking business talk and learning how to speak it, and becoming sort of a different presence to the world.</p>
  3431. <p>Steve Wozniak: So that’s when his personality changed, and he got kind of strict and he wanted to make sure the world got a message that all the computer thinking came from him, from his head, and his thinking.</p>
  3432. <p>And one of the things he tried to do was introduce other computers that he was in charge of basically defining. Not designing, but defining. And the Apple III failed for marketing reasons, and the Lisa failed because Steve didn’t understand what computers cost, and the Macintosh failed because it wasn’t a full computer. It didn’t even have a real operating system.</p>
  3433. <p>Steve Wozniak: Steve didn’t know what an operating system was.</p>
  3434. <p>It’s the reason we had to buy an operating system 12 years later or whatever because the Mac never had one put in as a core operating system. It only had hacked on little things that acted like one.</p>
  3435. <p>Guy Kawasaki: Did this make you sad, this transition of Steve?</p>
  3436. <p>Steve Wozniak: Oh, no. I didn’t care a bit. Look, I’m going to go in engineering. I’m not going to step on other people’s feet. Mike Markkuta has done marketing for twenty years. I’m not going to tell him the box should be green instead of red. That’s for Steve to do.</p>
  3437. <p>And Steve would make these little minor decisions that every time he made them though, generally almost every time he was right. He was kind of like the smartest person in the room. But I didn’t want to have participation with that, and it’s good.</p>
  3438. <p>Steve Wozniak: Steve was getting what he wanted, and I had what I wanted, a laboratory to run into even late at night and work on some ideas. I was just very much allowed to be the inventor, and it turned out very, very good for Apple and for follow on things including the floppy disk for the Apple II computer.</p>
  3439. <p>Steve did start talking to the press even before the Apple II was out to the world, I think, are very early days. He started talking… They would ask, “Did you do the hardware, did you do the software?” Like he was one of the real computer inventors that it was… He was kind of giving that impression to them sometimes.</p>
  3440. <p>Steve Wozniak: So I did call him on that. I said, “Hey, don’t act like you designed it.” Looking back though, you know what, working on, oh, putting the whole product together and getting the companies little ways. Solder the chips onto a board and put it into a plastic case of a certain design. That’s part of the design. It’s not like the brainiac-</p>
  3441. <p>Guy Kawasaki: Ones and zeros?<br/>
  3442. Steve Wozniak: Well, ones and zeros and chips, and lines, and timing, and all this stuff and writing huge amounts of code.</p>
  3443. <p>He didn’t do any of the computer hardware, but the product he did help design. Yeah. I mean, I only gave it a side dimension. Here’s about how big it’s going to be for what I’ve designed. That’s all I did.</p>
  3444. <p>Guy Kawasaki: I truly do believe even for this conversation, you are the purest form of engineering that I’ve ever met. How does one tell if a person is a good engineer?</p>
  3445. <p>Steve Wozniak: There’s good engineers, and there are great engineers. And good engineers, you can sometimes tell just by what courses they took or doctorates they earned or whatever. You could see what is their past experience.</p>
  3446. <p>But to me, I found in Apple, there were very few engineers that did what I did, thought the way I did. I was always trying to be whatever I did, my thing, I was going to be the best in the world. Somebody might be equal to me, but I was sure there was no one better.</p>
  3447. <p>Steve Wozniak: And I ran into others. Bill Atkinson was one who really pointed out in their code how they had done something clever that saved things and did it quicker or did it with fewer steps or they thought about something unusual.</p>
  3448. <p>Those were the sort of people that entire new product or product category could come out of and today I look at it a little differently that there’s these kinds of people that go to maker fairs. They worked and worked, and built little unusual things that might not have any value to the world. I did a lot of that in my life.</p>
  3449. <p>Steve Wozniak: And those are people that actually get projects done without having to have university education, whatever. Burrell Smith studied me, and he wanted to be as good as Woz at design.</p>
  3450. <p>He was a technician at Apple. He had never gone to college a day in his life, and he studied. He started working on paper the way I did and design and stuff, and he got as good as me.</p>
  3451. <p>And I told Steve Jobs that after my airplane crash, while I was on the Macintosh team, I said that, “The Macintosh group is in great shape. The most creative people I know in Apple, my best friends, and Burrell Smith can design as well as I can.</p>
  3452. <p>Steve Wozniak: He’s designed the Macintosh hardware, the original Macintosh hardware, without a day of college. So we hire for skill sets, but we often don’t judge the people as people. And one of the important things is to make sure… Today I say, “You’re going to find that the best teams you’re ever on, the best products you ever developed, the most productive you were in your life, the most enjoyment you had working was when you work with people that you’d liked.”</p>
  3453. <p>Steve Wozniak: Similar personalities. You get along, you’d like to go to the same movies and do the same things and talk about it, have the same ideas, and eat together.</p>
  3454. <p>But companies usually just sit down, “We’re just going to be strict. It’s like a spreadsheet. We’re going to check this off and check that off and check that off. We’ve got all these elements for our new project idea. We’ll hire these five people.” They never really deal with them as human beings and people in a psychological sense.</p>
  3455. <p>I once told Steve Jobs that sometimes the best person for a company to run a company be a psychologist. And he said, “Oh yeah, Atari did that for a while.”</p>
  3456. <p>Guy Kawasaki: To replace Nolan?<br/>
  3457. Steve Wozniak: I think it was post-Nolan. There was somebody, maybe just some high high level position with Nolan, but it’s really funny because when you go to game seminars nowadays, sometimes the… Especially the founders of game companies, they’ll talk about the psychological meaning why they made a certain game, or they made it operate a certain way somehow boils down to the psychology of the users. So I admire that thinking.</p>
  3458. <p>Steve Wozniak: Somewhere, there’s something inside of some people that isn’t just, “I know how to do what I want to do. No, I want to chase dreams and make things greater happen.”</p>
  3459. <p>And you can’t always tell. They might be shy just like I was. I mean, God knows how without a college degree, I wound up designing the hottest products in the world at Hewlett Packard, but somebody mentioned me to them. They called me in. Every question they asked, I had just such instant answers. I knew anything about logic design and computer parts and all that.</p>
  3460. <p>So that was fortunate that they were that open. I don’t believe many companies are very open to even interviewing somebody that doesn’t have a certain education level.</p>
  3461. <p>Guy Kawasaki: Don’t you think that’s true of Apple today? You can’t get an Apple without the right background.<br/>
  3462. Steve Wozniak: It’s largely true, unless you somehow had the right connection, knew the right person. You might be able to get evaluated for something. I don’t know because I would never myself find out because I would never pull a string. I wasn’t going to try to pull any strings. I don’t believe in it.</p>
  3463. <p>Once in a while, somebody knows it’s me, and they say, “Oh, here’s what we’ll give you,” and they do it for me, and I won’t turn down a gift. Steve Jobs actually sent me the very first iPhone.</p>
  3464. <p><img alt="Apple iphone 3GS smartphone with 16gb memory" class="lazyload aligncenter size-large wp-image-7381" height="683" src="" width="1024"/></p>
  3465. <p>Steve Wozniak: But for all the iPhones, I also waited in line overnight anyway to do it the hardcore way like normal people, average Joes. And one time Steve sent me, there was a new laser writer of some sort, and he sent me one, I think it was a laser writer. I didn’t particularly want it, but I got it for free and all these Apple products that come out, I never asked for them. I didn’t even know that I could get 10% off on some of them with my employee discounts still until recently.</p>
  3466. <p>Steve Wozniak: There’s this guy that I was on Dancing with the Stars, Steve O and he’s famous in the entertainment world, and he remembered that when we were doing that show, I got him riding a Segway. We took a Segway over to The Grove shopping center in LA, and the Apple Store was there, and we went in and bought him a computer. I guess I might have used an employee discount back then. I might’ve known I had them.</p>
  3467. <p>And so he came up recently and visited right here in Los Gatos, and we got on Segues again wrote into the Los Gatos store and I helped him buy another more recent computers.</p>
  3468. <p>Steve Wozniak: So I’d like things that people that are thinking for fun, thinking a lot of what’s entertaining, what’s unusual, not what is the money factor guiding my life. I don’t want to be driven by money.</p>
  3469. <p>I only want to know interesting people like Steve Jobs, for instance, like Captain Crunch of Blue Box fame. I want to hang around interesting people they might write movies about because, I don’t know, it’s a more interesting life than just turning your wealth into more and more wealth and more power and all that.</p>
  3470. <p>Guy Kawasaki: Does Tim Cook passed that test for you?<br/>
  3471. Steve Wozniak: Tim Cook has been outstanding, in my opinion for keeping the company going very well. High profits is a big part of growing without having to borrow money and be an important brand.</p>
  3472. <p>The brand Apple has been maintained well and also he is so anti, any discriminatory bias in people for any reasons at all. But Tim Cook has just been representing, we are all equal. We’re all people and don’t put us down just because we’re different. Somebody is different than us.”</p>
  3473. <p>But we live in Silicon Valley here. Apple in Cupertino, Silicon Valley. Santa Clara County is one of ten counties in the entire United States where more than half the people speak non-English at home. They came from all over the world. China and Japan, Thailand, Singapore. They just come… India, tons of them, and they’ve come to Silicon Valley attracted by the new products, the technology industry, and all that. So we’re just totally used to it.</p>
  3474. <p>Everybody’s different. You just work with them, and they work fine, and everything’s fine, but a lot of parts of the country are not that integrated.</p>
  3475. <p>Guy Kawasaki: What is the lesson of Apple?<br/>
  3476. Steve Wozniak: Oh, well, I think one lesson is a lot of people look back, and they say, “How did two youngsters start such an incredible company, and what was it all about?” I find that everywhere I go, there’s an interest in the story behind Apple still.</p>
  3477. <p>Maybe eventually it’ll just be the products, the ecosystem is all the products work well together with my computer. It works with my phone. It works with my watch. It works with my and my AirPods, and they all know about each other. It’s that whole idea we have from the beginning.</p>
  3478. <p><img alt="original Macintosh 128k called Apple Macintosh on white background. This was the first produced Mac, released on january 1984" class="lazyload aligncenter wp-image-7380 size-large" height="876" src="" width="1024"/></p>
  3479. <p>Steve Wozniak: You build a product, a computer, and you write the software that runs it. The two will work together in a very understood manner to make it a satisfying experience for the users rather than just like Microsoft.</p>
  3480. <p>We write an operating system, we’ll let anybody in the world adapt to their hard work, and you’ll wind up with so many problems to deal with. You lose a lot of the simplicity of life.</p>
  3481. <p>Steve Wozniak: So the Apple world, if you stick in it, it’s very, very simple and nice. Same thing with the Google world except that Apple doesn’t follow you. I mean Apple is respecting your privacy.</p>
  3482. <p>What’s more important? I used to ask myself… I sat there during Macintosh days even, I said, “What’s more important? What’s it really about?” It’s the user.</p>
  3483. <p>We had a reputation for ease of use of our computers compared to the IBM PCs or whatever, the Google stuff. I mean, the Microsoft stuff.</p>
  3484. <p>Steve Wozniak: We had a reputation for ease of use. That means the human is more important than the technology.</p>
  3485. <p>Where that first came to me was a guy named Jeff Raskin, came into Apple in our early Apple II days and he sat down with Steve and I. He explained that you could build two computers with certain ships that will do certain jobs the same, but one of those computers, you can put a whole lot of work into it to making it so easy for a user that somebody who knows isn’t a computer expert can walk up and just intuitively see things on the screen, words, and icons that suggest things to them and they’ll know how to use it.</p>
  3486. <p>Steve Wozniak: And to me that was, you put the work into the technology to work more in the human way. On the Macintosh, we didn’t call it a screen, we called it a desktop. The Lisa computer really.</p>
  3487. <p>A desktop because a desktop is something that all humans relate to. Just like the Apple II having the shape and look of a typewriter was very easy, more accommodating than a bunch of switches and lights that no human could understand anyway.</p>
  3488. <p>Steve Wozniak: If the technology is more important, the human has to look at the technology and figure out, “Oh my gosh, how do I make this work? How do I adjust my life for this?” And everybody gets used to a pattern. Your habits drive your life.</p>
  3489. <p>But even trying to use a new program you’re not familiar with can be quite intimidating, quite difficult even for a computer expert. So that’s where the technology seems more important a lot of times.</p>
  3490. <p>You know what, you try to get some support, you call a company, and you got this problem on your phone or whatever, and it goes through a whole list of voicemail things that’s dealt maybe through the cell company that don’t apply to the problem you’re having at all ever. And you just sort of work your way through it, and you can’t just get to a human that if you just explained one thing, they would instantly say, “Oh, yes, yes. Here’s what you do.”</p>
  3491. <p>Steve Wozniak: Support has really gone down a lot in this gig economy. Not universally. Apple is the best with some real human attention.</p>
  3492. <p>But to me, it’s more important that we respect that human users are more important than the technology or even the makers of the technology.</p>
  3493. <p>I’ve always thought that my whole life and I fight for it. Once you’re big and powerful, you’re more powerful than they. It’s kind of like you can be wrong. Even if you’re wrong, you’re right. You make yourself right even though you are wrong because you make the rules.</p>
  3494. <p>Guy Kawasaki: What’s your proudest moment at Apple?<br/>
  3495. Steve Wozniak: Wow, this is so hard because you’re saying at Apple and almost defines it in a technology sense and-<br/>
  3496. Guy Kawasaki: Okay, in life then.</p>
  3497. <p>Steve Wozniak: Oh, in life, definitely. When I was 20 years old reading a book, and I read in a story in a book, this is before Apple, well before Apple, and I think it was about Sumner Redstone buying and selling companies for $10 million, $50 million and this and that. Whoa. These numbers were unbelievable to me. And then I thought right there in the hallway, this is in the days when I played lots of pranks and laugh with my friends, playing them, and I said, “If I died today, would I rather be that person or the person that had laughed and laughed through all human life?”</p>
  3498. <p>Steve Wozniak: And I said, “No, I’d rather be the person who laughs, and I wouldn’t trade who I’ve turned out for anything because of this thought.” I said, “Life is about happiness.”</p>
  3499. <p>And then I thought maybe in less than a day, I thought it out. It’s things you feel emotionally smiling and laughing is good. Frowning is bad. So I worked on making sure I’d have a lot of fun in my life, a lot of fun things and a lot of jokes and music and things like that. And to get rid of frowns was where I was even more successful.</p>
  3500. <p>Don’t ever argue with anybody. Don’t take a different opinion because you can express your opinion, you can express them.</p>
  3501. <p>Steve Wozniak: Nobody is going to change their mind, so don’t get too attached to it. You have to win. I became very noncompetitive around the time I became a pacifist during the Vietnam War and would never want to vote and all that stuff.</p>
  3502. <p>So it’s like you never want to be… You don’t want to frown. Okay. If something goes wrong… This comes from a teaching of my father when I was very young. Somebody dents your car, don’t go look into blame somebody and jumping out and screaming and getting upset. Just say, “Well, the car is dented. That happens. I’ve got to go get it fixed.”</p>
  3503. <p>Steve Wozniak: Only take the progressive steps, the constructive steps, not the destructive ones. And that was how I got rid of frowns was it’s largely not worrying. And the frowns came back to me in later life only because every time technology doesn’t work well, I kind of frown. I kind of want to cuss at it like navigation systems that mislead you.</p>
  3504. <p>Because it’s people like me that could have made this stuff work a lot better. But it’s so hard to go into any world with humans where things are all different and make technology work.</p>
  3505. <p>Steve Wozniak: That’s the mistake we make with artificial intelligence. We assume we can make it perfect. So I do. I get a little upset with those things.</p>
  3506. <p>Now, in a later time, Steve Jobs, I remember I had the plane crash, went back to college for a year to get my degree, my real degree, and Steve visited the apartment with a bunch of people for a party, and he said… I was putting on a big concert. He said, “That music concert is not your thing. You’re a computer designer.” And I thought fun and entertainment is all part of life.</p>
  3507. <p>Steve Wozniak: So I redid my formula a little bit instead of H equals S minus F, happiness equals smiles minus frowns. I came up with a new one. H equals F cubed and F cubed is food, fun, and friends. And food isn’t what you eat, it’s the necessities of life to be happy. Food and fun is all the entertainment to include things like my concerts and friends. People are so important.</p>
  3508. <p>Steve Wozniak: So I was getting inducted into my high school hall of fame once, and I gave that formula out, and the students all started laughing. And I had to go like all embarrassed into the microphone. I said, “Well, maybe there’s a fourth F.” But coming up with that formula has made me a person. I didn’t ever need Apple for happiness in life. I had my life solved. Even if I got fired, had no money, was on the street, I had my life solved by my formula, and that was the most important personal thing in my life.</p>
  3509. <p>Steve Wozniak: Now, as far as Apple and all that, the Apple II design, when I go back and look at it, I was so much a genius at certain things in that day and one after another, after another, after another came to be in that one product. But then there was the floppy disk. I had never… We were in a meeting. This is a very interesting story. We were in a staff meeting one year into Apple, about a year into Apple.</p>
  3510. <p>Steve Wozniak: Apple was going to be allowed into the consumer electronics show in Las Vegas, Nevada. That’s where all the new consumer electronics appliances, things like HiFis and TVs get introduced every year. It’s a huge show. They were going to allow the three personal computer companies in, Apple, Commodore, and RadioShack. Oh my gosh, and I sat there, whoa, I’m going to get to see Las Vegas. And then Mike Markkula said, “We’re only going to send three people for marketing.” Mike Markkula, who ran marketing, Steve Jobs, and I think our sales guy, Jean Carter. Those three would go to Las Vegas.</p>
  3511. <p>Steve Wozniak: And I’m too shy to raise my hand and say, “Hey, I’m a founder. I developed this computer. I should be…” I wanted to see the lights of Las Vegas, the things you’ve always heard about and seen in movies. So I raised my hand. Don’t ask me why I did this. I had never worked on any disk hardware or software in my life of any type. I raised my hand, and I said, “If we have a floppy disk…” I knew it would help to have a disk where you could type run a program rather than loading in off a cassette tape.” I raised my hand, and I said, “If we have a floppy disk, can we show it?” Mike Markkula said, “Yes.”</p>
  3512. <p>Steve Wozniak: Oh my gosh, my head is spinning. If I can figure out how to make a floppy disc in two weeks, I’ll go to Las Vegas in two weeks.</p>
  3513. <p>My gosh. I don’t look at what is the science of discs? I don’t do it that way. I went all the way down. What are the little structures of writing a signal onto a floppy this like writing it on a tape, signals out of wires, go up and down, and what’s the speed? Then what’s a circuit that can do that?</p>
  3514. <p>And I came up with… I mean even looking back, I do not know how I came up with such incredible design to plug into our computer with just eight chips doing the job. Other people had 50 chips, including a big expensive one, designed to do the whole job. So that one’s another one’s just dear to my heart as the Apple II is.</p>
  3515. <p>Guy Kawasaki: It was motivated because you wanted to see Las Vegas.<br/>
  3516. Steve Wozniak: Motivation was more important than knowing how to do it. And also after I had the design and we were going ahead with it, I… By then, we were making a few little things. I designed a printer interface, and a serial interface, and Wendell Sander had designed a modem interface card. These are cards that plug into our computer.</p>
  3517. <p>So I went over to another building. By now, we had our first building, and I came in at night. I talked to a couple of technicians, “So where’s the company that makes our PC boards? I want to get ahold of them to make a PC board for my floppy disk, but I want to make sure they lay it out with the chips in the exact best location.” And they said, “Well, that company’s kind of busy right now, but why don’t you do it yourself?”</p>
  3518. <p>Steve Wozniak: Oh my gosh. One of the techs… Dick and Cliff Houston were the two guys. I think Dick Houston set me up with a big piece of clear stuff on drafting table and some red tape, and I could tape up the things that basically made the entire PC board for my floppy disc. I put the chips in the most optimal position. I went in every day for two weeks every night.</p>
  3519. <p>Every night I worked until those two techs would leave around midnight. I’d still stay until 2:00 in the morning. I was always the last one to leave working on this design. And when I got it completed, here it is. You have to have on a PC board, you have to have little holes drilled to pass signals from the top to the bottom.</p>
  3520. <p>Steve Wozniak: And I only had eight of them because this design was so important to me to make it perfect. I only had eight of these little holes, which is a tiny number. And then I looked at it, looked at the design, and I said… I think Dick Houston actually challenged me. I told him I could have had three fewer holes if I had designed it with the shift register going the other way. He says, “Well, why wouldn’t you correct it? You should correct it.” He challenged me.</p>
  3521. <p>Steve Wozniak: Okay. I tore everything apart. All the little pieces of tape I’ve been putting on for a week or two, and then I started retaping. I redesigned it on papers. Now, my circuit design was different, so I could lay out a PC board with fewer holes.</p>
  3522. <p>Nobody would ever see this. And it was really funny because near the end of that I got it done or right near the end of it, I went into a staff meeting, and Steve Jobs accused me of being lackadaisical. I wasn’t coming in every day until 10 or something late. Why wasn’t I coming in early like I was slacking off? Nobody knew that I was going in every night until two in the morning.</p>
  3523. <p>Guy Kawasaki: Oh, my God.<br/>
  3524. Steve Wozniak: But these designs… I look back at others of my designs and other things, and I think… Because I was doing… While I was at Hewlett Packard, I was doing designs for people all over California. They’ve heard here’s an engineer who will do a design and always charge you 5 cents.</p>
  3525. <p>So a guy in Hollywood came up, and he wanted to do the very first time ever, hotels would have movies. There were no hotels with movies back then, and I got to design the digital part of it and then even fly down briefly to LA for all that. I don’t know. A lot of great projects I was working. I did SMPTE time codes for one inch video tape. It was brand new in 1973.</p>
  3526. <p>Steve Wozniak: Just a month or two ago, I got to give out the SMPTE fellowship awards. They invited me to do that. They had no idea that I had such major background that was an important part of my life.</p>
  3527. <p>But I did an incredible Woz design on their thing too, way back when. It’s a time code. They put every frame of video. Every frame of video would have a code saying what frame it was, and it had to take generations of accelerated tape from almost barely moving to real fast. And I did it.</p>
  3528. <p>Guy Kawasaki: Oh, God.<br/>
  3529. Steve Wozniak: Because I was doing all these projects. That was my life was fun to build all these little things. And like I said, I would always charge 5 cents. When I was in college, I loved typing. And I was very good at keypunches, all that, but I just loved typing. Got really good at it. I would type term papers for people from midnight until 6:30 in the morning. Not too often, not every week. Midnight until in the morning type it off from their hand notes, and that was back with typewriters where if you made one mistake, it was a horrible thing to correct it, and I would charge 5 cents.</p>
  3530. <p>Guy Kawasaki: So now you know that Woz is still an Apple employee. Maybe he’ll let you use his employee discount. I hope you enjoy the inside story of the formation of Apple.</p>
  3531. <p>Let’s just say that there are multiple versions, but this is the one to believe.</p>
  3532. <p>I’m Guy Kawasaki, and this is Remarkable People. Thanks to Janet Wozniak for making this interview happen and to the two wizards on the remarkable people podcast team, Jeff Sieh and Peg Fitzpatrick.</p>
  3533. <p>Guy Kawasaki: This is Remarkable People.</p>
  3534. </div><div class="fusion-button-wrapper"><a class="fusion-button button-flat fusion-button-default-size button-default button-6 fusion-button-default-span fusion-button-default-type" href="" rel="noopener noreferrer" target="_blank"><span class="fusion-button-text">Subscribe to Guy Kawasaki’s Remarkable People Podcast</span></a></div><div class="fusion-clearfix"/></div></div></div></div>
  3535. <p>The post <a href="" rel="nofollow">Steve Wozniak: Pirate, Co-founder of Apple, and Hardware Wizard</a> appeared first on <a href="" rel="nofollow">Guy Kawasaki</a>.</p>
  3536. <img alt="" height="1" src="" width="1"/></div>
  3537.    </content>
  3538.    <updated>2020-02-05T18:00:58Z</updated>
  3539.    <published>2020-02-05T18:00:58Z</published>
  3540.    <category scheme="" term="Blog"/>
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  3546.    <category scheme="" term="Steve Wozniak"/>
  3547.    <category scheme="" term="Woz"/>
  3548.    <author>
  3549.      <name>Guy Kawasaki</name>
  3550.      <uri></uri>
  3551.    </author>
  3552.    <source>
  3553.      <id></id>
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  3557.      <link href="" rel="hub" type="text/html"/>
  3558.      <subtitle xml:lang="en">The Art of Changing Hearts, Minds, and Actions</subtitle>
  3559.      <title xml:lang="en">Guy Kawasaki</title>
  3560.      <updated>2020-02-21T00:32:11Z</updated>
  3561.    </source>
  3562.  </entry>
  3564.  <entry xml:lang="en-US">
  3565.    <id></id>
  3566.    <link href="" rel="alternate" type="text/html"/>
  3567.    <title xml:lang="en-US">Reframing and Retooling for Observability</title>
  3568.    <summary xml:lang="en-US">In 2020 Observability is making the transition from being a niche concern to becoming a new frontier for user experience, systems and service management in web companies and enterprises alike. Technology providers in the Application Performance Monitoring (APM), Log Management, and Distributed Tracing categories are all positioning themselves as Observability tools providers this year, which</summary>
  3569.    <content type="xhtml" xml:lang="en-US"><div xmlns=""><p><a href=""><img alt="" class="aligncenter wp-image-5073" height="580" src="" width="650"/></a></p>
  3570. <p><a href="">In 2020</a> Observability is making the transition from being a niche concern to becoming a new frontier for user experience, systems and service management in web companies and enterprises alike. Technology providers in the Application Performance Monitoring (APM), Log Management, and Distributed Tracing categories are all positioning themselves as Observability tools providers this year, which is partly about marketing, but also product management.</p>
  3571. <p>There is still quite a bit of disagreement about what Observability even is, but a key driver behind the trend is that, simply, there is a lot more uncertainty in systems and applications than there used to be. Distributed systems are by definition non-deterministic. What is more, change, rather than stability, is now the goal. Where a team used to ship a new version perhaps once a year, and had plenty of time to model its failure modes, the expectation is now for weekly or even daily feature deployments. Modern applications by design have multiple, changing, failure modes- “unknown unknowns” if you like – which means new approaches to management. We need to have a feel for overall system health by observing the system, and then sophisticated tools to analyse and query it when problems arise, without bringing the system down in order to do so. Of course if the system is down, we want tools to quickly help identify why, where the problem is, and get it up and running stat.</p>
  3572. <p>Observability as a trend ties into the world of DevOps – the app or service isn’t something built by one team and managed by another. Rather one team builds and maintains the app and the folks on that team want excellent tooling to understand both overall system health and the health of components making up that system for trouble-shooting.</p>
  3573. <p>Observability allows us to experiment, to test in production, to take a <a href="">Progressive Delivery</a> approach where we watch a system in production before deploying it more widely.</p>
  3574. <p>I think <a href="">this post</a> by <a href="">Cindy Sridharan</a> is a great place to start, building a picture to help the reader understand the difference between Observability and Monitoring.</p>
  3575. <p style="padding-left: 40px;">“Monitoring” is best suited to report the overall health of systems. Aiming to “monitor everything” can prove to be an anti-pattern. Monitoring, as such, is best limited to key business and systems metrics derived from time-series based instrumentation, known failure modes as well as blackbox tests.</p>
  3576. <p style="padding-left: 40px;">“Observability”, on the other hand, aims to provide highly granular insights into the behavior of systems along with rich context, perfect for debugging purposes. Since it’s still not possible to predict every single failure mode a system could potentially run into or predict every possible way in which a system could misbehave, it becomes important that we build systems that can be debugged armed with evidence and not conjecture.</p>
  3577. <p><a href="">Honeycomb</a>, whose founder and CTO <a href="">Charity Majors</a> has arguably done more than anyone else in tech to popularize the idea of Observability as a different approach, argues that we need to move beyond traditional metrics in order to provide value in modern software delivery and ops. Observability is the ability to ask arbitrary questions of your infrastructure, understanding the <em>internal state</em> of the system by interrogating its <em>outputs</em>. For Majors, Observability is about real time query and troubleshooting, with extreme cardinality, and a sampling based approach, underpinning the move to testing in production.</p>
  3578. <p style="padding-left: 40px;">“For those who don’t spend their days immersed in this shit, cardinality is the # of unique values in a dimension. So for example if you have 10 million users, your highest possible cardinality is something like unique UUIDs. Last names will be lower-cardinality than unique identifiers. Gender will be a low-cardinality dimension, while species will have the lowest-cardinality of all: {species = human}.</p>
  3579. <p style="padding-left: 40px;">When you think about useful fields you might want to break down or group by…surprise, surprise: all of the most useful fields are usually high-cardinality fields, because they do the best job of uniquely identifying your requests. Consider: uuid, app name, group name, shopping cart id, unique request id, build id. All incredibly, unbelievably useful. All very high-cardinality.”</p>
  3580. <p style="padding-left: 40px;">And yet you can’t group by them in typical time series databases or metrics stores”.</p>
  3581. <p>Needless to say Honeycomb’s product focus maps squarely to Major’s definitions and rhetorical work. Honeycomb is a really powerful query tool, with a sampling-based approach approach for rich, deep insights into system performance.</p>
  3582. <p>But with new entrants come responses from incumbents. The tech industry is nothing if not reactive. In September last year New Relic put down a marker that it plans to compete in the market for Observability tools, announcing the New Relic One platform, with an aggressive throw down against newer market entrants. It also ran with a definition of Observability, variants of which had been bubbling around since Twitter <a href="">wrote a post about its “Observability platform</a>” in 2013.</p>
  3583. <p style="padding-left: 40px;">“Engineers at Twitter need to determine the performance characteristics of their services, the impact on upstream and downstream services, and get notified when services are not operating as expected. It is the Observability team’s mission to analyze such problems with our unified platform for collecting, storing, and presenting metrics”.</p>
  3584. <p>In the view of the world Observability is primarily a consolidation question – if you can aggregate logs, performance metrics, and distributed traces (sometimes called the “pillars”of Observability) with a query engine you’re in a far better position for management and debugging of microservices based apps. This definition is in many respects a more reductive view of Observability than those put forward by Majors or Sridharan, but it’s also easier to understand.</p>
  3585. <p>A refresh was important for New Relic – systems and service monitoring and management is a market that doesn’t stand still. Every few years a new stack emerges, and a new set of application performance management (APM) vendors with deep expertise in that stack emerges to serve the new market. Implement, reimplement, rinse, repeat. New Relic CEO Lew Cirne knows this pattern as well as anyone, having sold his company Wiley Technologies to Computer Associates in 2006.</p>
  3586. <p>In November 2019 New Relic acquired the assets and team members of a startup called IOpipe, to give it a stronger serverless story. Any truly end to end Observability tool will need to include serverless functions. New Relic is moving into adjacent markets, integrating telemetry across different functions including metrics, events, logs, and traces. It is positioning itself as a platform rather than just an ops tool in order to appeal to developers. To that end, it’s rebuilding its UI technology from the ground up, and more importantly in terms of developer interest, standardizing on GraphQL for API access.</p>
  3587. <p>Hitherto different toolsets are converging. As RedMonk likes to say, categories are “smooshing”. Some vendors are consolidating the market through acquisition – see Splunk’s acquisition of SignalFX in 2019, to bring together log management and APM metrics. Another example is SolarWinds, an APM vendor acquiring Loggly in 2018. Dynatrace, another New Relic peer, argues that it has always been an Observability platform, because of the comprehensive nature of the data it collects and makes available for analysis.</p>
  3588. <p>In terms of this type of market convergence, it’s a bit like Netflix moving into original content creation: “<a href="">The Goal Is to Become HBO Faster Than HBO Can Become Us</a>.”</p>
  3589. <p>New Relic is taking a more organic approach to broadening the systems it can “observe”, building an integrated toolset that maps to changing industry circumstances. Observability is both a new framing product management concept (so a chance to make a higher value proposition to customers) but also an opportunity to create a defensive moat against new entrants.</p>
  3590. <p>Datadog is well positioned for “cloud native” workloads and had its IPO last year, coincidentally on the same day that New Relic announced its Observability strategy. Weaveworks is building observability tooling to <a href="">close the loop with its GitOps declarative automation story</a>, as a means to manage and automate the rollout of services and applications to Kubernetes infrastructures. LogDNA, founded in 2015, also makes a virtue of being “built on Kubernetes”. K8s adoption is often seen as a proxy for a move to microservices.</p>
  3591. <p>Sumo Logic, a born in the cloud log management provider, is increasingly articulating a more metrics-like story. Humio is on a similar arc – framing logs as the natural basis for real time service and application troubleshooting, claiming its all you can eat pricing makes it possible to store and query all system events.</p>
  3592. <p>Of course we’re not going to see the cloud hyperscale providers standing still either – they see Observability as rightfully their province. Observability is after all a cloud platform discipline, which is now informing enterprise tech decision-making. It promises to lessen distinctions between a number of product categories which are currently worth billions in their own rights. It also involves a new way of working. Developers need to take more responsibility for building observable applications, just as they’ve taken on more responsibility for testing and continuous integration. It will be interesting to see how Observability providers can educate the market to smarter, more effective ways of working.</p>
  3593. <p>Some of Observability’s possibilities are a response to changes in software delivery and architecture (ie microservices), while others are a function of new opportunities opened up by lower costs of network, compute and storage driven by hyperscale clouds. Where log storage used to be expensive, for example, it’s now becoming more cost effective to collect a much higher volume of events, with the resources needed to store and process all this telemetry. Some new technical underpinnings are also crucial. Distributed tracing is maturing, and coalescing around standards, notably OpenTelemetry, a merger of the OpenCensus and OpenTracing projects.</p>
  3594. <p>One massive opportunity we’re beginning to see realised is the correlation of system events with GitHub events, so that we can swiftly move from trouble-shooting to source code and back again. The loop is closed between development teams and the code they test and deploy, with an audit trail of changes (GitOps again). Probably most importantly then, Observability is about a mindset shift that affects how development teams think about the apps and services they build. <a href="">Dmitry Melanchenko</a> of Salesforce captures this well in <a href="">this post</a>.</p>
  3595. <p style="padding-left: 40px;">“For me, the best definition of observability is that it’s the love and care that creators of a product give to those who operate it in production, even if they operate it by themselves”.</p>
  3596. <p>We need to build systems with a view to better Observability. That’s going to have a significant influence on process and infrastructure decisions in 2020.</p>
  3597. <p> </p>
  3598. <p>disclosure: New Relic, Sumo Logic and Salesforce are all RedMonk clients.</p>
  3599. </div>
  3600.    </content>
  3601.    <updated>2020-02-05T12:45:40Z</updated>
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  3605.    <author>
  3606.      <name>James Governor</name>
  3607.    </author>
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  3616.      <subtitle xml:lang="en-US">An industry analyst blog looking at software ecosystems and convergence</subtitle>
  3617.      <title xml:lang="en-US">James Governor's Monkchips</title>
  3618.      <updated>2020-02-24T18:09:15Z</updated>
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  3627.    <title xml:lang="en-US">Risk Communications and 2019 novel coronavirus</title>
  3628.    <summary xml:lang="en-US">I’m delighted to discover that Peter Sandman posted an email he shared with a journalist about some of his thoughts risk communication in the wake of the 2019 novel coronis virus outbreak. Six plus years ago I posted about Peter Sandman’s work on Risk Communication. Read that for more background.</summary>
  3629.    <content type="xhtml" xml:lang="en-US"><div xmlns=""><p>I’m delighted to discover that <a href="">Peter Sandman posted an email</a> he shared with a  journalist about some of his thoughts risk communication in the wake of the 2019 novel coronis virus outbreak.</p>
  3633. <p>Six plus years ago I <a href="">posted about Peter Sandman’s work on Risk Communication.</a>  Read that for more background.</p></div>
  3634.    </content>
  3635.    <updated>2020-02-04T16:54:27Z</updated>
  3636.    <published>2020-02-04T16:54:27Z</published>
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  3638.    <author>
  3639.      <name>bhyde</name>
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  3645.      <link href="" rel="self" type="application/atom+xml"/>
  3646.      <subtitle xml:lang="en-US">Ben Hyde</subtitle>
  3647.      <title xml:lang="en-US">Ascription is an Anathema to any Enthusiasm</title>
  3648.      <updated>2020-02-04T16:54:27Z</updated>
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  3655.    <title>Data Catalog Vocabulary (DCAT) Version 2 Published Today</title>
  3656.    <summary>Today the W3C Dataset Exchange Working Group (DXWG) published version 2 of the Data Catalog (DCAT) vocabulary as a W3C “Recommendation”.  DCAT gives people and machines a specific and domain-independent approach to create catalogs that express the core elements of a dataset description in a standardized way that is suitable for publication on the Web, […]</summary>
  3657.    <content type="xhtml"><div xmlns=""><p>Today the W3C Dataset Exchange Working Group (<a href="">DXWG)</a> published version 2 of the <a href="">Data Catalog (DCAT) vocabulary </a>as a W3C “Recommendation”.  DCAT gives people and machines a specific and domain-independent approach to create catalogs that express the core elements of a dataset description in a standardized way that is suitable for publication on the Web, and enables cross-domain interoperability by being used either on its own or alongside, as a complement to other data catalog standards. Thanks to this, DCAT facilitates effective search and retrieval, and permits easy scaling up of the query process either through “frictionless” aggregation of dataset descriptions and catalog records from many different sources and domains, or by applying the same query across multiple catalogs and aggregating the results. These patterns can also be varied slightly so as to provide communities with tailored approaches to the dataset catalog that respect the specific nuances of a particular type of data.</p>
  3658. <p>Version 2 builds on the <a href="">initial work published in 2014</a> by providing, among other things, classes of descriptors that can be used for data services, and a wider set of relationships characterizing datasets and their temporal and spatial aspects. It also removes the constraints that were inherent in the prescribed use of some vocabulary terms for relationships (properties) that were present in its original version, so making their usage pattern more flexible.</p>
  3659. <p>Although the expectation is that dataset publishers will want to revise their existing catalogs, in line with their general activities of curation and update to make use of the additional features available in version 2, compatibility between the new version and the earlier version of the DCAT vocabulary has been preserved.</p>
  3660. <p>The WG has also made an effort in (i) providing multilingual descriptions of the different terms and properties, facilitating their application across the world; and (ii) explaining the alignment to the vocabulary, which is the metadata set most widely used by search engines to optimize the indexing of Web content, and now increasingly being adopted also in data catalogs.</p>
  3661. <p>Within just a few years from its first release in 2014, DCAT has become recognised as a key interoperability standard for data catalogs in many countries and organizations. Search engine providers are using it to identify data assets to catalog, and publishers are using it to make their materials more findable. Going forward, the WG expects the incorporation of classes to describe data services into the model will make DCAT an increasingly useful tool in data science and provide a well-trodden path for those implementing the <a href="">FAIR Principles</a> to follow.</p>
  3662. <p>The DXWG appreciates hearing about any implementations of catalogs using DCAT v2. We would also like to know about any errors that you find or problems that you experience so that these can be fed into the ongoing management of version 2, and potentially influence changes to be made in version 3, whose work has just started. You can provide feedback on errors or difficulties you experience with DCAT v2 to the WG either by email to <a href="mailto:[email protected]">[email protected]</a> or through the dedicated <a href="">errata page</a>. For new use cases and other issues, please contact us via email or by submitting an issue in the dedicated <a href="">GitHub repository</a>.  We hope that you find this standard a useful addition to your data publications.</p></div>
  3663.    </content>
  3664.    <updated>2020-02-04T13:28:34Z</updated>
  3665.    <category term="Data"/>
  3666.    <category term="eGov"/>
  3667.    <category term="Semantic Web"/>
  3668.    <category term="Web of Data"/>
  3669.    <category term="Working Group"/>
  3670.    <author>
  3671.      <name>Peter Winstanley</name>
  3672.    </author>
  3673.    <source>
  3674.      <id></id>
  3675.      <link href="" rel="self" type="application/rss+xml"/>
  3676.      <link href="" rel="alternate" type="text/html"/>
  3677.      <subtitle>Leading the Web to its Full Potential</subtitle>
  3678.      <title>W3C Blog</title>
  3679.      <updated>2020-02-04T13:29:41Z</updated>
  3680.    </source>
  3681.  </entry>
  3683.  <entry>
  3684.    <id>,2020-02-01:22:11:09-nycb</id>
  3685.    <link href="" rel="alternate" type="text/html"/>
  3686.    <title>January Film Roundup</title>
  3687.    <content type="xhtml"><div xmlns="">Welcome to Space January! Thanks to the museum's new <i>2001</i> exhibit and its filmic tie-ins, I got to see lots of space flicks in January. Next up: Space February!
  3689. <ul>
  3691. <li><i>Apollo 11</i> (2019): I was blown away by this film, made almost entirely from unused contemporary footage synced with mission audio. There's a little illustrative CGI and on-screen graphics, but it's mostly just amazing shots of people and equipment. Two bits stick in my mind in particular. First, a long, long pan through rows of computers and rows of desks that ends up in what you see in other movies as Launch Control. It was like seeing the whole iceberg. Second, this movie dramatizes the 1202 incident, creating a near-<i>Uncut Gems</i> level of tension, without having to stop and explain what was going on. You just hear the real-life participants dealing with the problem and you get the gist. I may be watching this again at the museum soon; that's how good it is.
  3693. </li><li><i>High Life</i> (2018): I was 100% engaged in this <i>Silent Running</i> style story with this guy and his daughter, and then that story turned out to just be a framing device for a J. G. Ballard type of thing in flashback. Claire Denis told the story she wanted to tell, but I was not into it until the flashback ended, at which point my interest abruptly resumed. So not a recommendation overall.
  3695. <p>Caution to fans: I don't think I've ever seen <i>this many</i> dead dogs in a movie.
  3697. </p></li><li>We saw a bunch of more or less spacy <i>2001</i>-inspiring shorts.  Some of this called back to <a href="">2013's computer film festival</a> with droning and strobe lights, but a couple stood out: John Whitney's <a href=""><i>Catalog</i></a>, which true to its name felt like a sizzle reel; and Colin Low's special-effects extravaganza <a href=""><i>Universe</i></a>, narrated by Douglas Rain and starring a daredevil astronomer. Watch 'em online!
  3699. </li><li><i>The Earrings of Madame De...</i> (1953): This is... a film noir. I see why it's not marketed as such: it's super femme and it takes place in the 19th century. But it's the story of someone who makes one bad decision and has to keep hustling and doubling down and improvising until the aftermath ruins her life. Just awesome. Would love to see more stuff like this.
  3701. </li><li><i>Dolemite is my Name</i> (2019): Doing a biopic as a comedy is a great idea; there should be more. Pure moviemaking fun. Loved the cameos. One obvious comparison is <i>Ed Wood</i>, but this movie seems to care a lot more about accuracy. The main liberty I found in IMDB trivia was dramatizing the filming of some scenes from the <i>Dolemite</i> sequel as though they were from <i>Dolemite</i>. Presumably just for fun.
  3703. </li><li><i>Ikarie XB-1</i> (1963): For the 1960s this is some impressive psychological sci-fi. Like watching two really good TOS episodes back-to-back. A little heavy-handed, but I repeat myself. I went looking for director/screenwriter Jindrich Polák's other stuff and randomly found a time-travel thriller comedy (<i>Tomorrow I'll Wake Up and Scald Myself with Tea</i> (1977)) and an <i>ET</i>-like family movie (<i>The Octopuses from the Second Floor</i> (1987)). A solid body of work!
  3705. <p>But here's the secret to <i>Ikari XB-1</i>'s success: it was based on a Lem novel! One of the early ones, the ones that never got translated into English but provided seemlingly endless grist for Eastern Bloc filmmakers (see <i>First Spaceship on Venus</i>, which is basically a bad version of this movie but it's easier to tell the characters apart). It's a little moviegoing treat, like finding a Billy Wilder writing credit.
  3707. </p><p>And the surprises keep coming: when researching this I learned that MIT Press is reissuing six of Lem's books later this month! Including a new translation of <i>The Invincible</i>, which I've never read. Very exciting. Don't sleep on <i>Memoirs of a Space Traveler</i> and <i>His Master's Voice</i>!
  3709. </p></li></ul>
  3711. <p>Got a hot <b>Television Spotlight</b> tip for ya today: "The Repair Shop", a wholesome BBC reality show where conservationists who normally (I'm assuming) make top £££ restoring Rembrandts and Louis XIV cabinets, turn their skills to family heirlooms brought in by random people. You may have noticed that I only like reality shows where people are nice to each other, and this one's 100% collaborative, very relaxing to watch.</p></div>
  3712.    </content>
  3713.    <updated>2020-02-03T12:50:45Z</updated>
  3714.    <published>2020-02-02T02:11:09Z</published>
  3715.    <source>
  3716.      <id>,1997-12-20:12:00:00-NewsBruiser-nycb</id>
  3717.      <author>
  3718.        <name>Leonard Richardson</name>
  3719.        <email>[email protected]</email>
  3720.      </author>
  3721.      <link href="" rel="alternate" type="text/html"/>
  3722.      <link href="" rel="self" type="application/atom+xml"/>
  3723.      <rights type="xhtml"><div xmlns="">Licensed under a <a href="">Creative Commons License</a></div>
  3724.      </rights>
  3725.      <subtitle>Your chicken, your egg, your problem</subtitle>
  3726.      <title>News You Can Bruise</title>
  3727.      <updated>2020-02-03T12:50:45Z</updated>
  3728.    </source>
  3729.  </entry>
  3731.  <entry>
  3732.    <id>,</id>
  3733.    <link href="" rel="replies" title="Post Comments" type="application/atom+xml"/>
  3734.    <link href=";postID=1781148492006873534" rel="replies" title="13 Comments" type="text/html"/>
  3735.    <link href="" rel="edit" type="application/atom+xml"/>
  3736.    <link href="" rel="self" type="application/atom+xml"/>
  3737.    <link href="" rel="alternate" title="The Final, Complete, Authoritative List of Self-Describing Linguistic Expressions" type="text/html"/>
  3738.    <title>The Final, Complete, Authoritative List of Self-Describing Linguistic Expressions</title>
  3739.    <content type="xhtml"><div xmlns="">Note:  I did not make up any of these wonderful terms.  <br/>
  3740. <br/>
  3741. ablout, adjectival, adjective postpositive, adverbially, affrichation, agglutinatinglanguagetype, analogician, anapityxis, ancicipation, anology, apfrication, aphas..., apocop, aprothesis, archaisme, assimination, asssibilation, Attattic reduplication, atticipatory assimilation, attriction, awwoxiwant, breakieng, comparativer, compēsatory lengthening (Greek first compeenatory lengthening, Greek second compeesatory lengthening), compound-formation, condamination, conjunction and/or disjunction, cpoatricpulated stocp, daigraeph, debuccalihation, derivationalizationalize, devoicink, dialuctal form, diephthoungiezaitioun, digræph, diminutivito, dithsimilation, diäeresis, driss raising, duplication, díäçrîtič, e grede, ebleut, epenethesis, <i>esdrújula</i>, /fəˈnimɪk/, final devoicink, finix, fixsuf, foicelhess, folk at-a-mall-oh-gee/folk ate-a-mology/folk-entomology, foneme, frapped r, frixathiv, frönting, [fəˈnɛtʰɪk], gemminnattion, genitive’s, gerund, gerundive, Ghrassman's Lhaw, gloʔʔalization, græ:t vu:l shift, haplogy, haspʰiration, he-uh-sitation, infuckingfixation, irregular plurali, Krimm's Law, lenizhion, lexeme, lharyngeal, lip-wownding, lithping, loan mot, loan translation, lubualuvatium, metasethis/methatesis, metophony, mon, monophthong, morph-eme-s, mprenasalization, nansal infinx, nasal spirat law, nominalization, noun, noun phrase, NP[ADJ[labeled]ADJ N[bracketing]N]NP, nãsąlĩzątĩǫn, o grod, paragogee, perreveratory addimilation, pheresis, pentasyllabic, portition, positionpost, ppoggessive addimilation, pre-fixed, pro clitic, <i>proparoxítona</i>, phetic, polysyllabic, pyalatyalizyation, rean alysis, reduced grud, redup-reduplication, relick form, rerressive assimilation, rhotarism, rules of redundancy rules, schwə, sfirathization, sibboleth, spelling pronounciation, ssssound ssssymbolism, stigmartize' fohm, suffix-ed, superlativissimus, svarabhakati, sync'pe, teefoicink, t-fuckin'-mesis, the first Kermanih sount shifth, the sekonz Kermanich sountz shiftz, thetamesis, to back formate, triephthouong, ttl vwl rdctn, ümlaut, verbed, vocawization, voizing, vowol harmono, weagening, word, zr grd, ηugment.<br/>
  3742. <br/>
  3743. My personal favorite is "vowol harmono".</div>
  3744.    </content>
  3745.    <updated>2020-02-03T04:38:40Z</updated>
  3746.    <published>2011-05-17T21:15:00Z</published>
  3747.    <author>
  3748.      <name>John Cowan</name>
  3749.      <email>[email protected]</email>
  3750.      <uri></uri>
  3751.    </author>
  3752.    <source>
  3753.      <id>,1999:blog-11807812</id>
  3754.      <category term="polemics"/>
  3755.      <category term="english"/>
  3756.      <category term="verse"/>
  3757.      <category term="xml"/>
  3758.      <category term="ck"/>
  3759.      <category term="unicode"/>
  3760.      <category term="verse dorian"/>
  3761.      <category term="extreme2007"/>
  3762.      <author>
  3763.        <name>John Cowan</name>
  3764.        <email>[email protected]</email>
  3765.        <uri></uri>
  3766.      </author>
  3767.      <link href="" rel="" type="application/atom+xml"/>
  3768.      <link href="" rel="self" type="application/atom+xml"/>
  3769.      <link href="" rel="alternate" type="text/html"/>
  3770.      <link href="" rel="hub" type="text/html"/>
  3771.      <link href=";max-results=25" rel="next" type="application/atom+xml"/>
  3772.      <subtitle type="xhtml"><div xmlns="">by John Cowan &lt;<a href="mailto:[email protected]">[email protected]</a>&gt;</div>
  3773.      </subtitle>
  3774.      <title>Recycled Knowledge</title>
  3775.      <updated>2020-02-05T10:00:51Z</updated>
  3776.    </source>
  3777.  </entry>
  3779.  <entry>
  3780.    <id>,</id>
  3781.    <link href="" rel="replies" title="Post Comments" type="application/atom+xml"/>
  3782.    <link href=";postID=4446532348221756461" rel="replies" title="3 Comments" type="text/html"/>
  3783.    <link href="" rel="edit" type="application/atom+xml"/>
  3784.    <link href="" rel="self" type="application/atom+xml"/>
  3785.    <link href="" rel="alternate" title="HOWTO: Environment Sensors in the Home" type="text/html"/>
  3786.    <title>HOWTO: Environment Sensors in the Home</title>
  3787.    <content type="xhtml"><div xmlns=""><span style="font-size: x-small;"><i>[ it has been a while since I had something to write about; this is something I feel can help others ]</i></span><br/><br/>We have a large aquarium at home, and last year a leak occurred in one of the pumps in the equipment space below. Water overflow the catch-bucket and flowed into our walls. We ended up with some water damage. Never fun.<br/><br/>I recall a friend of mine had a pipe leak in his condo, while he was out of town. The management company called him about the water flowing out from under his door. He signed into his in-condo camera system and saw a "shimmer" on the floor -- completely covered with water. Checking his NetAtmo device, he saw (belatedly) the jump in humidity within his condo. That humidity jump gave me an idea that I should monitor the humidity in the aquarium equipment space, and alert us when it got "too high".<br/><br/>While I could put together something with the DHT22 sensors that I have laying around, I wanted something more turnkey. This post will describe the overall system that I assembled, using mostly off-the-shelf, and one small service that I wrote. These were installed onto an Ubuntu 16.04 server in my house, and should work on any Unix-ish server (I don't know the portability of the components to Windows).<br/><br/>In short, the major components:<br/><br/><ul><li><a href="">TeHyBug</a> sensor</li><li>MQTT broker (<a href="">mosquitto</a>)</li><li>Time-series database (<a href="">InfluxDB</a>)</li><li>My <a href="">"bridge" code</a> to move data from the broker into InfluxDB</li><li><a href="">Grafana</a> to visualize and alert, based on the data in InfluxDB</li></ul><br/><h3>TeHyBug Sensor</h3>I bought the <a href="">TeHyBug Mini</a>, but Oleg makes a <a href="">variety of sensors</a> based on what environmental measurements you want to make, and whether your application will be indoor or outdoor. These are small devices powered by battery, or by a standard USB charger. There are a variety of options that you can select, and shipped from Germany to Texas in a single week. A friend has emailed Oleg, and reports that he is quite responsive and helpful.<br/><br/>In "configuration mode", the TeHyBug presents a nice web interface with all the configuration options. It supports several mechanisms to report environment data, and I configured it to send its data via MQTT to my server. I was able to specify the format of the payload, enabling me to keep it tight, and easy to parse. I only have a single sensor, but I can imagine needing to get a bit more general if you load up on a large variety of sensors and applications.<br/><br/><h3>Mosquitto MQTT Broker</h3>This is a simple pub/sub system. Data arrives from the TeHyBug to a particular "topic", and delivered to all connected clients that are subscribed. There isn't much to do here, except install the software.<br/><br/><h3>InfluxDB</h3>This is a high-performance, hugely-scalable time-series database. The website says it can intake millions of samples per second. Yikes. Total overkill for my needs, but it has a simple Python API (see below), and the Grafana frontend knows how to connect to it. Turnkey.<br/><br/>I ended up having to create a username/password because Grafana requires such. Before I started the Grafana setup, I was able to place the MQTT data right into InfluxDB without needing to specify a user. So, just go ahead and create one (I used the Python API to do it; there is a command-line tool for doing stuff like this, but I never installed it).<br/><br/><h3>Bridge Service</h3>This is where I needed to dig in further. Data arrives at the mosquitto MQTT broker, and goes nowhere. There must be a client subscribed to the topic, for the data to move any further. It looks like "Telegraf" may be a package to move samples from MQTT into InfluxDB, but that seemed very complicated.<br/><br/>There were a couple Python examples that I found, to move samples, but I didn't like them. I wanted a configuration file, I wanted it to run as a service, and I needed to handle my specific data and InfluxDB measurement samples/format.<br/><br/>The resulting code for the bridge is located in my <a href="">OSS repository</a>. It includes a systemd service file, and an example config file. It simply hangs around, waiting for samples to arrive, and shoves them into InfluxDB. Easy peasy.<br/><br/><h3>Grafana</h3>This part was quite a bit more complicated. There is a Grafana package within the Ubuntu 16.04 package repository. That was my mistake. <i>Way</i> too old. I switched to use the package repository, and installed the stable version from that. Attaching it to InfluxDB was easy, once I did that.<br/><br/>Then I wrestled with configuring a dashboard, but that's just user education. After reading some documentation, and some Q&amp;A on the web, I was able to get the graph I wanted:<br/><div class="separator" style="clear: both; text-align: center;"><a href="" style="margin-left: 1em; margin-right: 1em;"><img border="0" height="151" src="" width="320"/></a></div><br/>My next step is to hook up an alert on the Humidity, and it looks like Grafana has plenty of options.<br/><br/>---<br/><br/>I hope this helps. The TeHyBug is an affordable, turnkey solution. But you can imagine data from many IoT devices, such as an Arduino, an RPi, a Particle device, and others. Each of these delivering data to the MQTT broker. The rest of the solution would be the same from there, with minor tweaks in the Bridge to deal with parsing the MQTT payloads.<br/><br/></div>
  3788.    </content>
  3789.    <updated>2020-02-01T08:27:21Z</updated>
  3790.    <published>2020-02-01T08:26:00Z</published>
  3791.    <author>
  3792.      <name>Greg</name>
  3793.      <email>[email protected]</email>
  3794.      <uri></uri>
  3795.    </author>
  3796.    <source>
  3797.      <id>,1999:blog-12913358</id>
  3798.      <category term="alwan"/>
  3799.      <category term="austin"/>
  3800.      <category term="builder"/>
  3801.      <category term="michael alwan"/>
  3802.      <category term="redbud"/>
  3803.      <category term="redbud custom homes"/>
  3804.      <author>
  3805.        <name>Greg</name>
  3806.        <email>[email protected]</email>
  3807.        <uri></uri>
  3808.      </author>
  3809.      <link href="" rel="" type="application/atom+xml"/>
  3810.      <link href="" rel="self" type="application/atom+xml"/>
  3811.      <link href="" rel="alternate" type="text/html"/>
  3812.      <link href="" rel="hub" type="text/html"/>
  3813.      <link href=";max-results=25" rel="next" type="application/atom+xml"/>
  3814.      <subtitle>Just making noise.</subtitle>
  3815.      <title>PRNG: Pseudo Random Noise Generator</title>
  3816.      <updated>2020-02-21T06:12:54Z</updated>
  3817.    </source>
  3818.  </entry>
  3820.  <entry xml:lang="en-US">
  3821.    <id></id>
  3822.    <link href="" rel="alternate" type="text/html"/>
  3823.    <title xml:lang="en-US">The Real Serverless Revolution</title>
  3824.    <summary xml:lang="en-US">When AWS introduced its Simple Storage Service and Elastic Compute Cloud in March and August of 2006, respectively, it was not immediately obvious that cloud services would come to dominate the industry. Indeed, even years after their introduction many long time enterprise technology vendors still regarded them and the other AWS services that followed as</summary>
  3825.    <content type="xhtml" xml:lang="en-US"><div xmlns=""><p><a href=""><img alt="" class="aligncenter size-large wp-image-5818" height="236" src="" width="1024"/></a></p>
  3826. <p>When AWS introduced its Simple Storage Service and Elastic Compute Cloud in March and August of 2006, respectively, it was not immediately obvious that cloud services would come to dominate the industry. Indeed, even years after their introduction many long time enterprise technology vendors still regarded them and the other AWS services that followed as little more than toys, unsuitable for and certainly uninteresting to the enterprise.</p>
  3827. <p>What was obvious, however, was that whatever one thought of the cloud services themselves, the economic model that accompanied them represented a sea change. Up until that point, the dominant model for enterprises was purchased physical hardware. And while many providers from 1&amp;1 to Rackspace offered hosted machines, these were typically rented by the month and often included setup or instantiation charges to discourage trivial experimentation.</p>
  3828. <p>With the introduction of EC2 and S3, it became possible to spin up a machine in minutes, run it for an hour, and then kill it all via the basic combination of a browser and a credit card – and only pay for the hour. As Flip Kromer <a href="">put it</a> back in 2009, “EC2 means anyone with a $10 bill can rent a 10-machine cluster with 1TB of distributed storage for 8 hours.”</p>
  3829. <p>For those who have grown up in an era characterized by the ready and expanding availability of cloud resources, it’s difficult to convey precisely how game changing this model was. The current market valuations of Amazon, Microsoft and others imply it, but the cloud’s pay-as-you-go economic model allowed developers that already had a large library of open source software available at no cost access to hardware they could afford themselves.</p>
  3830. <p>In a relatively short span of time, then, the technology landscape <a href="">shifted</a> from a CAPEX oriented model to one much more OPEX-centric. The market has never been the same since.</p>
  3831. <p>If we allow, then, that one of the more lasting impacts of the advent of cloud services is the impact to pricing models, that raises an interesting question: will the same be true of serverless?</p>
  3832. <p>Serverless is a term with a history that is longer than is commonly understood; it was used for years as a generic descriptor. For example, it was cited in conjunction with network filesystems in this UC Berkeley <a href="">paper</a> from 1995, <a href="">virtual reality</a> in 2004, <a href="">databases</a> (specifically SQLite) in 2005, <a href="">RFID authentication</a> in 2008 – even <a href="">printing</a> in 2012.</p>
  3833. <p>Whatever it had been before, however, the term serverless was effectively coopted by AWS in 2014 with the introduction of Lambda. While that service took somewhat longer to take off than originally predicted, its function-oriented model became synonymous with serverless overnight – conversations about serverless were de facto conversations about functions.</p>
  3834. <p>Interestingly, however, this strictly function-oriented definition for serverless has begun to <a href="">blur</a> in recent years with the consent of all parties involved. As AWS competitors, it was always in Google and Microsoft’s best interests to avoid a definition of serverless that was closely tied to Lambda. Given their respective services’ adoption deficits relative to AWS’ market leading product, allowing serverless to be a synonym for functions meant effectively ceding the term – which was exploding in popularity – to the market incumbent. Instead, the two competitors for AWS’ position sought every opportunity to expand serverless conversations well beyond purely functional architectures, because they stood a better chance of competing on those terms.</p>
  3835. <p>More curious has been the willingness of AWS itself to be loose with its usage of serverless. While tactically it would be natural to expect Amazon to jealously guard usage of the rebooted serverless term to advantage Lambda from a marketing standpoint, instead the company has been willing to apply it to databases and other non-function oriented services.</p>
  3836. <p>With all three hyperscalers converging on a broader, more inclusive scope for serverless, then, a new definition would appear to be in order. From RedMonk’s perspective, as my colleague has <a href="">captured</a>, the most accurate description of this evolving serverless category is something close “managed services that scale to zero.” Importantly, this definition implies growth not necessarily of the original functions-based architecture but rather of the economic model that accompanied it.</p>
  3837. <p>The cloud’s pay-as-you-go model, with apologies to predecessors such as time sharing, heralded a revolution in pricing, consumption and infrastructure and redefined the industry in its image. It had such an advantage in accessibility over the model that preceded it that not offering a pay-as-you-go option was not, itself, an option.</p>
  3838. <p>The real question now about serverless then is not about the technology, but whether its pay-only-when-it’s-on economic model is about to do exactly the same thing that the cloud’s did before it.</p>
  3839. <p><strong>Disclosure</strong>: Amazon and Microsoft are RedMonk clients. Google is not currently a client.</p>
  3840. <img alt="" height="1" src="" width="1"/></div>
  3841.    </content>
  3842.    <updated>2020-01-31T21:06:16Z</updated>
  3843.    <category term="Business Models"/>
  3844.    <category term="Cloud"/><feedburner:origLink xmlns:feedburner="">;utm_medium=rss&amp;utm_campaign=serverless-revolution</feedburner:origLink>
  3845.    <author>
  3846.      <name>Stephen O'Grady</name>
  3847.    </author>
  3848.    <source>
  3849.      <id></id>
  3850.      <logo></logo>
  3851.      <link href="" rel="alternate" type="text/html"/>
  3852.      <link href="" rel="self" type="application/atom+xml"/>
  3853.      <link href="" rel="self" type="application/rss+xml"/>
  3854.      <link href="" rel="hub" type="text/html"/>
  3855.      <link href="" rel="license" type="text/html"/>
  3856.      <subtitle xml:lang="en-US">because technology is just another ecosystem</subtitle>
  3857.      <title xml:lang="en-US">tecosystems</title>
  3858.      <updated>2020-02-01T00:37:38Z</updated>
  3859.    </source>
  3860.  </entry>
  3862.  <entry>
  3863.    <id></id>
  3864.    <link href="" rel="alternate" type="text/html"/>
  3865.    <title>How Amazon is solving big-data challenges with data lakes</title>
  3866.    <content type="xhtml"><div xmlns=""><p><img src="" width="650"/></p>
  3868. <p>Back when Jeff Bezos filled orders in his garage and drove packages to the post office himself, crunching the numbers on costs, tracking inventory, and forecasting future demand was relatively simple. Fast-forward 25 years, Amazon's retail business has more than 175 <a href="">fulfillment centers</a> (FC) worldwide with over 250,000 full-time associates shipping millions of items per day.</p>
  3870. <p>Amazon's worldwide financial operations team has the incredible task of tracking all of that data (think petabytes).  At Amazon's scale, a miscalculated metric, like cost per unit, or delayed data can have a huge impact (think millions of dollars). The team is constantly looking for ways to get more accurate data, faster.</p>
  3872. <p>That's why, in 2019, they had an idea: Build a data lake that can support one of the largest logistics networks on the planet. It would later become known internally as the Galaxy data lake. The Galaxy data lake was built in 2019 and now all the various teams are working on moving their data into it.</p>
  3874. <p>A data lake is a centralized secure repository that allows you to store, govern, discover, and share all of your structured and unstructured data at any scale. Data lakes don't require a pre-defined schema, so you can process raw data without having to know what insights you might want to explore in the future. The following figure shows the key components of a data lake.</p></div>
  3875.    </content>
  3876.    <updated>2020-01-30T17:00:00Z</updated>
  3877.    <source>
  3878.      <id></id>
  3879.      <author>
  3880.        <name>Werner Vogels</name>
  3881.        <email>[email protected]</email>
  3882.      </author>
  3883.      <link href="" rel="self" type="application/atom+xml"/>
  3884.      <link href="" rel="alternate" type="text/html"/>
  3885.      <title>All Things Distributed</title>
  3886.      <updated>2020-01-31T12:02:57Z</updated>
  3887.    </source>
  3888.  </entry>
  3889. </feed>

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